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The American Colonies

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The American Colonies Slave Trade Ship Colonial Government Britain allows the colonies to govern themselves Salutary neglect: Because Britain was thriving ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The American Colonies


1
The American Colonies
2
Types of Colonies
  • Royal Colonies
  • King chooses a royal governor to run the colony
  • Example Massachusetts Virginia

3
Types of Colonies
  • Proprietary Colonies
  • King gifts land to an individual or group
  • Examples Pennsylvania Maryland

4
Types of Colonies
  • Charter
  • King grants charters to establish colony
  • Colonies governed themselves
  • Examples Connecticut Rhode Island

5
Southern Colonies
6
First Attempts
  • Roanoke Colony
  • Sir Walter Raleigh, favorite of Queen Elizabeth
    I, sent a group of colonists to the island of
    Roanoke, off the northern coast of North
    Carolina.
  • Colonists mysteriously disappeared while John
    White was away in England.

7
Virginia (1607)
  • Jamestown
  • 1st permanent settlement? mostly males
    (indentured servants and treasure hunters)
  • 60/900 colonists survived
  • Ruled by John Smith
  • Founded by the Virginia Company
  • Joint-stock company organized to raise money by
    selling stocks/shares to investors
  • Becomes a royal colony
  • House of Burgesses (1619)-22 representatives
    called burgesses met to outline laws for the
    colony

8
  • Maryland (1634)
  • Founded by George Calvert as an area of religious
    freedom for Catholics
  • Was also established for trade, finding precious
    metals and to locate a water passage across the
    continent
  • Proprietary Colony

9
Maryland Act of Toleration
  • 1649
  • Granted freedom of worship for all Catholics
  • Symbolic beginning of freedom of religion

10
  • North Carolina (1653)
  • Founded by a group of proprietors business
    venture
  • Settlers from Virginia
  • Farming, trade and profit
  • Anglican
  • Becomes a royal colony
  • South Carolina (1670)
  • Founded by a group of proprietors
  • Settlers from France, England, and Africa
  • Food crops
  • Anglican
  • Proprietary to royal
  • Georgia (1733)
  • Founded by General James Oglethorpe as a haven
    for debtors and convicts? intended to protect
    colonies from Spanish and French invasions
  • Slow economic growth? farmed, harvested lumber
    and traded furs

11
The Charter of Carolina 1663
12
Bacons Rebellion
  • Virginia, 1676
  • Cause
  • Small farmers treated unfairly wealthy
    landowners paid
  • fewer taxes and received many benefits
  • Rebellion was led by Nathaniel Bacon
  • Failed but resulted in the
  • need for representation in
  • government for the common
  • man

13
New England Colonies
14
Massachusetts
  • Pilgrims (Plymouth) (1620)
  • - led by William Bradford
  • Separatists
  • wanted to separate from the Church of England
  • Mayflower Compact
  • 41 men drew up the agreement to outline fair and
    equal laws for the colony signed on the
    Mayflower

15
  • Massachusetts
  • Puritans
  • Purify and reform Anglican Church
  • Massachusetts Bay Colony
  • Strict religious beliefs radical
  • John Winthrop City upon a Hill

16
  • New Hampshire (1630)
  • John Mason
  • English and Scots-Irish settlers
  • Economic freedom
  • Settled for religious freedom
  • Escape for those constricted by harsh religious
    and economic rules of the Puritans
  • Royal Colony

17
  • Rhode Island (1636)
  • Founded by Roger Williams after being exiled by
    Puritans in Massachusetts? settled in Providence
  • Religious freedom most religiously tolerant
    colony
  • Connecticut (1636)
  • Founded by Thomas Hooker after being asked to
    leave Massachusetts for dissenting with Puritan
    leaders.
  • Settled by the Dutch for economic freedom and the
    English for religious freedom.
  • Agriculture and trade

18
Middle Colonies
19
  • New York (1626)
  • Peter Minuit
  • Dutch (Netherlands), taken over by English
  • Trade and profits
  • Anglican
  • Proprietary to royal colony
  • New Jersey (1660)
  • Established by Dutch and Swedish but became
    English.
  • Land given to friend of the King, Lord Berkely
  • Proprietary to royal colony
  • Delaware (1638)
  • Peter Minuit
  • Dutch, Swedish and English
  • Farming, trade and profits
  • Proprietary Colony

20
Pennsylvania (1682)
  • William Penn
  • Proprietary Colony
  • Quakers
  • Home to many European Immigrants Swedish, Dutch,
    English, Scots-Irish and German
  • - Allowed for religious freedom
  • Quakers
  • Equality and all possessed Inner Light

21
  • Ethnic and Religious Diversity

22
Discrimination in Massachusetts
  • Salem Witch Trials (1692-3) series of trials
    and hangings of people accused of witchcraft

23
Discrimination in Massachusetts
  • Anne Hutchinson Puritan spiritual advisor that
    was banished for her criticism of the colonys
    ministers. Fled to Rhode Island.
  • Roger Williams Banished for speaking out against
    the Plymouth church and the colony for taking
    Indian land without buying it. Fled to founded
    Rhode Island.

24
Discrimination
  • African Americans
  • Slaves
  • Native Americans
  • Pushed off of land
  • by settlers

25
Religious Tolerance
  • Roger Williams? Providence, Rhode Island
  • Pennsylvania?
  • English Quakers
  • German Lutherans
  • Scotch-Irish Presbyterians
  • Swiss Mennonites
  • New York? linguistic and cultural diversity
  • First synagogue (Jewish)

26
Colonial Economy
27
  • Economic Diversity
  • -South Agriculture
  • -North Commerce
  • -Towns and cities
  • develop along water

28
Economy
  • Mercantilism A system where England exploited
    raw materials produced by the colonies to become
    rich.
  • Economic policy
  • Way for the Mother Country to get rich
  • Export more than you import, become
    self-sufficient
  • Effect Britain creates rules for colonial trade

29
Southern Economy
  • John Rolfe and tobacco Rolfe discovered new ways
    to cultivate tobacco
  • Virginia, Maryland, NC
  • Plantations develop
  • Need for labor
  • Indentured servants
  • Agree to work for landowner for 4-7 years, then
    given freedom
  • slavery

30
Southern Plantation Systems
  • Exported cash crops to make money
  • Creates
  • (1) Large farms around rivers
  • (2) Need for lots of labor
  • (3) Wealthy class of plantation owners

31
New England
  • Commerce
  • Port cities
  • Boston
  • Shipbuilding
  • Fishing

32
Immigration to Colonies
  • Immigrant population increases due to religious
    freedom and economic opportunities (German,
    Scotch-Irish, Dutch)
  • Came in search of prosperity and wealth and to
    avoid religious persecution
  • Voluntary and involuntary immigration

33
Slave Trade
  • African slave trade flourished by 1700s
  • Slaves endured a harsh voyage Middle Passage
  • Widespread use in Southern colonies

34
Slave Trade Ship
35
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36
Colonial Government
  • Britain allows the colonies to govern themselves
  • Salutary neglect Because Britain was thriving
    economically in large part due to their
    exploitation of the colonies, they allowed the
    colonies to govern themselves.
  • Colonial legislatures hold the power

37
Self-Government the Colonies
  • Enlightenment (1600s)
  • John Locke (1632-1704)
  • Two Treatises on Government (1690)
  • Natural rights life, liberty, property
  • These rights cant morally be taken away by
    government
  • Social contract theory
  • Implied contract between government and citizens
  • People submit themselves to follow the law for
    the common good and to cultivate civic virtue
  • Government fails replace government

38
Self-Government the Colonies
  • House of Burgesses (1619)
  • First elected body in New World
  • Citizens should have a voice
  • Created laws for the colony of
  • Jamestown
  • Mayflower Compact (1620)
  • Document drafted by Pilgrims
  • Created an elected legislature
  • Government received power from
  • the people of the colony
  • Demonstrates desire to be ruled by local
    government instead of England

39
Self-Government the Colonies
  • Town meetings
  • Representative government
  • Local citizens met to discuss and vote on issues
  • Belief in democratic ideals
  • Town meetings were more popular in the North
    because there were more towns there than in the
    South
  • Fundamental Orders of Connecticut (1639)
  • Written body of laws for the colony
  • Governments power came only from the free
    consent of the people
  • Set limits on what government could do
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