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Basic Classification - Zoology

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Title: Basic Classification - Zoology


1
Basic Classification - Zoology
2
Classification of Organisms
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species
3
Kingdoms are divided into groups called
phyla Phyla are subdivided into
classes Classes are subdivided into
orders Orders are subdivided into
families Families are divided
into genera Genera contain
closely related species Species is unique

Thus, Categories within Kingdoms
4
How to remember?
  • Ken Poured Coffee On Freds Good Shirt.

C
O
G
S
K
P
F
  • Or how about this one . . . . . .
  • King Phillip Calls Opal For Great Soup.

Easier for your brain to remember one sentence
that 8 individual words
5
Scientific Names
  • We only know a fraction of all the
  • organisms that exist or have existed
  • on Earth.
  • Taxonomists give a unique scientific
  • name to each species they know
  • about whether its alive today or
  • extinct.

6
Scientific Names
  • The scientific name comes from one of two dead
    languages
  • Latin or ancient Greek.

Why use a dead language?
They are static dont change
7
So Why Use a Scientific Name?
Maybe if we use an example using an animal you
know.
8
Mountain Lion
9
Devil Cat
10
Ghost Cat
11
Screaming Cat
12
Puma
13
Florida Panther
14
Cougar
15
  • There are at least 50 common names for the animal
    shown on the previous 7 slides.
  • Common names vary according to region.
  • Soooowhy use a scientific name?

It is unique for that organism!
16
Scientific Names
  • Helps eliminate confusion as to which organism
    you are dealing with.
  • Thus the Mountain Lion is known as . . .
  • Puma concolor

17
Scientific Names
  • Man Homo sapiens
  • Dog Canis familiaris
  • White Oak Tree Quercus alba
  • House Cat Felis cattus
  • The Rules of the Name
  • Always binominal (2 parts)
  • Genus and species
  • Underline or italics
  • Capitalize genus, species lower case

18
Five Kingdom System Can you name them?
  • Monera
  • Protista
  • Fungi
  • Animalia
  • Plantae

19
Small Things in All Kingdoms But Mostly Protists
and Monera
20
Big Things in 3 Kingdoms
21
Monera Kingdom
  • Unicellular,microscopic
  • No nucleus
  • Prokaryotic
  • Most Heterotrophic
  • Saprophytic or parasitic
  • Bacteria, Archaea
  • Some Autotrophic
  • Cyanobacteria

22
Protista Kingdom
  • Generally single celled microscopic
  • Nucleus present
  • Eukaryotic
  • Autotrophic or heterotrophic

Amoeba
Euglena
23
Fungi Kingdom
  • Generally multi celled
  • Nucleus present
  • Eukaryotic
  • Made up of hyphae
  • No root, stem and leaf
  • Heterotrophic
  • Saprophytic or parasitic
  • Sessile
  • not move
  • Reproduce by forming spores

24
Plantae Kingdom
  • Generally multi celled
  • Nucleus present
  • Eukaryotic
  • Autotrophic
  • photosynthesis
  • Sessile
  • Not move
  • Can be divided into . .
  • Non-flowering plants
  • Flowering plants

25
Animalia Kingdom
  • Generally multi celled
  • Nucleus present
  • Eukaryotic
  • Heterotrophic
  • Mobile
  • Divided into 9 major phyla
  • Need to be able to identify by sight

26
Animal Kingdom Continued
  • If I have a backbone I am a
  • VERTEBRATE
  • If I do not have a backbone I am an
  • -INVERTEBRATE

27
1. Porifera (Sponges)
  • Don't have mouths
  • have tiny pores in their outer walls through
    which water
  • is drawn. Cells in the sponge walls
  • Cells filter food from the water
  • Water is pumped through the body unidirectionaly

28
2. Coelenterata / Cnidaria
  • Comb jellies, corals, jellyfish,
  • sea anemones, sea pens,
  • and freshwater hydra.
  • Radially symmetrical
  • One opening
  • Mouth is surrounded by tentacles that are used
    to capture food, and opens into a cavity which is
    used for digestion.
  • Specialized stinging cells

29
3. Platyhelmethes (Flatworm)
  • Long and flattened body
  • Free living or parasitic
  • One opening

30
4. Nematode (Roundworms)
Long, cylindrical and body Most of them are
parasites
31
5. Annelida (segmented worms)
  • Long and segmented body
  • Have chaetae for locomotion
  • Two openings (mouth anus)

32
6. Molluscs
  • Snails, slugs, squid, octopi,
  • and bivalves
  • Soft and un-segmented body
  • Most covered by a hard shell

33
7. Arthropoda
  • Segmented body
  • Have a hard exoskeleton and several pairs of
    jointed legs
  • Divided into 4 classes
  • - Crustaceans
  • - Arachnids
  • - Myriapods
  • - Insects

34
8. Echinodermata
  • Starfish, Brittle Stars, Sea Urchins Sea
    Cucumbers
  • Marine animals with 5-radial plan body
  • Have external spines

35
9. Chordata
  • Notochord
  • Bilateral symmetry
  • Most vertebrates

36
Which kingdom does each organism belong to?
                                                                                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                                                                 
37
The Insect Orders
  • Most diverse group of animals on the planet
  • Arthropods
  • 3 body segments exoskeleton

38
The Insect Orders
  • Know These
  • 1. Orthoptera (grasshoppers crickets)
  • 2. Coleoptera (beetles)
  • 3. Lepidoptera (butterflies moths)
  • 4. Diptera (flies mosquitoes)
  • 5. Hymenoptera (ants, wasps bees)
  • 6. Hemiptera (true bugs)
  • 7. Homoptera (aphids cicadas)
  • 8. Odonata (dragonflies)
  • 9. Isoptera (termites)

39
1. Orthoptera (grasshoppers crickets)
  • Two pairs of wings
  • Hind wing is membranous
  • held under the forewings when at rest.
  • Mandibulate mouth parts
  • Large compound eyes,
  • Hind legs are elongated for jumping.

Grasshopper
Cricket
Katydid
40
The Common Field Cricket
Ovipositor for laying eggs
41
2. Coleopetra (beetles)
  • Hardened shield-like forewings protect flying
    wings
  • 3 segments usually easy to ID.

Giant Click Beetle
Japanese Beetle
Lady Bug
42
3. Lepidoptera (butterflies moths)
  • 2 pairs of large showy wings
  • Caterpillar
  • Butterflies
  • daytime
  • Moths
  • mostly night

Hawk Moth
Sulfur or Cabbage Butterfly
Monarch Butterfly
Skipper Butterfly
43
Polyphemus Moth
Lunar Moth
Clearwing Hummingbird Moth
44
4. Diptera (flies mosquitoes)
  • 1 pair wings
  • Large eyes
  • Maggot

Flesh Fly
House Fly
Mosquito
45
5. Hymenoptera (ants, wasps bees)
  • 2 pairs wings
  • Narrow waist
  • stinger

Wasp
Honey Bee
Ant
Bumble Bee
Paper Wasp Pest
46
6. Hemiptera (true bugs)
  • Triangular shield on back
  • Wings

Sting Bug
Wheel Bug
47
7. Homoptera (aphids cicadas)
48
8. Odonata (dragonflies damselflies)
  • Large active hunters
  • 2 pairs wings
  • Fast fliers
  • Large eyes

49
9. Isoptera (termites)
50
(No Transcript)
51
10. Dermaptera (earwigs)
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