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Mighty Peace


Title: Engaging Middle School Students Author: Rick Wormeli Last modified by: Microsoft account Created Date: 5/25/2004 9:53:20 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Mighty Peace

Vocabulary Acquisition
  • Mighty Peace
  • Teachers Convention
  • 2014

For further conversation about any of these
  • Rick Wormeli
  • rwormeli_at_cox.net
  • 703-620-2447
  • Herndon, Virginia, USA
  • (Eastern Standard Time Zone)
  • Twitter _at_RickWormeli

Why English is Hard to Learn(Author Unknown)
  • The bandage was wound around the wound.
  • The farm was used to produce produce.
  • The dump was so full that it had to refuse more
  • We must polish the Polish furniture.
  • He could lead if he would get the lead out.
  • The soldier decided to desert his dessert in the
  • Since there is no time like the present, he
    thought it was time to
  • present the present.
  • A bass was painted on the head of the bass drum.
  • I did not object to the object.
  • The insurance was invalid for the invalid.
  • They were too close to the door to close it.
  • The buck does funny things when the does are
  • A seamstress and a sewer fell down into a sewer
  • To help with planting, the farmer taught his sow
    to sow.
  • The wind was too strong to wind the sail.
  • After a number of injections my jaw got number.
  • Upon seeing the tear in the painting I shed a
  • I had to subject the subject to a series of

Which letter does not belong, and why?
long-cultivated dislikes and resentments,
combined with a general expectation of coming
apocalypse. He talked about these topics in a
manner that managed to be tight-lipped and
loquacious at the same time. Ian Frazier, New
Yorker, 22 29 Dec. 2003 (as quoted in Merriam
Webster On-Line Dictionary)
Loquacious Synonyms
  • talkative, voluble, communicative, expansive,
    garrulous, unreserved, chatty, gossipy,
    gossiping, blabby, chatty, conversational, gabby,
    garrulous, talkative, motormouthed, mouthy,
    talky, demonstrative, effusive, gushing
    free-spoken, outspoken, articulate, fluent, glib,
    well-spoken, long-winded, verbose, windy, wordy
  • So, what does it mean?
  • Tending to talk a great deal talkative.

The single best way to boost students vocabulary
  • Increase their time spent reading.

Make reading inviting, compelling,
For great ideas on how to make reading
motivating to students Check out the
work of Kelly Gallagher, Donalyn
Miller, Ruth Culhum, Cris Tovani,
Steven Layne, Kylene Beers For
research behind this idea, check out the
work of Steve Krashen
Its the same with writing, too Increased time
spent writing means increased vocabulary acquisiti
Great new book on students writing
conversations The Best-Kept Teaching Secret by
Daniels and Daniels (2013)
  • To a person uninstructed in natural history,
    his country or seaside stroll is a walk through
    a gallery filled with wonderful works of art,
    nine-tenths of which have their faces turned to
    the wall.
  • -- Thomas Huxley, 1854

  • Expertise aids metaphor genesis and

Put another way
Chance favors the prepared mind. -- Pasteur
  • Chess masters can store over 100,000 different
    patterns of pieces in long term memory. Chess
    players get good by playing thousands of games!
  • Experts think in relationships, patterns, chunks,
    novices keep things individual pieces.
  • Physics experiment in categorization
  • Solid learning comes from when students make the
    connections, not when we tell them about those

The Brains DilemnaWhat Input to Keep, and What
Input to Discard?
  • Survival
  • Familiarity/Context
  • Priming
  • Intensity
  • Emotional Content
  • Movement
  • Novelty
  • -- Summarized from Pat Wolfes Brain Matters, 2001

The brain never stops paying attention. It's
always paying attention.
Prime the brain prior to asking students to do
any learning experience.
  • Priming means we show students
  • What they will get out of the experience (the
  • What they will encounter as they go through the
    experience (itinerary, structure)

Hmm. I wonder
.which one is more loquacious?
Journalistic vs. Encyclopedic Writing
  • The breathing of Benbows pit is deafening,
    like up-close jet engines mixed with a cosmic
    belch. Each new breath from the volcano heaves
    the air so violently my ears pop in the changing
    pressure then the temperature momentarily
    soars. Somewhere not too far below, red-hot,
    pumpkin size globs of ejected lava are flying
    through the air.
  • -- National Geographic, November 2000, p. 54

A volcano is a vent in the Earth from which
molten rock (magma) and gas erupt. The molten
rock that erupts from the volcano (lava) forms a
hill or mountain around the vent. Lava may
flowout as viscous liquid, or it may explode
from the vent as solid or liquid particles
-- Global Encyclopedia, Vol. 19
T-U-V, p. 627
  • With hocked gems financing him,
  • Our hero bravely defied all scornful laughter
  • That tried to prevent his scheme.
  • Your eyes deceive, he had said
  • An egg, not a table
  • Correctly typifies this unexplored planet.
  • Now three sturdy sisters sought proof,
  • Forging along sometimes through calm vastness
  • Yet more often over turbulent peaks and valleys.
  • Days became weeks,
  • As many doubters spread
  • Fearful rumors about the edge.
  • At last from nowhere
  • Welcome winged creatures appeared
  • Signifying momentous success.
  • -- Dooling and Lachman (1971)
  • pp. 216-222

Creating Background Where There is None
  • Tell the story of the Code of Hammurabi before
    discussing the Magna Charta.
  • Before studying the detailed rules of baseball,
    play baseball.
  • Before reading about how microscopes work, play
    with micros copes.
  • Before reading the Gettysburg Address, inform
    students that Lincoln was dedicating a cemetery.

Creating Background Where There is None
  • Before reading a book about a military campaign
    or a murder mystery with references to chess,
    play Chess with a student in front of the class,
    or teach them the basic rules, get enough boards,
    and ask the class to play.
  • In math, we might remind students of previous
    patterns as they learn new ones. Before teaching
    students factorization, we ask them to review
    what they know about prime numbers.
  • In English class, ask students, How is this
    storys protagonist moving in a different
    direction than the last storys protagonist?
  • In science, ask students, Weve seen how
    photosynthesis reduces carbon dioxide to sugars
    and oxidizes water into oxygen, so what do you
    think the reverse of this process called,
    respiration, does?

Important for all ages when moving content into
long-term memory Students have to do both,
Access Sense-Making Process
Word MorphologyTeach Prefixes, Roots, and
  • Mal badly, poor
  • Meta beyond, after, change
  • Mis incorrect, bad
  • Mono one
  • Multi many
  • Neo new
  • Non not
  • Ob, of, op, oc toward, against
  • Oct eight

Paleo ancient Para beside, almost   Penta
five   Per throughout, completely   Peri
around   Poly many   Post after   Pre
before   Pseudo false
Proficient Readers
  • Aoccdrnig to rseerach at an Elingsh uinervtisy,
    it deosnt mttaer in what order the ltteers in a
    word are, the olny iprmoetnt tihnh is that the
    frist and lsat ltteer is in the rghit pclae. The
    rset can be a total mses and you can still raed
    it outhit a porbelm. This is bcuseae we do not
    raed ervey letetr by itslef, but the word as a
    wlohe. -- Sousa, p. 62

  • Some Great Silver Bullets from Janet Allen
  • Vocabulary development is directly proportional
    to time spent reading.
  • Three avenues to effective vocabulary
    instruction integration, repetition, and
    meaningful use. (Nagy et al., 1988)
  • Teach no more than 8 to 10 new words outside of
    reading per week.
  • Dont ask students to write sentences with the
    vocabulary terms until theyve studied them in

  • Use words over and over in natural flow of
    conversation model, model, model normalize
    their use. Have students practice saying the
    words even choral recitation just to
    visualize themselves saying it.
  • Definition approach is ineffective by itself.
    (Baumann and Kameenui, 1991)
  • Relying solely on context clues is often
    ineffective, but knowing the definition with
    context clues can be very effective. (Baumann and
    Kameenui, 1991)

Concept Ladder(J.W. Gillet, C. Temple, 1986, as
described in Inside Words, Janet Allen)
  • Concept
  • Causes of
  • Effects of
  • Language associated with
  • Words that mean the
    same as

  • Historical examples
  • Contemporary

  • Evidence of
  • Literature connections made

Dr. Janet Allen High School Superlative Most
Likely to Be Loquacious with Vocabulary Ideas
Word Link
  • Each student gets a word.
  • In partners, students share the link(s) between
    their individual words.
  • Partner team joins another partner team, forming
    a word cluster.
  • All four students identify the links among their
    words and share those links with the class.
  • -- Yopp, Ruth Helen. Word Links A Strategy for
    Developing Word Knowledge, Voices in the Middle,
    Vol. 15, Number 1, September 2007, National
    Council Teachers of English

Great Vocabulary Acquisition Ideas
  • Shape spellings
  • Restaurant Menu
  • Wanted Dead or Alive Posters
  • Taboo Cards
  • Vocabulary Rummy Cards
  • Competitive Conversation using vocabulary
  • Word Walls

Only 8-10 words per week!
Writing Concisely
  • Avoid Redundancies and Saying the Same thing in
    different ways ?
  • more additions, absolutely certain/essential/nece
    ssary, advance forward, 200 a.m. in the morning,
    baby puppy/kitten, blended together, brief
    moment, deliberate lie, foreign imports,
    necessary requirement, old antique, orbiting
    satellite, preliminary draft, proceed ahead,
    raise up, refer back, repeat over, tiny particle,
    true facts, unexpected surprise, violent
    explosion, visible to the eye, while at the same
  • Cut to the Chase
  • A small number of people three people
  • His whole speech bothered me. His speech
    bothered me.
  • -- William Brohaughs book, Write Tight, 1993,
    Writers Digest Books

Visuals and Graphics are Powerful!
  • Examples
  • Shape Spelling
  • Aristotles Rhetorical Triangle
  • (ethos, pathos, logos)

6th grade study Some students memorized
dictionary definitions, and some drew pictures to
portray words and their meanings. The picture
drawing group outscored the first significantly.
Categorizing Games
  • Any game in which students categorize items
    according to identified criteria. No one
    category can have less than three items.
    Individuals or teams can compete to be accurate
    and first.
  • Examples
  • Categorize the Greek gods and goddesses three
    different ways (domains/powers, relationships,
    chronological appearance, frailties, uses)
  • Word Sorts
  • Sort these student essays (products) into
    Proficient, Good, but in need of improvement,
    and Struggling

  • In-Out Game Students determine the
    classification a teachers statements exemplify,
    then they confirm their hypothesis by offering
    elements in the club and elements out of the
    club. They dont identify the club, just the
    items in and out of it. If the students
    suggestions fit the pattern, the teacher invites
    them to be a part of the club. The game
    continues until everyone is a member.
  • Example She is in the club but the class is
    not. They are in the club, but the penguins are
    not. You are in the club, but the donuts are
    not. Give me something in and out of the club.
    A student guesses correctly that the club is
    for personal pronouns, so she says, We are in
    the club, but moon rocks are not. To make it a
    bit more complex, announce the clubs elements
    and non-elements in unusual ways that must also
    be exemplified by the students, such as making
    all the items in and out of the club alliterative
    or related in some way. This can be as obvious
    or as complex as you want it to be.

Extreme Vocabulary(Making Words Their Own
Building Foundations for Powerful Vocabulary,
  1. Distribute word pairs of opposites.
  2. In partners, students place these words at
    opposite ends of a continuum drawn on paper (or
    hung as tent cards on rope), and in between the
    extremes, they place words that fall along the
    continuum of meaning. For example -- extremes
    of temperature Freezing --- Cold --- Tepid
    --- Warm --- Hot --- Boiling
  3. Once students ge the idea, try something more
    complex, such as inconsolable and carefree.
    Where would despondent fit? How about concerned,
    content, worried, and satisfied? As students
    discuss the proper positioning of the words and
    physically move the tent cards back and forth,
    students draw on visual cues and cement the
    definitions in their minds. If finding the
    specific words to go between the two extremes is
    difficult at first, provide suggestions that
    students study then place in the sequence.
  4. Ask students to explain their rationale for their
    choices and positions. Classmates critique their
    decisions. Does inconsolable---despondent--worr
    work sequentially? Why or why not?

Learning is to Analogy as Teaching is to
  • Identify the relationship between two elements
    Light sprinkle is to torrential downpour --
    the second item is a more intense version of the
    first one
  • Determine what would constitute that same
    relationship in a completely different domain
    In what other pair of items in a different domain
    is the second item a more intense version of the
    first one? How about phrase/essay?
    smile/laughter? penlight/lighthouse? Battery
    power/nuclear power? bench/recliner? Seed/tree?

Common Analogous Relationships
  • Antonyms
  • Synonyms
  • Age
  • Time
  • Part Whole
  • Whole Part
  • Tool Its Action
  • Tool user Tool
  • Tool Object Its Used With
  • Worker product he creates
  • Category Example
  • Effect Cause
  • Cause Effect
  • Increasing Intensity
  • Decreasing Intensity
  • Person closely related adjective
  • Person least related adjective
  • Math relationship
  • Effect cause
  • Action Thing Acted Upon
  • Action Subject Performing the Action
  • Object or Place Its User
  • Object specific attribute of the object
  • Male Female
  • Symbol what it means
  • Classification/category example
  • Noun Closely Related Adjective
  • Elements Used Product created
  • Attribute person or object
  • Object Where its located
  • Lack (such as drought/water one thing lacks
    the other)

SDA - Subtle Difference Analysis
  • Identify words/concepts that are close in
    meaning, but not an exact match. Identify how
    they are similar and what makes them just off
    the match. Example pairs
  • Outstanding/Exemplary
  • Confined/Restricted
  • Elaborate/Complex
  • Intelligent/Smart
  • Child/Offspring
  • House/Home
  • Mature/Wise
  • Late/Tardy
  • Soil/Dirt

  • Students edit, not the teachers.
  • Shorten text and edit daily.
  • Assess students editing and revising.
  • If helpful, edit in waves.
  • Emphasize the power of editing and revision
  • Great books are never written they are always
    re-written. -- Michael Crichton

Taboo Cards
  • Photosynthesis
  • Light
  • Green
  • Water
  • Sun
  • Chlorophyll
  • Plant
  • Produce

Ides of March
44 BC
  • Word Splash!
  • Students try to guide the words on pieces of
    paper into coherent connections.
  • Provide the learning experience.
  • Now students re-arrange the words in light of the
    new evidence and understanding.

Mark Antony
Julius Caesar
49 BC
civil wars
Socratic Seminar
  • Pre-Seminar
  • A.      Shared experiences, chosen for richness
    of ideas, issues, ambiguity, discussability
  • B.      Students reflect on material
  •     Group dynamics, ground rules, and
    courtesy are understood and accepted.
  • Seminar
  • A. Teacher asks a provocative question. Opening,
    Core, and Closure Questions
  • B. Students respond to the provocative question
    and each other.
  • C. Teacher offers core questions that help
    students interpret and to re-direct, also
    evalutes and tries to keep mouth shut.
  • C. Closing connect to the real world of the
  • Post-Seminar
  • Writings, Summations, Artwork, Reflection,
    Critique, Analysis

Debate Format
  • 1.    Statement of the General Debate Topic and
    Why its
  • Important 1 min.
  • 2.    Affirmative Position Opening Remarks 3
  • 3.    Negative Position Opening Remarks 3 min.
  • 4.    Affirmative Position Arguments 5 min.
  • 5.    Negative Position Arguments 5 min.
  • 6.    Caucus Students on both teams consider
    their arguments and rebuttals in light of what
    has been presented. 3 min.
  • 7.    Affirmative Rebuttal and Questioning of the
    Negatives Case 3 min.
  • 8.    Negative Rebuttal and Questioning of the
    Affirmatives Case 3 min.
  • 9.    Closing Arguments Affirmative Position 2
  • 10. Closing Arguments Negative Position 2

Meeting of Minds at Rachel Carson Middle
School Portrayals of Dr. Sally Ride, Albert
Einstein, Josef Stalin, Bob Dylan, Boss Tweed,
Dr. Robert Oppenheimer, Senator Joseph McCarthy,
the Unsinkable Molly Brown, Rosa Parks. In the
background Advisors for each historical figure

Inquiry Method
  • 1.    Something arouses students curiosity.
  • 2.    Students identify questions regarding
    topic. There is usually one main question with
    several sub-questions that help answer the main
    question. These questions are submitted to
    classmates for review.
  • 3. Students determine the process of
    investigation into topic. Their proposal for
    how to conduct the investigation is submitted to
    classmates for review and revision as necessary.
  • 4.    Students conduct the investigation.
  • 5.    Students share their findings.

Reading Notations
  • P I agree with this.
  • X I disagree with this.
  • ?? I dont understand this.
  • !! Wow! (Elicits a strong emotion)
  • CL General Claim
  • EV Evidence for the Claim
  • (These can be numbered to indicate their
    sequence, too EV1, EV2, EV3)

Help with Paraphrasing
  • Build students vocabulary and verbal dexterity.
    Post word banks. Use vocabulary immersion.
  • Provide repeated experiences with varied sentence
    combinations and word play.
  • Use repeated think-alouds of a paraphraser at
    work from both teacher and students.
  • Provide ample opportunities to assess
    paraphrasings of original text or experience.
  • Allow students to copy models -- Theyll outgrow
  • Take a page from the active listening lessons --
    So what youre saying is
  • Provide repeated experiences with encapsulation
    such as creating newspaper headlines.
  • Play renaming and clue games such as Password,
    Taboo, and 25,000 Pyramid.

Change the Verb
  • Instead of asking students to describe how FDR
    handled the economy during the Depression, ask
    them to rank four given economic principles in
    order of importance as they imagine FDR would
    rank them, then ask them how President Hoover who
    preceded FDR would have ranked those same
    principles differently.

  •  Analyze Construct
  • Revise Rank
  • Decide between Argue against
  • Why did Argue for
  • Defend Contrast
  • Devise Develop
  • Identify Plan
  • Classify Critique
  • Define Rank
  • Compose Organize
  • Interpret Interview
  • Expand Predict
  • Develop Categorize
  • Suppose Invent
  • Imagine Recommend

The Frayer ModelFrayer, Frederick, Klausmeier,
Essential Characteristics
Non- Essential Characteristics
lt Topic gt
Share One, Get One

Exclusion Brainstorming
  • The student identifies the word/concept that
    does not belong with the others, then either
    orally or in writing explains his reasoning
  • Mixtures plural, separable, dissolves, no
  • Compounds chemically combined, new properties,
    has formula, no composition
  • Solutions heterogeneous mixture, dissolved
    particles, saturated and unsaturated, heat
  • Suspensions clear, no dissolving, settles upon
    standing, larger than molecules

  • Played like the party game, except you use
    concepts from the unit of study.
  • Consider using it with a jigsaw lesson in which
    each member of a team learns a different aspect a
    topic, then the group gathers, and students
    perform their Charades to communicate their piece
    of the puzzle.

One-Word Summaries
  • The new government regulations for the
    meat-packing industry in the 1920s could be seen
    as an opportunity,
  • Picassos work is actually an argument for.,
  • NASAs battle with Rockwell industries over the
    warnings about frozen temperatures and the
    O-rings on the space shuttle were trench
  • Basic Idea Argue for or against the word as a
    good description for the topic.

Statues (Body Sculpture)
  • Students work in small groups
  • using every groupmembers body
  • to symbolically portray concepts
  • in frozen tableau.
  • Where does the learning occur?

Physicalizing Process
  • Identify essential components, pieces, or
    definition of whatever were teaching
  • Physicalize those pieces and present them to the
  • Class critiques the physicalization in terms of
    accuracy, comprehensiveness, appropriateness, and
    clarity. Makes suggestions for improvement.
  • All three steps are learning experiences that
    help students internalize the knowledge.

  • Descriptions without Adjectives
  • Brainstorm a list of 10 interesting ideas,
    places, people, or objects.
  • Choose one and describe it without using
    adjectives (words or phrases that modify nouns or
    pronouns). Instead, use feelings, uses,
    experiences, comparisons, and anything you can
    think of to describe the object. The idea is to
    look at things from more than the obvious angle.
  • Example for describing an ocean
  • Its the embodiment of antithesis, capable of
    destroying and nurturing, with more than one
    part, but it can function as a whole. Its power
    and nutrients give hope to humans, if we handle
    it respectfully. We think we know it by playing
    at the beach, but we find how little we know when
    we explore the bottom of an iceberg, ride a vent
    of thermals rising from the mid-Atlantic Ridge,
    or find a shipwreck entombed in its silt. There
    are answers here that are yet to be revealed,
    stories still to be told.

Well, that last slide was certainly loquacious,
dont you think?
  1. Theres no need to write substitute teacher plans
    or travel to a conference
  2. One of the probable futures of teacher
    professional development
  3. Can be archived
  4. Interactive experience with a national presenter
    who doesnt need to leave his own home
  5. Requires the use of a computer hooked to the
  6. A spiders home tossed like a fisherman would do

Clever Endeavor
Cleavor Endeavor
  • Played like the board game, players are given
    six clues, one at a time and in any order that
    the clue-giver wishes to give them. If a player
    guess correctly in the first clue or two, he
    earns more points. The total points earned is 7 -
    of the clue given. Example If a player
    guesses by the second clue, he earns 7-2 or 5

Rummy Games
  • Played just like Rummy card games. Instead of a
    straight such as the four, five, six, seven of
    spades, however, students get the components of a
    sequence or set youve taught. Examples steps
    in photosynthesis, process for dividing
    fractions, all the elements for a animals
    habitat, four things that led to the Civil War,
    four equivalent fractions, four verbs in the past
    perfect tense
  • Students work off a central pile, drawing cards,
    discarding cards, just as in they would do in a
    Rummy or Gin Rummy game until they achieve a
    winning hand.

Rummy Games
  • Alternative Each hand requires a different
    configuration -- a winning hand could be a set of
    three and a run of four, two sets of four, a run
    of six and a set of three. Decide the escalating
    configurations before beginning the game.
  • For added learning, let each student make his or
    her own deck of cards with a unique cover design
    based on the unit of study.

Spelling Bee de Strange
  • Students spell the words aloud, but substitute
    sound effects noises for all vowels or phonic
    patterns being studied. Increase complexity by
    identifying sounds for subtle differences in the
    letter silent E shhh! short E heh, heh,
    heh, long E thlphat!
  • While one team makes sure the other team
    correctly spells the words and that the correct
    sounds are given in the correct sequences, the
    other team tries to spell the words while keeping
    a straight face. Give points to the listening
    team if they find phonetic mistakes in the
    presenting teams submission, and points off if
    their assertion is wrong. The faster the
    presenting team can spell each word, the more
    outrageous the sounds and the more difficult it
    is for the other team to detect an error.

Spelling Bee de Strange
  • A Achoo!
  • E thlphat!
  • I Ribbit, Ribbit
  • O Oink! Oink!
  • U Oo-la-la!
  • Beautiful
  • B- thlphat!-achoo-oo-la-la!-t-ribbit-ribbit-f-oo-

Reading Afflictions Some Teachers Suffer
  • Symptoms All adolescents and young adolescents
    arrive in our classrooms able to read. No formal
    instruction is necessary.
  • Disease Incompletoliterato Disease
  • Symptom Teachers tell students to stop after
    every section or chapter and summarize. Students
    learn more when they stop after each section to
  • Disease ReaderRigorMortis

Reading Afflictions Some Teachers Suffer
  • Symptom A second read-through does not increase
    comprehension. Its a waste of time.
  • Disease Fast-paced Society
  • Symptom Context and personal background play
    little or no role in the reading comprehension.
  • Dsease Cluelesswordcallerism

Reading Afflictions Some Teachers Suffer
  • Symptom Young adolescent students read faster
  • they did in elementary school.
  • Disease Oldermeansmore-itis
  • Symptom Older students can read to gain
  • understanding, and make inferences by
  • Disease
  • Dysdevelopmenta Competenciphooey

Reading Afflictions Some Teachers Suffer
  • Symptom Defining difficult vocabulary terms in a
    reading passage will be enough for students to
    gather meaning from the passage.
  •  Disease Boldfaceword-panacea Syndrome
  • Symptom Reading instruction is the exclusive
    domain of the English or Language Arts teacher.
  • Disease Literacimonodominpathy

Reading MathAdapted from Literacy Strategies
for Improving Mathematics Instruction, Joan M.
Kenney, ASCD, 2005
  • Math books have more concepts per sentence and
    paragraph than any other type of text.
  • There is little redundancy in math text.
  • Words as well as numbers and other symbols are
    used throughout text.
  • Eyes travel in different patterns than
    traditional left-to-right.
  • There are often have distracting sidebars.

Reading Math
  • In most text, theres a topic sentence or key
    idea followed by detailed supports. In math, we
    get the details first, then the topic sentence --
    the key idea is given in the form of a question
    or task at the end. Students have to read the
    text again after seeing this key idea and figure
    out what material in the text is important and

Reading Math the Little Words are Huge
  • Of/Off Percent of something, the percent
    off something
  • The, is, a , are, can , sum, less, more, on ,
    who, find, one, ones, tenths, and, or, number,
    numeral, how, many, how many, what, fewer,
    around, write, it , each, which, do all, same,
    different, exercise, here there, has, have, of,

Synectics(William J. Gordon)
  • The joining together of different and apparently
    irrelevant elements, or put more simply, Making
    the familiar strange.
  • Teach a topic to students.
  • Ask students to describe the topic, focusing on
    descriptive words and critical attributes.
  • Teacher identifies an unrelated category to
    compare to the descriptions in 2. (Think of a
    sport that reminds you of these words. Explain
    why you chose that sport.) Students can choose
    the category, too.
  • Students write or express the analogy between the
    two The endocrine system is like playing zones
    in basketball. Each player or gland is
    responsible for his area of the game.

4-Square Synectics
  • Brainstorm four objects from a particular
    category (examples kitchen appliances, household
    items, the circus, forests, shopping malls).
  • In small groups, brainstorm what part of todays
    learning is similar in some way to the objects
  • Create four analogies, one for each object.
  • Example How is the human digestive system like
    each household item sink, old carpet, microwave,
  • Example How is the Pythagorean Theorem like
    each musical instrument piano, drum set,
    electric guitar, trumpet?

  • ______________________ is (are) a
    _________________ because _______________________
  • Ask students to include something intangible,
    such as suspicion or an odyssey, in the first
    blank. The tangible comparison---a combination
    lock or an elliptical trainer---would fit in the
    second section.
  • Ask students to justify their choices
  • Suspicion is a combination lock because it
    secures a possessions well-being that cannot be
    assured through trust alone. Odyssey is an
    elliptical trainer because it has a beginning,
    middle, and end, and along the way, we encounter
    moments of endurance, doubt, despair, and
    elation, leaving comfort and returning again.

Test the Verb Strength
  • Did we invade the country, or did we liberate
    it? The choice of verbs frames our thinking.
    Ask students to change only the verb and explain
    how the reader or listeners interpretation of
    the topic would change as a result.
  • The senator corralled her constituents.
  • The senator coddled her constituents.
  • The senator ignited her constituents.
  • The senator stonewalled her constituents.
  • The senator suckered her constituents.
  • The senator mollified her constituents.
  • The senator lifted her constituents.

Descriptions With and Without Metaphors
  • Friendship Family
  • Infinity Imperialism
  • Solving for a variable Trust
  • Euphoria Mercy
  • Worry Trouble
  • Obstructionist Judiciary Honor
  • Immigration Homeostasis
  • Balance Temporal Rifts
  • Economic Principles Religious fervor
  • Poetic License Semantics
  • Heuristics Tautology
  • Embarrassment Knowledge

Great Resources on Metaphors
  • From Molecule to Metaphor A Neural Theory of
    Language by Jerome Feldman
  • Metaphor A Practical Introduction by Zoltan
  • Poetic Logic The Role of Metaphor in Thought,
    Language, and Culture by Marcel Danesi
  • Metaphors Analogies Power Tools for Teaching
    any Subject by Rick Wormeli
  • I Is an Other The Secret Life of Metaphor and
    How It Shapes the Way We See the World by James

Great Resources on Metaphors
  • Metaphors We Live By by George Lakoff
  • The Political Mind Why You Can't Understand
    21st-Century American Politics with an
    18th-Century Brain
  • by George Lakoff
  • A Bee in a Cathedral And 99 Other Scientific
    Analogies by Joel Levy
  • On Metaphor (A Critical Inquiry Book) edited by
    Sheldon Sacks

  • Endless List of Vocabulary Development
    Possibilities Please Add Your Own!
  • Correspondence Museum Map and Tour Guides Oral
  • Books Magazines Radio Plays
  • Newspapers Scripts Historical Fiction
  • Commercials Picture Books Journal/Diaries
  • Science Fiction Mystery Stories Romances
  • Poetry Autobiographies/Biographies Animal
  • How-to Books Alphabet books Pop-up Books
  • Field Guides Mini-textbooks Friendly Letters
  • Bulletin Boards Choose-Your-0wn
    Adventures Timelines
  • Murals Coloring Books Calendars
  • Annotated Catalogs Travel Brochures Manuals
  • Games Recipes Personal narratives
  • Folktales/legends/myths Information
    Reports Persuasive essays
  • Book/Movie Critiques Wills Yellow pages
  • Weather forecasts Wanted posters Vitas/resumes
  • Satire/spoofs Speeches Songs/raps
  • CD covers Soap operas Slogans

  • Requiems Rebuttals Play programs
  • Travel posters Movie posters Thank yous
  • Interviews Telegrams Sports accounts
  • Scary stories Quizzes/tests Rubrics
  • Surveys Monologues Jokes/riddles
  • Menus Metaphors Job applications
  • Indexes Headlines Grocery lists
  • Graffiti Comic strips Constitutions
  • Contracts Conversations Spreadsheets
  • Definitions Epilogues Evaluations
  • Fortunes Comparisons Character sketches
  • Certificates Cereal boxes Captions
  • Bumper stickers Advice columns Epithets
  • Codes Informal/formal observation musical
  • True or False Book Cookbook Wedding vows
  • Almanac Inauguration speech Annotated Family

Great Literacy Resources
  • Allen, Janet. Yellow Brick Roads Shared and
    Guided Paths to Independent Reading 4-12,
    Stenhouse Publishers, 2000
  • Allen, Janet. Words, Words, Words Teaching
    Vocabulary in Grades 4-12, Stenhouse Publishers,
  • Billmeyer, Rachel, Ph.D. Barton, Mary Lee.
    Teaching Reading in the Content Areas If Not Me,
    Then Who? 2nd Edition McREL (Mid-continent
    Research for Education and Learning, 1998
  • Barton, Mary Lee Heidema, Clare. Teaching
    Reading in Mathematics, ASCD, McREL
    (Mid-continent Research for Education and
    Learning, 2000 (Also distributed by ASCD)
  • Beers, Kylene. When Kids Cant Read What
    Teachers Can Do, Heinemann, 2003
  • Beers, Kylene and Samuels, Barabara G. (1998)
    Into Focus Understanding and Creating Middle
    School Readers. Norwood, Massachusetts
    Christopher-Gordon Publishers, Inc.

  • Buehl, Doug. Classroom Strategies for Interactive
    Learning (second Edition) (2001) Newark,
    Delaware, International Reading Association, Inc.
  • Burke, Jim. Illuminating Texts How to Teach
    Students to Read the World, Heinemann, 2001
  • Burkhardt, Ross M. Writing for Real Strategies
    for Engaging Adolescent Writers, Stenhouse
    Publishers, 2003Frender, Gloria. Learning to
    Learn Strengthening Study Skills and Brain
    Power, Incentive Publications, Inc., 1990
  • Forsten, Char Grant, Jim Hollas, Betty.
    Differentiating Textbooks Strategies to Improve
    Student Comprehension and Motivation, Crystal
    Springs Books
  • Gallagher, Kelly. Deeper Reading Comprehending
    Challenging Texts, 4-12, Stenhouse Publishers
    (Pembroke in Canada), 2004
  • Glynn, Carol. Learning on their Feet A
    Sourcebook for Kinesthetic Learning Across the
    Curriculum, Discover Writing Press, 2001
  • Harvey, Stephanie (1998) Nonfiction Matters
    Reading, Writing, and Research in Grades 3 8.
    Portsmouth,Maine Stenhouse Publishers

  • Harvey, Stephanie Goudvis, Anne. Strategies
    that Work Teaching Comprehension to Enhance
    Understanding, Stenhouse Publishers, 2000
  • Hyerle, David. A Field Guide to Visual Tools,
    ASCD, 2000
  • Kenney, Joan M. Literacy Strategies for Improving
    Mathematics Instruction, ASCD, 2005
  • Robb, Laura. Teaching Reading in Middle School.
    Scholastic, 2000
  • Robb, Laura. Nonfiction Writing from the Inside
    Out Writing Lessons Inspired by Conversations
    with Leading Authors, Scholastic, 2004
  • Santman, Donna. Shades of Meaning Comprehension
    and Interpretation in Middle School, Heineman,
    2005Sousa, David. How the Reading Brain Learns.
    Corwin Press, 2004
  • Stephens, Elaine C. and Brown, Jean E. (2000) A
    Handbook of Content Literacy Strategies 75
    Practical Reading and Writing Ideas. Norwood,
    Massachusetts Christopher-Gordon Publishers,

  • Strong, Richard W. Silver, Harvey F. Perini,
    Matthew J. Tuculescu, Gregory M. Reading for
    Academic Success Powerful Strategies for
    Struggling, Average, and Advanced Readers, Grades
    7-12, Corwin Press, 2002
  • Tatum, Alfred. Teaching Reading to Black
    Adolescent Males Closing the Achievement Gap,
    Stenhouse Publishers, 2005
  • Tovani, Cris. I Read It, But I Dont Get It.
    Stenhouse Publishers, 2001
  • Tovani, Cris. Do I Really Have to Teach
    Reading?, Stenhouse Publishers, 2004
  • Vacca, R. and Vacca J. (1999) Content Area
    Reading Literacy and Learning Across the
    Curriculum. 6th ed. New York Longman
  • Wood, Karen D. Harmon, Janis M. Strategies for
    Integrating Reading and Writing in Middle and
    High School Classrooms, National Middle School
    Association, 2001
  • Wormeli, Rick. Summarization in any Discipline,
    ASCD, 2005
  • Wormeli, Rick. Metaphors Analogies Power
    Tools for Teaching any Subject, Stenhouse
    Publishers, 2009
  • Zinsser, William. Writing to Learn (1988)New
    York Harper and Row Publishers

Great Websites for Vocabulary Instruction
  • www.vocabulary.com
  • www.dpsk12.org/departments/secondary/tip.htm
  • http//depts.gallaudet.edu/englishworks/
  • http//www.webenglishteacher.com/vocab.html

No loquacious banter here. Just one simple
imperative with all due alacrity Run! And
gather ye great rosebuds of vocabulary while ye
may! -- Walt Whitman Who ?
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