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Principles of Democracy


Principles of Democracy Ms. Nestico Unit 1 Ways to Be a US Citizen 1. Jus soli - of the soil --anyone born on US territory (military bases, embassies ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Principles of Democracy

Principles of Democracy
  • Ms. Nestico
  • Unit 1

What is Democracy?
  • Form of government
  • Rule by the people
  • Representative or Direct?
  • People have the right to vote
  • Democrat or Republican - political parties
  • Freedom or right to choose

Purposes of Government
  • Make Laws -- Legislative
  • Enforce Laws -- Executive
  • Interpret Change Laws - Judicial

Functions of Government
  • What is governments responsibility to its
  • Ensure National Security/Protect Us
  • Maintain Order/Resolve Conflict
  • Provide Services

Maintaining Order
  • How does the government maintain order?
  • Police
  • Courts
  • Congress and making laws

Providing Services
  • Welfare - cash assistance
  • Food Stamps
  • Healthcare
  • --Medicaid/Medicare
  • --Medical Assistance (MA)
  • Social Security
  • Education
  • Transportation
  • Regulatory Agencies
  • --EPA, FDA, FCC
  • Employment

Protecting Us
  • Military
  • Homeland Security
  • Jails/Detention Facilities
  • Police and Fire Departments

I. Origins of Government
  • Aristotle - ancient Greek philosopher 384-322
  • Coined the term polis or city-state
  • --refers to ancient Greek government
  • -- serves as the basis for democracy
  • Aristotle known as Father of Democracy

Characteristics of a state(Based on
Aristotles definition)
  • The term state is interchangeable with country
    or city-state
  • 1. People - population
  • Territory
  • Government
  • Sovereignty - the ability to rule oneself

II. Division of Political Authority - Aristotle
  • Distribution of Power
  • a. Unitary system
  • b. Confederate System
  • c. Federal System
  • Economic 3. Who Rules
  • a. Capitalist a. autocracy
  • b. Socialist b. oligarchy
  • c. Communist c. democracy

(No Transcript)
Distribution of Power How does power flow?A.
Unitary System one central government with full
authority over all political subdivisions or
Confederate System states are sovereign and
individual but are all working toward a common
goal central government has limited power
Federal Systempower is shared between a central
government and its political subdivisions
  • Free enterprise system
  • Businesses/industries are privately owned
  • Potential for income is unlimited
  • People have to provide their own means for basic
    needs and services (ex. Healthcare, education,
  • Extremes in social class structure
  • Sometimes a high poverty rate
  • Complete freedom and choice
  • Social Darwinism (Charles Darwin) - Survival of
    the Fittest - only the strong survive

  • Government owns and operates some basic means of
    production (ex. Power plants, some hospitals,
    some farms, etc.)
  • There are still some privately owned businesses
    but they can be heavily taxed
  • People still have some choices regarding careers,
    etc. but government provides basic services
    (welfare, healthcare, etc.)
  • Robinhood Theory - take from the rich and give to
    the poor
  • Attempts to balance out the social class system

  • Government owns virtually all means of production
    (food, electricity, housing, higher education,
    hospitals, etc.)
  • The goal of pure communism is to be a classless
    society - everyone is equal, there are no rich
    and no poor
  • Communist Manifesto(1848) - Karl Marx Frederik
    Engels - viewed communism as a utopian society
    where a collective government provides everything
  • Government provides most basic necessities but
    most people are employed by the government
  • Major Criticisms no freedom of choice, no
    competition or drive to excel, breeding ground
    for corruption

Who/How Many Rule?
  • Autocracy - one ruler
  • 1. Dictatorship - single ruler with absolute
  • --no elections
  • --may use force to maintain control
  • 2. Monarchy - single ruler who gains leadership
    through inheritance
  • --some have absolute power but not common
  • -- Saudi Arabia - example

  • Despotism -
  • rule by a single authority who holds all the
    power and everyone else is considered his slave
  • Implies tyrannical rule
  • Authoritarian
  • Rule by a single authority who requires strict
    obedience to the state
  • Maintains social control through oppressive
    measures (limits resources provided to the
  • people).

  • Totalitarian
  • The state regulates virtually every aspect of
    public and private behavior
  • Maintain power and control by extreme measures
  • Examples
  • secret police
  • propaganda
  • control of mass media
  • restriction of free discussion
  • widespread use of terror

What is the difference between authoritarianism
and totalitarianism?
  • Absolutism - one person with
  • absolute power
  • from the time of the nature of law and divine
    right of kings

Divine Right Theory
  • Identified in the 1600s
  • Thomas Hobbes wrote Leviathan (1651-1690) in
    which divine right is initially discussed
  • Divine right a kings or rulers power comes
    directly from God
  • Focus on the ruler, not the people
  • Introduces the notion of a social contract

Social Contract Theory
  • Identifies that people do have rights
  • Focus is on the people, not the ruler
  • Government should actually be an agreement or
    contract between a people and its government
  • Based on Natural Rights - the nature of law
  • Social Contract Theory is extended to acknowledge
    that people have natural rights

Natural Rights(derived from the study of
natural law through Thomas Hobbes and John
Locke)Life, Liberty Property
Social Contract Theory (cont.)
  • John Locke - Two Treaties of Government (1690)
  • Social contract theory extended further to assume
    that people agree to obey the government in
    exchange for the government providing services
    and protection for the people.

  • Key to the beginning of US Government John
    Lockes Social Contract Theory says that if the
    government does not hold up its end of the
    agreement, people have the right to break the
    contract and revolt

B. Oligarchy - a few/small group of rulers
  1. Totalitarianism - small group that rules the
    government that takes over virtually every aspect
    of peoples lives.
  2. Junta - small military group seizes power and
    begins their own government
  3. Aristocracy - rule by an elite upper class (our
    founding fathers)

  • 4. Meritocracy - people with the highest IQ and
    effort/ability to rule.
  • 5. Plutocracy - rule by the wealthy
  • 6. Technocracy - run by the highly educated who
    believe that major business should have the most
    say in government

  • Theocracy - rulers rule on behalf of God and
  • Vatican City
  • Israel
  • Iran

Democracy - rule by the people
  • Republic - elected officials vote on policy
    issues/representatives of the people conduct the
    governments business
  • Direct Democracy - every man has a say or vote on
    every issue
  • Representative Democracy - synonymous with
  • Social Democracy - capitalist democracy begins
    incorporating aspects of socialism into its
    government practices economy - controlled

Citizenship - 14th Amendment
  • US Citizenship Rights
  • 1. Vote
  • 2. Serve on a jury
  • 3. Hold public office
  • 4. Public Services/Education
  • 5. Own property/business
  • 6. Due Process/legal protection

  • Obligations of US Citizen
  • 1. Pay taxes
  • 2. Obey the law

  • Ways to Be a US Citizen
  • 1. Jus soli - of the soil
  • --anyone born on US territory
  • (military bases, embassies, etc.)
  • 2. Jus sanguinis -- of blood
  • --when both parents are US
  • citizens
  • --if at least one parent has been a
  • citizen for a minimum of 10 yrs.

  • Naturalization
  • (requirements)
  • a. Ability to read, write and speak
  • English
  • b. Good moral character
  • c. Working knowledge of Civics/US
  • History
  • d. 5 years of permanent residency
  • (3 years if married to a US citizen)
  • e. Favorable disposition toward the US
  • the Constitution.

Citizenship Status
  • Legal Alien
  • a. Permanent resident - lives here permanently,
    has a green card and is working toward
  • b. Non-resident - here temporarily, usually for
    work or education
  • F-1 Visa Student visa
  • H-1 Visa work visa
  • c. Illegal Alien - obvious