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Scientific Classification (Taxonomy)

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Title: Scientific Classification (Taxonomy)


1
Scientific Classification (Taxonomy)
2
Its a Bird! Its a Plane! Its All of the
Above!
  • What do all of these things have in common? Look
    closely and try to notice characteristics that
    can be used to classify these items into groups.
  1. How many different ways can you divide these
    flying things into groups? Choose a method and
    classify these objects. Start with two headings,
    then subdivide each group.

3
  • The purpose of classification is to arrange or
    group things according to similarities
    differences.

4
  • Aristotle classified organisms over 2000 years
    ago.
  • When Carolus Linnaeus developed his system of
    classification, he had only 2 kingdoms, Plants
    and Animals, but the microscope led to the
    discovery of new organisms and the identification
    of differences in cells.
  • A 2-kingdom system was no longer useful we now
    use 6 kingdoms.

5
Levels of Classification (write this)
  • Domain
  • Kingdom
  • Phylum
  • Class
  • Order
  • Family
  • Genus
  • Species
  • Dumb
  • King
  • Phillip
  • Came
  • Over
  • For
  • Great
  • Spaghetti

Classification of Humans Domain
Eukaryotes Kingdom Animalia Phylum
Chordata Class Mammalia Order Primate Family
Mankind Genus Homo Species Sapien
6
Three Domains (write this)
  • Eukaryotes
  • Archaebacteria
  • Eubacteria

7
Six Kingdoms (write this)
  • Plants
  • Animals
  • Protists
  • Fungi
  • Eubacteria
  • Archaebacteria

8
Organism Placement in a Kingdom (write this)
  • Cell type (complex or simple)
  • Their ability to make food
  • The number of cells in their body

9
Kingdom Eubacteria (write this)
  • Complex and single-celled.
  • Classified in their own kingdom because their
    chemical makeup is different.
  • Most are helpful (make vitamins foods like
    yogurt)
  • Some can make you sick (Streptococci causes strep
    throat)

10
Kingdom Archaebacteria (write this)
  • Found in extreme environments such as hot boiling
    water and thermal vents under conditions with no
    oxygen or highly acid environments.

11
Kingdom Animalia (write this)
  • The animal kingdom is the largest with over 1
    million known species.
  • All animals consist of many complex cells.
  • They are heterotrophs (get food from outside
    sources).

12
Kingdom Plantae (write this)
  • Contains flowering plants, mosses, and ferns.
  • Plants are all multicellular, consist of complex
    cells, and are autotrophs (can make their own
    food).
  • With over 250,000 species, the plant kingdom is
    the 2nd largest.

13
Kingdom Protista (write this)
  • Slime molds algae are protists.
  • Protists include all microscopic organisms that
    are not bacteria, not animals, not plants and not
    fungi.
  • Most protists are unicellular are complex cells.

14
Kingdom Fungi (write this)
  • Includes mushrooms, mold, mildew.
  • Most fungi are multi-cellular and consist of many
    complex cells.
  • Unlike plants, fungi cannot make their own food.
  • Most obtain their food from parts of plants that
    are decaying in the soil.
  • Ex Penicillin Athlete's Foot!

15
Classification Levels After Kingdom
  • Phylum (or Division in plants)
  • Class
  • Order
  • Family
  • Genus
  • Species

16
Narrowest Level Species (write this)
  • Organisms that belong to the same species can
    mate and produce fertile offspring.
  • Name only one type of organism.

17
Things to Remember (write this)
  • Classification can also be called Taxonomy. It
    helps us understand how living things are
    related.
  • Levels are called Taxons.
  • With each successive taxon down a list, fewer and
    fewer organisms occupy the taxon.

18
  • (write this)
  • The system of naming organisms by their genus
    species is called Binomial Nomenclature. Each
    name can only refer to one organism.
  • The Genus Species names make up the organism's
    scientific name
  • (Ex Homo Sapien)
  • Most scientific names come from Latin Greek

19
Activating Strategy
  • What would you do if an organism that you had
    never seen before just bit you? How might you
    identify it to determine if it is poisonous or
    not?

20
Tools for Identifying Organisms (write this)
  • Field Guides give descriptions illustrations
    of organisms.
  • Dichotomous Keys give detailed lists of
    identifying characteristics that include
    scientific names.

21
Create a key that would help identify the pieces
of fruit below.
22
Bottle-Nosed Dolphin
  1. On what do modern scientists base their
    classification system?
  2. Name the six smaller groups within a kingdom.
  3. In the plant kingdom, what word is used in place
    of phylum?
  4. What is the common name of the organism
    classified on this slide?
  5. What order is it in?
  6. Which grouping identifies a specific organism?

Kingdom Animalia
Phylum Chordata
Class Mammalia
Order Cetacea
Family Delphinidae
Genus Tursiops
Species Tursiops truncatus
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