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Chapter 3: Ancient Indian Civilizations

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Chapter 3: Ancient Indian Civilizations Harappan Excavations Section 1: ... Early Civilizations in the Indus River Valley The Harappan civilization disappeared ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 3: Ancient Indian Civilizations


1
Do Now Translate this image. What can you learn
from this image about the society that made it?
2
Chapter 3 Ancient Indian Civilizations
Harappan Excavations
3
Section 1 Indus River Valley Civilization
  • The Story Continues
  • Thousands of years ago near the Indus River
    valley there existed a village called Amri, whose
    citizens were makers of fine pottery. Indus River
    valley people like those in Amri helped lay the
    foundation for cultures in the modern countries
    of Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan,
    and Sri Lanka.

4
I. Geography and Climate
  • Indian civilization developed in the Indus River
    valley about 4,500 years ago

5
A. Physical Geography
  • The Indian subcontinent extends south from
    central Asia into the Indian Ocean

6
A. Physical Geography
  • High mountain ranges cut India off from
    immigrants and invaders

7
A. Physical Geography
  • Two great rivers - the Ganges and Indus rise
  • in the mountains and drain Indo-Gangetic Plain

8
A. Physical Geography
  • Narrow coastal plains lie along the Arabian Sea
    and the Bay of Bengal

9
A. Physical Geography
  • The peoples of these coastal plains became sea
    traders

10
B. Climate
  • Two features dominate Indias climate monsoons
    and high temperatures

11
B. Climate
  • Monsoons - seasonal winds that blow from the NE
    Nov. to Mar. and from the SW June to Oct.

12
B. Climate
  • The NE (dry) monsoon drops moisture on the
    Himalayas before reaching India

13
B. Climate
  • The SW (wet) monsoon carries warm, moist air from
    the Indian Ocean and brings heavy rains

14
B. Climate
  • The wet monsoon brings most of the years
    rainfall and is important for agriculture

20cm 7.9in 100cm 39.4in 400cm 13.2ft 800cm
26.3ft 1000cm 32.8ft
15
B. Climate
  • If the wet monsoon arrives late or brings little
    rain, crops fail too much rain, flooding
    destroys the countryside

16
B. Climate
  • Temperatures can reach 120ºF in the Indo-Gangetic
    Plain

Aurangabad, India 15 C 59 F 30 C 86 F 45
C 113 F
17
II. Early Civilizations in the Indus River Valley
  • 2500 BC to 1500 BC the Harappan Civilization
    developed in the Indus River valley

An artistic conception of ancient Lothal
18
II. Early Civilizations in the Indus River Valley
  • The named derives from one of the two discovered
    cities - Harappa and Mohenjo Daro ("Mound of the
    Dead)

Early settlements date to 7000 BC
19
II. Early Civilizations in the Indus River Valley
  • Both cities were planned with wide streets, water
    systems, public baths, and brick sewers

Ruins of Harappa
20
This map shows the layout of Mohenjo-Daro, one of
the principal cities of the Indus Valley
civilization. The larger eastern area contained
the residential and commercial sections of the
city, which were laid out in a grid of large
rectangular blocks. Rising more than twenty feet
to the west stood the citadel, built on a mound
of mud brick and rubble. Fortified by a brick
wall and towers, the citadel contained the citys
shrine, assembly hall, baths, and granary.
21
The Great Bath was entered using two wide
staircases, one from the north and one from the
south. The floor of the tank is watertight due to
finely fitted bricks laid on edge with gypsum
plaster.
22
II. Early Civilizations in the Indus River Valley
  • Each city had a strong central fortress, or
    citadel, on a brick platform

Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro
23
II. Early Civilizations in the Indus River Valley
  • Storehouses for grain indicate careful planning
    and a strong central government

Harappa granary
24
II. Early Civilizations in the Indus River Valley
  • Harappan farmers grew crops in irrigated fields
    and raised livestock

Ceramic sculpture of a small cart with vases and
tools pulled by oxen, from Mohenjo-daro
25
II. Early Civilizations in the Indus River Valley
  • As early as 2300 B.C., the Harappans traded with
    the people of the Tigris-Euphrates valley

This seal, found in Mesopotamia, indicates a
product was made in Harappa, indicating trade
took place between the two regions
26
Indus Valley Seals
27
II. Early Civilizations in the Indus River Valley
  • A written language was developed but it has not
    been deciphered or connected to other languages

28
II. Early Civilizations in the Indus River Valley
  • No temples or religious writings have been found,
    just animal images and some evidence of a mother
    goddess of fertility

29
Terracotta Figurines
30
II. Early Civilizations in the Indus River Valley
  • The Harappan civilization disappeared - theories
    include changes in the Indus River, earthquakes,
    or invasion

31
Collapse of Harappan Civilization
  • The de-urbanization period of the Harappan
    Civilization saw the collapse and disappearance
    of the urban phenomena in the South Asia.
  • The theme for this period is localization.
  • Architectural and ceramic forms changed along
    with the loss of writing, planned settlements,
    public sanitation, monumental architecture,
    seaborne and exotic trade, seals, and weights.

(McIntosh, 2002)
32
II. Early Civilizations in the Indus River Valley
Harappan Excavations A Walk through
Mohenjo-Daro A Walk around Harappa
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