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The Origins of Democracy

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The Origins of Democracy The Green Family Introductory History Unit The state of California has established the following standards to be learned in the tenth grade. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Origins of Democracy


1
The Origins of Democracy
  • The Green Family
  • Introductory History Unit

2
  • The state of California has established the
    following standards to be learned in the tenth
    grade.
  • 10.1.1 Students will analyze the similarities and
    differences in Greco-Roman and Judeo-Christian
    views of Law, Reason, Faith, and the duties, and
    responsibilities, of the individual.
  • 10.1.2 Students will trace the development of the
    Western political ideas of the Rule of Law,
    Democracy, and Tyranny

3
  • Greek lecture
  • 1. INNOVATION
  • means a brand new thought, invention, or
    strategy...
  • The Ancient Greeks innovate a culture that
    becomes the foundation of Western Civilization.
  • A. Drama
  • B. Architecture
  • C. Science
  • D. Mathematics
  • E. History
  • F. Politics
  • G. Philosophy
  • H. Government

Odysseus
The Sirens
Greek drama antagonist, catastrophe, catharsis,
character, chorus, comedy, conflict, dialogue,
drama, epic, foil, hubris, legend, motivation,
myth, ode, persona, plot, protagonist, scenery,
setting, tragedy.
This is me if you dont do your homework!!!
4
columns
Greek Architecture
5
Euclidmathematics (geometry)
Herodotusthe father of history
Pythagorasmathematics
6
2. GEOGRAPHY
  • Played an important role in Greeces
    developmentwhy do you think?
  • Greece occupies a small, mountainous peninsula.
  • The mountains isolated Greek communities, so they
    followed their own ways of life
  • These communities developed into city-statesthe
    POLIS
  • The polis consisted of the city and the
    surrounding countryside.
  • Politics meansthe things of the polis

There are 100s of little islands in the Aegean
7
Greek City-statesthe POLIS All political, social
and religious activities took place in the
polis From polis we getpolitics, Metropolis Acrop
olis Cosmopolitan And Police These city-states
become very independent and even fought each
other. Check out the mapsee how isolated from
each other they are? You will notice that Greece
has a huge coastlinelots of sea The sea made the
Greeks explore and set up new cities and
settlements throughout the Mediterranean.
8
PoliticsGreek style
  • The running of the polis soon fell into the hands
    of local rich men, called?
  • An Oligarchy a form of government where a few
    wealthy people hold power over a larger group of
    citizens.
  • The gap between the rich and the poor grew wider
    under the oligarchy system and this led to?
  • The rise of Tyranny an authoritarian form of
    government where one man seizes power and rules
    single-handedly
  • Some Tyrants were good for their city-states
    while others were cruel and power hungry
  • Tyrants were rulers who were not subject to the
    lawthey could do anything they wanted
  • Should rulers/leaders/politicians be above the
    law?
  • In the Greek city-state of Athens, tyranny did
    not last longsoon Athenians were asking for more
    say in the way their city was run.
  • They rejected authoritarian forms of government,
    such as tyranny, chieftains, or kings
  • They developed a form of government where all
    adult males were members of an assembly, or
    legislature. We call this form of government?
  • Democracy democracy is 2 Greek
    wordsdemospeople and cracygovernment.
  • Democracy then means rule of the people
  • Women, in Greece, were not allowed to participate
    in law-making
  • In fact, women were not even allowed to eat at
    the same table as their husbands

9
  • The male citizens of Athens met about 40 times a
    year to debate and decide public issues.
  • They declared war, signed treaties, and spent
    taxesmaybe thats why they didnt allow
    womenIm just kidding!
  • So, from the lowliest worker to the richest man
    all had the right to vote, to hold public office,
    and to express his opinion in the assembly.
  • Clearly, such a system was based on the belief
    that the average citizen was capable of
    participating intelligently in the affairs of
    state.
  • The greatest Athenian statesman Pericles said
  • Our constitution is called a democracy because
    power
  • is in the hands of the many and not the
    few

Pericles and other men meeting in the assembly
Pericles
A modern Greek drachma coin
10
  • The ideals of the democratic state could only
    have happened in a society that had a respect for
    human intelligence and the power of reason.
  • The Greeks were the first people to try to
    explain nature, human behavior, and culture,
    scientifically.
  • Earlier peoples, including Greeks, had
    interpreted the worldnaturethrough myths.

There was a human named Narcissus. He was so
handsome that every girl or boy that saw him
immediately fell in love with him. But Narcissus
had no heart and loved no one. One day, Echo met
Narcissus and fell in love with him. Echo could
not speak to him, but she had felt she needed to
see him. So Echo followed him, just enough to see
him, but not enough to be seen. Narcissus became
lost and called out, "Is anyone here?" Echo said,
"Here, here, here." Narcissus told whoever was
there to come out. Echo came out and, because she
couldn't talk, used her hands to show Narcissus
how much she loved him. Narcissus, annoyed that
so many people liked him, rejected her love.
Echo, heart-broken, prayed to Aphrodite for
death. Her prayer was answered, but Aphrodite
loved her voice, so she let her voice live on.
An example of a mythhow do you explain an echo?
11
How did humans discover fire? According to the
ancient Greeks
  • Prometheus is the Titan chiefly honored for
    stealing fire from Zeus in the stalk of a fennel
    plant and giving it to mortal humans for their
    use. For that, Zeus ordered him to be chained on
    top of the Caucasus mountains. Every day an eagle
    would come and eat his liver, but since
    Prometheus was immortal, his liver always grew
    back, so he was left to bear the pain every day.
    He is depicted as an intelligent and cunning
    figure who had sympathy for humanity.

Prometheus bound up
Prometheus bringing fire
Prometheus statue in New Yorks Rockefeller Centre
12
Lets get back to reason, science and human
potential
  • The first Greek philosophers were not satisfied
    in explaining nature, and how it worked, to be
    the actions of the godslightning was not Zeus
    throwing bolts from Mt. Olympus.
  • Instead, all things in the Natural World followed
    predictable patterns, which they called Natural
    Laws.
  • The rules of nature could be discovered by human
    beings through careful observation and reasoned
    enquiry.
  • Socrates was the first of the three great
    Athenian philosophers (the other two are Plato
    and Aristotle).

When Socrates was in his forties or so, he began
to feel an urge to think about the world around
him, and try to answer some difficult questions.
He asked, "What is wisdom?" and "What is beauty?"
and "What is the right thing to do?" He knew that
these questions were hard to answer, and he
thought it would be better to have a lot of
people discuss the answers together, so that they
might come up with more ideas. So he began to go
around Athens asking people he met these
questions, "What is wisdom?... Sometimes the
people just said they were busy, but sometimes
they would try to answer him. Then Socrates would
try to teach them to think better by asking them
more questions which showed them the problems in
their logic. Often this made people angry.
Sometimes they even tried to beat him up.
We do not have any pictures of himjust
sculptureshe was supposed to be pretty ugly!
13
  • Socrates loved Philosophy the love of wisdom.
  • He taught a number of studentsnot for payhe
    believed the role of education was to improve the
    individualhe questioned everything!
  • His questioning of authority led him into trouble
    with the leaders of Athensdoes this sound like
    Antigone?
  • He was tried and found guilty of treasonand
    sentenced to death by hemlock poisoning.

The Death of Socrates
14
  • One of Socrates students was PLATOprobably the
    greatest philosopher in western civilization.
  • When Plato was a young man, he went to listen to
    Socrates, and learned a lot from Socrates about
    how to think, and what sort of questions to think
    about.
  • Plato began to write down his own ideas about
    philosophy instead of just writing down Socrates'
    ideas.
  • One of his earlier works/book is The Republic,
    which describes what Plato thought would be a
    better form of government than the government of
    Athens.
  • Plato thought that most people were pretty
    stupid, and so they should not be voting about
    what to do.can you blame him? And, he hadnt
    even met my mother-in-law!
  • Instead, the best people should be chosen to be
    the guardians of the rest.
  • Plato was from a rich aristocratic family, so he
    probably considered himself among the best
    people!.
  • Plato believed that for society to work it needs
    to have orderOrder gives stability
  • Law and justice give order and stability

House point challenge What was the Academy?
15
  • One of the ways Plato tried to explain his ideas
    was with the famous metaphor of the cave. He
    said, Suppose there is a cave, and inside the
    cave there are some men chained up to a wall, so
    that they can only see the back wall of the cave
    and nothing else. These men can't see anything
    outside of the cave, or even see each other
    clearly, but they can see shadows of what is
    going on outside the cave. Wouldn't these
    prisoners come to think that the shadows were
    real, and that was what things really looked
    like?
  • Suppose now that one of the men escaped, and got
    out of the cave, and saw what real people looked
    like, and real trees and grass. If he went back
    to the cave and told the other men what he had
    seen, would they believe him, or would they think
    he was crazy?
  • Plato says that we are like those men sitting in
    the cave we think we understand the real world,
    but because we are trapped in our bodies we can
    see only the shadows on the wall.
  • One of his goals is to help us understand the
    real world better, by finding ways to predict or
    understand the real world even without being able
    to see it.

What is truth?
What is reality?
16
  • Lets finish Plato with a quick look at one of
    the most important works in literature
  • The Republic
  • In The Republic he writes about the perfect form
    of government
  • He didnt like democracy because he didnt think
    people were ETHICAL.
  • House point challenge what do the following
    meanETHICAL, WISDOM, COURAGE and MORAL?
  • In The Republic Plato divides society into three
  • A. at the topphilosopher kings who were
    inspired by wisdom
  • B. second groupwarriors who protected society
  • C. the restthe masses, people who are not
    driven by wisdom or courage but by a desire
    for material things stuff
  • Very important and you must remember
    itor!!!
  • PLATO BELIEVED THE NEEDS OF THE COMMUNITY,
    NOT THE HAPPINESS OF THE INDIVIDUAL WAS THE MOST
    IMPORTANT THING

17
  • ARISTOTLE was a student of Plato
  • Unlike Platowho believed in a perfect state
    Aristotle did not think a perfect state could
    exist
  • He examined a lot of different kinds of
    government around at that time
  • House point challenge identify and explain what
    the following governments are
  • CONSTITUTIONAL GOVERNMENT
  • MONARCHY
  • ARISTOCRACY
  • OLIGARCHIES
  • TYRANNIES
  • DEMOCRACIES
  • REPUBLICS
  • 10 POINTS FOR EACH ONE
  • Aristotle favored constitutional monarchy
  • Dont get mad
  • He believed women were inferior to men and
    should be subordinate in marriage and society

18
  • As we finish with the Greeks lets remember one
    of their greatest achievements
  • They questioned the old ways of looking at the
    world.
  • Over time, every aspect of Greek civilization
    science, art, literature, drama, and politics
    showed a growing reliance on reason and inquiry
    and less dependence on the supernatural or
    traditional explanations
  • With this achievement, the Greeks broke
    decisively with the past.

19
Let us do a comparison between two Greek
city-states
ATHENS
SPARTA
  • Democracyall citizens (free males)
    participated in government activities
  • All citizens were equal before the law
  • Women and slaves were denied citizenship
  • Young Athenians developed their artistic, and
    intellectual sides.
  • Philosophy, mathematics, science, and drama
    flourished.
  • Pursued individual wealth
  • Individuality very important
  • Individual quest for happiness important
  • Totalitarianism a form of government that uses
    force and power to rule its own people.
  • Spartan society was divided into 3 groups
  • 1. slavesprovided food and labor
  • 2. womentaught to be fit, brave, patriotic, and
    make babies for Sparta
  • 3. Menall became warriors
  • Newborn babies judged to be weak were killed
  • Boys at the age of 7 were taken from home to live
    in army barracks and received military training
  • They were barefoot and wore minimal clothing to
    toughen them up
  • Gave up wealth as unpatriotic
  • Spartan men glorified war!
  • No room for individuality
  • State before the individual is most important

20
The following modern quotes are more like Athens
or Sparta? All development is struggle Only
force rules all men are created
equal liberty and the pursuit of
happiness history has been determined by the
principle of force and power governments
derive their power from the consent of the
governed Two men are responsible for these
quotes. One stressed equality and democracy. The
other stressed totalitarianismstate before
individual. House point challenge who were they?
What does this political cartoon have to do with
what we are learning?
21
Let us jump ahead, from the Greeks to the Romans
  • We have seen how the ancient Greeks contributed
    to the development of WESTERN CIVILIZATIONIndivid
    ualism, science, government, drama, architecture,
    art, philosophy, exploration, and innovation.
  • The Romans contributed to the development of
    Western Civilization too
  • The center of this civilization was the city of
    Rome, in Italy.

22
  • The Romans set up a REPUBLIC a form of
    government without a king or queen the term
    "republic" is generally applied to a state where
    the government's political power depends solely
    on the consent of the people governed.
  • The Roman republic grew to be a great power by
    conquering lands and then bringing the conquered
    peoples into its system
  • Everyone wanted to be a Roman citizen!
  • While the Greeks lived in small city-states, each
    governed by different laws, the Romans controlled
    an enormous amount of territory.

House point challenge What language did the
Romans speak? What modern languages are derived
from _ _ _ _ _? What did Romans use for toilet
paper?
23
  • The Romans allowed conquered peoples to keep
    their cultures and traditions, butthey
    established one system of laws for the whole
    empire.
  • Romans, like the Greeks, believed laws should be
    based on principles of Reason and Justice and
    should protect citizens and property.
  • An example of a Roman lawsee if you recognize
    it No one should suffer a penalty for what he
    thinks.
  • House point challenge what similarity can you
    see between this law and the first amendment to
    the US constitution?
  • Here is another one in inflicting penalties,
    the age of the guilty party must be taken into
    account
  • NATURAL LAW
  • Like the Greeks, the Romans believed the RULES OF
    NATURE could be discovered by careful observation
    show me you understand by writing an example.
  • The Romans also believed that all human beings
    were born alike and should all be subject to the
    same moral laws and principles
  • Human laws SHOULD agree with natural law.that
    isall people are born with certain natural
    rights that NO government can take away, or deny.
  • Now give me examples of natural rights

24
JUST THREE OF THE EMPERORS WE WILL NOT BE
STUDYINGWHAT A SHAME, BECAUSE BORING THEY ARE NOT
25
  • CITIZENSHIPWHAT IS IT?
  • During Roman times a person was proud to say I
    am a Roman citizen
  • Roman citizenship was a kind of invisible shield
    of respect.
  • It meant that the citizen was protected by the
    laws of the Roman Empire.
  • Men and women could be citizens.
  • Of course, only male citizens could hold public
    officethey were also expected to fight for Rome.
  • The idea of CITIZENSHIP, like many of our basic
    ideas of government, began with the ancient Greek
    city-states and the Roman Republic.
  • When people had both rights and responsibilities
    in their communities, people became citizens.
  • As we will see in the next unitAmerican and
    French Revolutionsmodern states developed and
    the term citizen became common again.
  • All modern states not just democratic ones- have
    citizens, though their rights and
    responsibilities vary.
  • In general, citizens are expected to be loyal to
    the nation, obey its laws, pay taxes, and perhaps
    give military service.
  • In return, the state is supposed to protect its
    citizens.
  • House point challenge With the other members of
    your house discuss the rights/things you
    have/receive from our governmentand list them.
  • Discuss, and list, the rights/things you think we
    should have, but dont.

26
  • The Judeo-Christian Tradition
  • Ancient Greece and Rome are two sources of
    Western democratic ideals.
  • A third source is the Judeo-Christian Tradition
  • The ancient HEBREWS had, by about 1000 B.C.
    established the State of Israelalso know as
    Judea.
  • They were the first people to believe in
    monotheismthe belief in one God.
  • They set down their laws and traditions in a
    sacred bookThe Bible, or The Torah.it is also
    known as The Old Testament.
  • The Hebrews, or Jews as they would become known
    asthey came from Judea.
  • They believed in one God, a God that is perfect,
    all-knowing, all powerful, and eternal.
  • Earlier peopleslike the Greeks and
    Romansbelieved in many gods.
  • The Hebrews/Jews believed that it was Gods wish
    for people to live moral lives.

27
  • Hebrew alphabet ?    ?    ?    ?    ?    ??    ? 
       ?    ?    ?? ?    ??    ??    ?    ?    ??
    ??    ?    ?    ?    ?

28
  • The Hebrew scripturesthe Biblestate that human
    beings are created in Gods image.
  • This meant within each human being is a divine
    sparksoulwhich gives everyone a dignity that
    cannot be taken away.
  • For the Greeks and Romans human beings had
    dignity because they had the ability to reason.
  • For the Hebrews, each person had dignity simply
    by being a child of God.
  • The Hebrews believed that God had given humans
    moral freedomthe capacity to choose between good
    and evil.
  • Therefore, each person was responsible for the
    choices he or she made.
  • And thats why God gave the Hebrews the 10
    Commandmentsto live a moral life.
  • The spiritual leaders of the Hebrews were the
    prophetsmessengers of God.
  • The prophets attacked war, oppression, and greed.
  • The Hebrews believed all people have the right to
    be treated with justice and dignity.
  • They believed that it is the responsibility of
    every person to denounce injustice and oppression
    and the community should assist the poor and
    unfortunate.
  • The prophets held out the hope that life on earth
    could be improved, that poverty and injustice
    need not be accepted
  • And, every individual was capable of living to a
    high moral standard.

29
  • Moses with the 10 Commandments.

You shall not murder. You shall not commit
adultery. You shall not steal
3 examples
The movie
The sculpture
30
  • In the first century a Jewish Rabbiteachernamed
    Jesus was traveling throughout Israel preaching.
  • Israel had been conquered by the Romans and had
    become a province of Romeno longer an
    independent state.
  • The Romans changed the name of Israel to
    Palestineafter the Philistines, Israels enemy.
  • Jesus adopted much of the Prophets moral
    outlook.
  • Like them, he believed human beings were Gods
    children and were judged according to high moral
    standards.
  • Like them, he spoke out against injustice.
  • Like them, he saw morality as the essence of
    Jewish faith ..do unto others only what you
    would have done to yourself
  • The early Christians were Jews.
  • Unlike the other sects of Jews, the Christians
    were evangeliststhey wanted to spread their
    beliefs to all people.
  • Christian missionaries worked throughout the
    Roman Empire to convert people to Christianity.
  • And so, from the Judeo-Christian tradition there
    emerged several ideals that have been crucial to
    the shaping of a democratic outlook
  • The sacred worth of the individual
  • The duty of the individual and of the community
    to combat oppression
  • And the equality of people before God.
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