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Making Proteins

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Making Proteins DNA This image summarizes the processes of transcription and translation. What are the three stages in this process (central dogma) and where are they ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Date added: 5 June 2019
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Provided by: Kriste173
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Title: Making Proteins


1
Making Proteins
DNA
  • This image summarizes the processes of
    transcription and translation.
  • What are the three stages in this process
    (central dogma) and where are they in this
    picture?

mRNA
rRNA
protein
tRNA
2
RNA
  • RNA (Ribonucleic Acid)
  • Contains Ribose as the sugar in its
    sugar-phosphate backbone
  • RNA has Uracil rather than Thymine as a base
  • Base pairs A U C G
  • 3 types of RNA
  • messenger (mRNA)
  • transfer (tRNA)
  • ribosomal (rRNA)

3
Transcription in Prokaryotes
  • DNA is transcribed into mRNA

4
Translationin Prokaryotes
  • mRNA serves as the instructional material to make
    proteins

5
Transcriptionin Eukaryotes
  • DNA is transcribed into pre-mRNA

6
RNA Processingin Eukaryotes
  • Non-coding regions of the mRNA, called introns,
    are removed from the pre-mRNA.

7
Translationin Eukaryotes
  • The mRNA with only the coding region (the exons)
    leaves the nucleus.
  • Translation from mRNA to protein occurs in the
    cytoplasm.

8
  • Steps of DNA Transcription
  • Making mRNA from DNA
  • Helicase unzips DNA at the gene of interest
  • RNA polymerase matches RNA nucleotide bases to
    DNA, using one side as a template.
  • 3. The mRNA strand is created. It now
    compliments the original DNA strand (G-C and
    A-U).
  • 4. Ligase helps the strand of DNA to close again.
  • 5. mRNA strand moves out of nucleus to ribosomes,
    DNA zips up.

9
Key Players in Translation
  • rRNA RNA that makes up a ribosome
  • tRNA RNA that transfers specific amino acids
  • mRNA RNA transcribed from DNA
  • Codon 3 nucleotides in a row on a strand of
    mRNA that code for an amino acid
  • Anticodon 3 nucleotides in tRNA that base pair
    with the codon
  • Amino Acids monomers of proteins (20 in humans)

10
Steps to TranslationMaking proteins from mRNA
  1. Ribosomes attach to the start codon of mRNA
    (AUG), signaling the beginning of the protein
    chain
  2. mRNA codons are matched to corresponding tRNA
    anticodons and appropriate amino acids are strung
    together.
  3. Dehydration synthesis occurs between the amino
    acids, and they join, making a protein chain with
    peptide bonds in between
  4. Ribosomes detach when they come across a stop
    codon (UAA, UAG, UGA). Protein synthesis is
    complete.

11
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15
Why do you think RNA uses the triplet code?
  • Do the math on your own or with a neighbor.

16
CODON BINGO
  • Fill in the Bingo Card (on page 45) with the 20
    different amino acids.
  • Use your table on page 44 to help
  • Watch out for repeated amino acids!
  • Wait for your teacher to begin calling out DNA
    letters to begin playing

17
Translation Activity
  • You and your classmates need to discover the
    hidden protein in your bag.
  • Follow the instructions in the bag to unlock the
    mystery protein.

18
What if a single base is changed?
19
What if a single base is changed?
20
What if a single base is changed?
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