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Chapter 45 The Human Body

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Chapter 45 The Human Body Necessary Life Functions Reproduction Production of future generation Provides new cells for growth and repair Growth Increasing of cell ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 45 The Human Body


1
Chapter 45The Human Body
2
Your job
  • In the upcoming slides move the words to the
    appropriate blank areas.
  • Example- This is an presentation

amazing
3
  • I. The Human Body An Orientation

A. Anatomy study of the and
of the body and
its parts. B. Physiology study of the
body and its parts or
work
function
structure
shape
how
4
II. Anatomy Levels of Study
  • A. Gross Anatomy
  • B. Microscopic Anatomy

5
  • Gross Anatomy- study of the, ,
    structures and parts of a body that are
    to the naked eye. Also called macroscopic
    anatomy.
  • Large
  • Easily observable

visible
structures
organs
6
  • Microscopic Anatomy-the study of microscopic
    structures of and
  • Very small structures
  • Can only be viewed with a

organs
tissues
microscope
7
III. Levels of Structural Organization
  • A. The levels of structural organization
  • 1.
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4.
  • 5.
  • 6.

Cells
Organ System
Six
Tissue
Organ
Organism
Chemical/Molecular
8
  • Levels of Structural Organization

9
B. How the Levels of Organization are
Functionally Connected
  • An aggregation of similarly
  • which together perform certain special functions
    are a .
  • 2. A group of tissues that perform a
    or group of functions are an .
  • 3. A group of organs that to perform a
    complex function are an .

specific function
work together
Tissue
Organ System
specialized cells
Organ
10
IV. Body Tissues
  1. composed of contractile cells for
    movement.
  2. contains cells that receive and transmit
    messages.
  3. consists of layers of cells that line or
    cover all internal and external body surfaces.
  4. characterized by cells that are
    embedded in large amounts of an intercellular
    substance called matrix.

Connective Tissue-
Epithelial Tissue-
Nervous Tissue-
Muscle Tissue-
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E. Types of Muscle Tissue
  • 1. Skeletal Muscle- muscle that powers movement
    of the in your trunk, limbs, and .
    (Striated, Multinucleated)
  • 2. Smooth Muscle- surrounds and
    internal organs, such as the stomach,
    intestine, and bladder. (Un-striated,
    uninucleated)
  • 3. Muscle- found only in the heart. (Striated,
    uninucleated)

hollow
blood vessels
bones
Cardiac
face
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V. Body Cavities
  • Cavity
  • 1.
  • 2.
  • B. Cavity
  • 1.
  • 2.
  • 3.

Dorsal
Spinal or Vertebral
Thoracic
Abdominal
Ventral
Pelvic
Cranial
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  • Organ System Overview
  • Skeletal
  • Protects and supports body organs
  • Provides muscle attachment to bones for movement
  • Site of blood cell formation
  • Stores minerals

20
  • Organ System Overview
  • Muscular
  • Allows locomotion
  • Maintains posture
  • Produces heat
  • Moves substances through body

21
  • Organ System Overview
  • Integumentary
  • Forms the external body covering
  • Protects deeper tissue from injury and drying out
  • Synthesizes vitamin D
  • Location of cutaneous nerve receptors

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  • Organ System Overview
  • Cardiovascular
  • Transports materials in body via blood pumped by
    heart
  • Oxygen
  • Carbon dioxide
  • Nutrients
  • Wastes

24
  • Organ System Overview
  • Respiratory
  • Keeps blood supplied with oxygen
  • Removes carbon dioxide

25
  • Organ System Overview
  • Immune
  • Lymph nodes, lymph vessels and white blood cells
  • Returns fluids to blood vessels
  • Disposes of debris
  • Involved in immunity- destroys bacteria and tumor
    cells

26
  • Organ System Overview
  • Digestive
  • Breaks down food
  • Allows for nutrient absorption into blood
  • Eliminates indigestible material

27
  • Organ System Overview
  • Excretory
  • Eliminates nitrogenous wastes
  • Maintains acid base balance
  • Regulation of materials
  • Water
  • Electrolytes

28
  • Organ System Overview
  • Nervous
  • Fast-acting control system
  • Responds to internal and external change
  • Activates muscles and glands

29
  • Organ System Overview
  • Endocrine
  • Secretes regulatory hormones
  • Growth
  • Reproduction
  • Metabolism

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  • Organ System Overview
  • Reproductive
  • Production of offspring

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  • Necessary Life Functions
  • Maintain Boundaries- keeps the bodys internal
    environment distinct from the external
    environment- the skin and membranes
  • Movement
  • Locomotion
  • Movement of substances
  • Responsiveness
  • Ability to sense changes and react
  • Digestion
  • Break-down and delivery of nutrients

33
  • Necessary Life Functions
  • Metabolism all chemical reactions within the
    body
  • Production of energy
  • Making body structures
  • Excretion
  • Elimination of waste from metabolic reactions

34
  • Necessary Life Functions
  • Reproduction
  • Production of future generation
  • Provides new cells for growth and repair
  • Growth
  • Increasing of cell size and number

35
  • Survival Needs
  • Nutrients
  • Chemicals for energy and cell building
  • Includes carbohydrates, proteins, lipids,
    vitamins, and minerals
  • Oxygen
  • Required for chemical reactions

36
  • Survival Needs
  • Water
  • 6080 of body weight
  • Provides for metabolic reaction
  • Stable body temperature
  • Atmospheric pressure must be appropriate

37
  • Homeostasis
  • Maintenance of a stable internal environment a
    dynamic state of equilibrium
  • Homeostasis must be maintained for normal body
    functioning and to sustain life
  • Homeostatic imbalance a disturbance in
    homeostasis resulting in disease

38
  • Maintaining Homeostasis
  • The body communicates through neural and hormonal
    control systems
  • Receptor
  • Responds to changes in the environment (stimuli)
  • Sends information to control center

39
  • Maintaining Homeostasis
  • Control center
  • Determines set point
  • Analyzes information
  • Determines appropriate response
  • Effector
  • Provides a means for response to the stimulus

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  • Feedback Mechanisms
  • Negative feedback
  • Includes most homeostatic control mechanisms
  • Shuts off the original stimulus, or reduces its
    intensity
  • Works like a
    household
    thermostat

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  • Feedback Mechanisms
  • Positive feedback
  • Increases the original stimulus to push the
    variable farther
  • In the body this only occurs in blood clotting
    and birth of a baby

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  • The Language of Anatomy
  • Special terminology is used to prevent
    misunderstanding
  • Exact terms are used for
  • Position
  • Direction
  • Regions
  • Structures

46
  • Orientation and Directional Terms

Table 1.1
47
  • Orientation and Directional Terms

48
  • Body
  • Landmarks
  • Anterior

49
  • Body Landmarks
  • Posterior

50
  • Body Planes

51
S0ME OF THE MAJOR ORGANS IN THE HUMAN BODY
THE BRAIN
THE LUNGS
THE LIVER
THE STOMACH
THE BLADDER
NEXT
52
  • Abdominopelvic
  • Quadrants

53
  • Abdominopelvic
  • Major Organs

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55
  • Do body systems work alone or do they work with
    other systems to function properly?
  • How many system interactions can you come up
    with?
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