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Awareness-Level Lesson 1 Presentation

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Awareness-Level Lesson 1 Presentation Hazardous Materials for First Responders, 3rd Ed. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Awareness-Level Lesson 1 Presentation


1
Awareness-Level Lesson 1 Presentation
  • Hazardous Materials for First Responders, 3rd
    Ed.

2
Haz Mat Incidents
  • Involve a substance that
  • Poses an unreasonable risk to
  • People
  • Environment
  • Property
  • Has been or may be released from a container
  • May be on fire
  • Will be more complex than a routine incident

3
Other Emergencies
  • Do not involve the release of a hazardous
    substance

4
Awareness-Level Training Requirements
  • Governmental agencies
  • OSHA and EPA
  • U.S. Department of Justice, Office for Domestic
    Preparedness (ODP)
  • Requirements of authority having jurisdiction
    (AHJ)

(1 of 2)
5
Awareness-Level Training Requirements
  • NFPA Standards
  • NFPA 472, Standard for Professional Competence of
    Responders to Hazardous Materials Incidents
  • NFPA 471, Recommended Practice for Responding to
    Hazardous Materials Incidents
  • NFPA 473, Standard for Competencies for EMS
    Personnel Responding to Hazardous Materials
    Incidents

(2 of 2)
6
Awareness-Level Responsibilities
  • Recognizing the presence or potential presence of
    a hazardous material
  • Recognizing container type and identifying
    material
  • Transmitting information to appropriate authority
    and calling for assistance
  • Identifying actions to protect self and others
  • Establishing scene control

7
U.S. Agencies Regulating Hazardous Materials
  • Department of Transportation (DOT)
  • Hazardous materials in all modes of transport
  • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
  • States and tribes enforce compliance
  • Department of Labor
  • OSHA issues legislation regarding worker safety
  • Nuclear Regulatory Commission
  • Regulates nuclear and radioactive materials

8
Canadian Agencies Regulating Hazardous Materials
  • Transport Canada (TC)
  • Environment Canada
  • Health Canada
  • Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission

9
Products Most OftenInvolved in Haz Mat Incidents
  • Flammable/combustible liquids
  • Corrosives
  • Anhydrous ammonia
  • Chlorine

10
Hazardous Materials States
  • Hazardous materials may be
  • Elements
  • Compounds
  • Mixtures
  • May be found in gaseous, liquid, or solid states
    or a combination of these states

(1 of 2)
11
Hazardous Materials States

(2 of 2)
12
Hazardous Materials Hazards
  • May present a direct threat to health or pose
    physical hazards
  • Hazards range from insignificant to catastrophic
  • Exposure may be acute or chronic
  • Health effects can be acute or chronic

13
Hazardous Materials Behavior
  • Behavior of hazardous material A materials
    physical state, flammability, boiling point,
    chemical reactivity, and other properties
  • Affect how it behaves
  • Determine harm
  • Influence effects of hazardous material

14
Potential Ignition Sources at Haz Mat Scenes
  • Open flames
  • Static electricity
  • Existing pilot lights
  • Electrical sources
  • Internal combustion engines
  • Heated surfaces
  • Cutting and welding operations

(1 of 2)
15
Potential Ignition Sources at Haz Mat Scenes
  • Radiant heat
  • Heat caused by friction or chemical reactions
  • Cigarettes
  • Cameras
  • Road flares

(2 of 2)
16
Potential Ignition Sources in Explosive
Atmospheres
  • Opening or closing a switch or electrical circuit
  • Turning on a flashlight
  • Operating a radio
  • Activating a cell phone

17
NFA Categories of Hazardous Materials Hazards
  • Thermal
  • Radiological
  • Asphyxiation
  • Chemical
  • Etiological
  • Mechanical
  • Psychological

18
NFPA Categories of Hazardous Materials Hazards
  • Thermal
  • Mechanical
  • Poisonous
  • Corrosive
  • Asphyxiation
  • Radiation
  • Etiologic
  • Psychological

19
Thermal Hazards Cold Temperatures
  • Cryogenic and liquefied gases
  • Freeze burns and cold injuries
  • Anhydrous ammonia
  • Cold injuries
  • Vapors are toxic and may catch fire

20
Thermal Hazards Elevated Temperatures
  • A concern when dealing with materials such as
    molten sulphur and molten aluminum
  • High temperature materials can ignite
    flammable/combustible materials
  • Thermal burn types include first, second, and
    third degree burns

21
Radiological Hazards
  • A concern at facilities such as medical centers,
    industrial operations, nuclear power plants, and
    research facilities, and terrorist attacks
  • Damage cells and can cause noticeable health
    effects

22
Asphyxiation Hazards
  • Asphyxiants affect the oxygenation of the body
    and lead to suffocation
  • Simple asphyxiants Gases that displace the
    oxygen necessary for breathing
  • Chemical asphyxiants Substances that prohibit
    the body from using oxygen

23
Chemical Hazards
  • Produce a wide range of adverse health effects
    depending on
  • Toxicity of the chemical
  • Route of exposure
  • Nature and extent of exposure
  • Factors that affect the susceptibility of the
    exposed person

(1 of 2)
24
Chemical Hazards
  • Local toxic effect A chemical injury at the
    site of contact
  • Systemic effects Effects produced when a toxic
    chemical is absorbed into the bloodstream and
    distributed to other parts of the body

(2 of 2)
25
Etiological Hazards
  • Exposure to a living microorganism that causes,
    or may cause, human disease that may be severe
    and disabling

26
Mechanical Hazards
  • Direct contact with an object
  • Can be mild, moderate, or severe
  • Striking injuries
  • Friction injures

(1 of 2)
27
Mechanical Hazards

BLEVEs and other explosions can cause mechanical
trauma.
(2 of 2)
28
Psychological Hazards
  • Acute stress disorder Symptoms appear within
    the first 30 days and do not last more than 4
    weeks
  • Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms Occur 30
    days to years after the event

29
Routes of Entry
  • Inhalation Breathing through the nose or mouth
  • Ingestion Through the mouth by means other than
    simple inhalation
  • Injection Through a puncture or break in the
    skin

(1 of 3)
30
Routes of Entry
  • Absorption Through the skin or eyes
  • Penetration Radioactive particles and energy
    waves

(2 of 3)
31
Routes of Entry

Chemicals often have multiple routes of entry.
(3 of 3)
32
Summary
  • Hazardous materials incidents pose significant
    hazards to first responders. Awareness-Level
    first responders must know their primary
    responsibilities and their limitations in dealing
    with hazardous materials incidents.
  • Hazardous materials are regulated in both the
    U.S. and Canada by a number of agencies.

(1 of 2)
33
Summary
  • Hazardous materials may be classified by their
    hazard. The NFA and NFPA have categories of
    hazardous materials classifications.
  • Hazardous materials pose significant health
    hazards that can range from minor to severe and
    even fatal.
  • Hazardous materials can enter the body through a
    number of routes.

(2 of 2)
34
Homework
  • 1. Which one of the following statements about
    hazardous materials incidents is true?
  • A. Hazardous materials incidents are no more
    complex than routine incidents.
  • B. Governmental agencies are not involved in
    regulating hazardous materials.
  • C. They do not require any special training for
    responders to the incident.
  • D. They involve a substance that poses an
    unreasonable risk to people, the environment
    and/or property.
  • 2. Which governmental agency requires responders
    to hazardous materials incidents to meet specific
    training requirements?
  • A. Environmental Protection Agency B. Federal
    Trade Commission
  • C. Bureau of Hazardous Materials D. Consumer
    Product Safety Commission
  • 3. What NFPA standard applies to responders to
    hazardous materials incidents?
  • A. NFPA 275 B. NFPA 351 C. NFPA 472 D.NFPA
    1100

35
Homework
  • 4. Which of the following is a primary
    responsibility of the Awareness-Level first
    responder?
  • A. Implementing a plan of action
  • B. Beginning offensive actions at the incident
  • C. Recognizing the presence or potential presence
    of a hazardous material
  • D. Determining the extent of potential harm from
    the incident
  • 5. Which of the following products are most
    likely to be involved in a hazardous materials
    incident?
  • A. Organic solids B. Plastics C.
    Synthetics
  • D. Flammable/combustible liquids
  • 6. Which of the following factors has the
    greatest impact on the severity of a hazardous
    materials incident?
  • A. Type and quantity of material involved C.
    Time of release
  • B. Location of the release
    D. Speed of release

36
Homework
  • 7. Which of the following would be a potential
    ignition source at a hazardous materials
    incident?
  • A. Synthetic clothing B. Road flares
  • C. Debris D. Foam fire
    extinguishers
  • 8. Which of the following would not be a
    potential ignition source in an explosive
    atmosphere?
  • A. Operating a radio B. Turning on a
    flashlight
  • C. Taking off gloves D. Opening or closing a
    switch
  • 9. Which of the following NFA categories refers
    to harm from exposure to a living microorganism?
  • A. Etiological B. Thermal C. Radiological D.
    Chemical

37
Homework
  • 10. Which of the following NFA categories refers
    to harm from the result of exposure to the
    extremes of heat and cold?
  • A. Etiological B. Thermal C. Radiological
    D. Chemical
  • 11. Which of the following are substances that
    prohibit the body from using oxygen?
  • A. Simple asphyxiants B. Primary
    asphyxiants
  • C. Chemical asphyxiants D. Organic asphyxiants
  • 12. Which of the following would be the most
    likely hazard when responding to incidents at
    medical centers and research facilities?
  • A. Radiological B. Thermal C. Mechanical D.
    Psychological

38
Homework
  • 13. Which of the following does not determine the
    severity of a chemical hazard?
  • A. Toxicity of the chemical B.
    Route of exposure
  • C. Nature and extent of exposure D. Time of
    day
  • 14. Which of the following routes of entry refers
    to the process of taking in materials by
    breathing through the nose or mouth?
  • A. Ingestion B. Inhalation C. Absorption
    D. Penetration
  • 15. Which of the following refers to damage that
    occurs as a result of direct contact with an
    object?
  • A. Radiological B. Thermal
  • C. Mechanical D. Psychological

39
Awareness-Level Lesson 1 Presentation
  • Hazardous Materials for First Responders, 3rd
    Ed.
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