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5.5: Classification

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5.5: Classification Topic 5: Ecology & Evolution Miss Friedman 5.5.1: Binomial system of nomenclature Designed by Carolus Linneaus in 18th century Based on idea that ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 5.5: Classification


1
5.5 Classification
  • Topic 5 Ecology Evolution
  • Miss Friedman

2
5.5.1 Binomial system of nomenclature
  • Designed by Carolus Linneaus in 18th century
  • Based on idea that every species has a Latin
    name, made up of two parts
  • First part is the name of the genus
  • Second part specifies the species
  • Name should be printed in italics (underlined if
    hand written) and first part capitalized
  • Example
  • Humans are Homo sapiens

3
5.5.2 Hierarchical system of classification
  • Organisms that share characteristics are placed
    into similar groups
  • The more similar their characteristics, the
    closer the grouping
  • The purpose of classification is to
  • Clearly identify an organism with a name that is
    unique to the species and avoids confusion with
    local naming
  • Show evolutionary links
  • Allow us to predict anatomical, physiological and
    genetic characteristics it may share with other
    organisms

4
  • The Hierarchical system has seven levels called
    taxons (plural taxa)
  • Each taxon can contain one or more of the
    sub-group below it
  • The seven level hierarchies of taxa are
  • Kingdom
  • Phylum
  • Order
  • Family
  • Genus
  • Species

5
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6
5.5.3 Plant Phyla
  • Kingdom Plantae
  • Characteristics
  • Photosynthetic
  • Chlorophyll
  • Cellulose cell wall
  • Permanent vacuoles
  • Stores starch
  • Classification of the major plant phyla is based
    on external observables structures

7
  • Need to know
  • -Bryophyta -angiospermophyta
  • -Filicinophyta -Coniferophyta

8
Phylum Bryophyta (Mosses, Liverworts, Hornworts)
  • Small terrestrial plants
  • Do not have true roots, stems or leaves but they
    must have structures resembling them
  • Leaf-like structures are often arranged in a
    spiral
  • Usually have live in clusters which act like
    sponges holding water
  • No cuticle
  • Reproductive structures are called sporangium
    which is on long stalks with capsules on end.

9
Phylum Filicinophyta (ferns)
  • Have true leaves
  • New leaves unroll
  • Divided leaves
  • Have an underground creeping stem (rhizome)
  • Height up to 20m
  • Reproduction sporangia (sori) contain
    reproductive spores

10
Phylum Coniferophytes (conifers pines)
  • All conifers are woody plants, most are trees
    with a single wooden trunk with side branches
  • Leaves are waxy, long thin needles, often
    arranged in spirals, often a dark green colour
  • Produce seeds found in cones
  • Vascular system (tracheids)

11
Phylum Angiospermophyta (flowering plants and
grasses)
  • Have flowers, although they may be small in
    wind-pollinated angiospermophyta
  • Seeds are ovaries which become the fruit
  • Leaves usually as leaf blade and leaf stalk, with
    veins visible on the lower surface
  • Leaves have waxy cuticle
  • Vascular bundles (veins) are made
  • up of xylem phloem

12
5.5.4 Animal phyla
  • The kingdom of animals is classified according to
    these characteristics
  • Heterotrophic
  • No cell walls
  • No vacuoles
  • No chlorophyll
  • Store glycogen

13
  • The syllabus specifies 6 of the 30 or more phyla
    from the animal kingdom that you are responsible
    for knowing
  • The ones selected are what might be called
    invertebrates (lack of a spinal cord)
  • The six phyla are classified according to
    features such as
  • Number of layers in the body plant
  • The opening for mouth and anus
  • Method of support
  • Phylogenic studies (evolutionary relationship)
    relies on more genetic studies to support the
    modern classification of these groups.

14
Phylum Porifera (sponges)
  • No body layer, rather there is an aggregate of
    different cell types
  • Support is from either silica or calcium based
    spicules which link together to provide some
    support
  • Body plan is built around water canals that
    circulate nutrients through the sponge for
    ingestion by specialized cells
  • There is no mouth or anus

15
Phylum Cnidaria (Jelly fish, Sea anemones,
Corals)
  • They have two layers in the body plan
  • There is radial symmetry
  • Jelly fish are mobile organisms. Sea anemones are
    sessile organisms
  • Single entrance that serves the cavity that
    functions as circulation of respiratory gases and
    nutrients
  • These organisms are secondary consumers and
    posses stinging cells with toxins called
    nematocysts to disable prey
  • Corals secrete a CaCO3 skeleton

16
Phylum Platyhelminthes (flatworms)
  • 3 layers in the body plan
  • One entrance to gut which can have many folds
    to increase surface area.
  • Largely parasitic, includes flukes

17
Phylum Annelida (segment worms)
  • 3 layers to the body plan
  • Bilateral symmetry
  • Body is divided into ringed segments with some
    specialization of segments
  • Mouth is connected via gut to a separate anus
  • Skin surface is used for gas exchange
  • Many marine forms but also terrestrial species,
    usually soil burrowing

18
Phylum Mollusca (Snails, Slugs, Octopus)
  • Bilateral symmetry with significant modification
  • Body plan has three major features
  • Foot, a muscular structure used for movement and
    burrowing
  • Central visceral mass, contains all the organ
    structures (separate mouth anus)
  • Mantle, a folded membrane structure that can
    surround other tissues and create a cavity
    containing ag ill. The mantle frequently secretes
    a calcareous shell.

19
Phylum Arthropoda(Insects, Crustaceans,
Spiders, Scorpions, Millipedes)
  • 3 layer body plant with bilateral symmetry
  • Hard exoskeleton composed of chitin
  • Jointed body segments
  • Jointed appendages to each segment
  • At least 3 pairs of jointed legs
  • Some flying organisms in the class Insecta
  • Separate mouth and anus
  • Many free-living but also some parasitic

20
5.5.5 Dichotomous Keys
  • Each questions divides the group of organisms
    into two smaller groups based on a pair of
    alternative characteristics
  • Subsequent groups may focus on more minor details
  • In most cases the characteristic will be readily
    observed or measurable
  • It is better to choose characteristics that are
    uninfluenced by environmental variation
  • Shape and number are often good characteristics
    on which to base alternative pairings
  • A complete key will have each type of organisms
    being classified separated with a final
    identifying name
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