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Bradley Veile

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Title: PowerPoint Presentation Author: Brad & Rhonda Veile Last modified by: Ilana Kennedy Signon Created Date: 10/9/2004 6:33:11 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Bradley Veile


1
Overview of the Holocaust
Bradley Veile Holocaust Museum Fellow Alfred
Lerner Fellow veile.brad_at_lakesidesch.org
2
Holocaust
  • Refers to a specific genocidal event in the 20th
    century history
  • Defined
  • the state-sponsored systematic persecution and
    annihilation of European Jewry by Nazi Germany
    and its collaborators between 1933 and 1945 -
    USHMM

3
Hitler Rise
Germany
  • Multi-party system
  • National Elections
  • Nazi party wins plurality of 33
  • Hindenburg names Hitler chancellor
  • Constitutional freedoms suspended
  • Rejected Austrian artist
  • WW I veteran
  • Treaty of Versailles
  • Beer Hall Putchz
  • Leader of the National Socialist German Workers
    Party (Nazi)

4
Targeted Groups
  • Jews
  • Soviet Prisoners
  • Sinti and Roma
  • Handicapped
  • Jehovah Witnesses
  • Communists and enemies of the state
  • Homosexuals and a-socials

5
But wont there be a negative outcry from world
leaders?
  • Who, after all, speaks of the annihilation of
    the Armenians? Adolf Hitler

6
Selected Nazi Legislation - 1930s
  • 1933
  • One day boycott of Jewish shop
  • 1935
  • Nuremberg Laws
  • Jews lost citizenship
  • Jew/Aryan marriage outlawed
  • 1938
  • Jews carry ID cards
  • Jewish street names replaced
  • Passports marked with J
  • Jews barred from streets on Nazi holidays
  • 1939
  • Curfew for Jews
  • Jews turn in radios
  • Polish Jews required to wear Star of David
  • All Jews must have a Jewish first name Sarah or
    Israel added if necessary

7
Selected Nazi Legislation 1940s
  • 1940
  • German Jews into protective custody
  • Income tax to support Nazi party
  • 1941
  • German Jews wear Star of David
  • Police permission needed to leave residence
  • Friendly relations with Jews prohibited
  • 1942
  • Turn in all wool and fur clothing
  • Apartments marked as Jewish
  • Not use public transportation
  • Not buy meat, eggs, milk
  • Not have birds, dogs, cats, etc.
  • Blind deaf not wear identifying armbands in
    traffic
  • 1943
  • Jewish criminals sent to extermination camps

8
KristallnachtNovember 1938
  • 91 people killed others beaten, 30,000 arrested
  • 1 billion RM fine on Jews
  • Jews pay own repairs
  • FDR recall US Ambassador to Germany
  • Attache von Rathe shot and killed by Grynszpan, a
    Jew
  • Demonstrations end with Jewish shops destroyed
    and looted
  • 267 Synagogues burned or desecrated

9
Nazi Propaganda
The Poisonous Mushroom
"The result! A loss of racial pride."
10
Eugenics
  • Selective breeding basis for Master Race
  • Sterilize unfit parents and potential parents
  • Euthanize life unworthy of life
  • Operation T-4
  • Disabled killed
  • Starve, injections, gassings

Cemetery at Hadamar
11
Refugee Issue
  • So who will take in the Jews?

12
Kinder Transports December 1938 September 1939
  • 10,000 unaccompanied Jewish children enter Great
    Britain
  • Children from Germany, Austria, Czechoslovakia
  • Most never see parents again
  • Many were converted to Christianity

Children in the Netherlands shortly before
evacuation to London
13
Voyage of the St. LouisMay 1939
  • Departed Hamburg for Havana - May 15, 1939
  • 937 passengers almost all Jewish
  • 29 allowed into Cuba
  • Ship forced to leave Cuba
  • Passengers eventually divided between
  • England Netherlands
  • France Belgium
  • Most killed by Nazis

Passengers attempt to communicate with friends
and relatives in Cuba
14
EvianJuly 1939
  • Meeting called by FDR
  • Resort on Lake Geneva
  • 32 Countries attend
  • Discuss Jewish Refugees
  • No country was willing to accept refugees
  • Costa Rica and Dominican Republic would accept a
    small number for a large sum of money

postcard of Evian-les-Bains
Green Light Go New York Times
15
Nazi Goal Expansion for Lebensraum Living
Space
  • Rhineland
  • Austrian Anschluss
  • Sudetenland
  • Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact
  • Invasion of Poland WW II begins

16
Wannsee Conference January 20, 1942
  • Villa in a affluent suburb of Berlin
  • Meeting lasts less than 90 minutes
  • 15 officials 8 have PHDs
  • Euphemisms
  • Special treatment
  • Bath house
  • Arbeit Macht Frei
  • Final solution

Villa at Wannsee
17
Resettlement to the East
  • Crowded cattle cars
  • One suitcase of belongings
  • People gathered
  • volunteers
  • forced
  • actions
  • transit centers
  • ghettos
  • Destination
  • ghettos
  • camps

Train car used in transport - Yad Vashem
18
Ghettos
  • Ghettos established by decree on Sept. 21, 1939
  • Goals
  • Isolation
  • Forced labor
  • Access murder/deportation
  • Conditions
  • Life directed by Judenrat
  • Overcrowded
  • Unsanitary/disease infested
  • Starvation rations

Warsaw Ghetto Wall
Street in Warsaw Ghetto
19
Types of Camps
  • Concentration
  • Forced-labor
  • Transit
  • Extermination or Death Camps

20
Dachauestablished March 22, 1933
Barracks with beautification project line
of trees on the right
21
Mauthausenestablished August 8, 1938
Stairs of Death
Carrying stones up the Stairs of Death
22
WesterborkGerman control July 21 , 1942
Train depot inside the camp
Camp blueprint
23
Auschwitz-Birkenauestablished May 20, 1940
Zyklon B Label used for gassings
Aerial view of Birkenau
24
Perpetrators
  • Nazi SS Schutzstaffel
  • Death Heads Unit
  • Heinrich Himmler
  • Adolf Eichmann
  • Joseph Mengele
  • Einsatzgruppen
  • Special action group
  • 3000 troops in 4 units
  • Goal make German controlled areas judenrein

Heinrich Himmler
25
Einsaztgruppen
Execution of a group of Soviet civilians
Execution of a Ukrainian Jew
26
Collaborators
  • Indigenous police forces in France and
    Netherlands
  • Hungarian troops/fascists
  • Slovakian Hlinka Guard
  • Ustasa Croatian Nationalists
  • Anti-Soviet elements in
  • Ukraine
  • Estonia
  • Latvia
  • Lithuania

Ustasa militia execute prisoners near Jasenovac
camp
27
Bystanders
  • Person who is present, without being involved, at
    an incident where another life or dignity is in
    danger
  • Did people living near camps know what was
    happening?
  • What actions could have been taken to stop the
    Holocaust?
  • What risks were involved in taking a stand
    against the Nazis?

Two German women file past corpses at newly
liberated Buchenwald
28
Victims
  • Not all victims were Jews but, all Jews were
    victims Wiesel
  • 6,000,000 Jews
  • 3,000,000 Soviet POWs
  • 3,000,000 Catholic Poles
  • 700,000 Serbs
  • 250,000 Sinti Roma
  • 70,000 Handicapped
  • 12,000 Homosexual
  • 2,500 Jehovah Winesses
  • Each number is an INDIVIDUAL with goals, dreams,
    and families

Mania Halef, age 2 killed at Babi Yar
29
Resistance
  • Opposition to Hitler and Nazi ideology took many
    different paths which shared a common
    destination.

30
Partisans
  • Underground
  • Oppose Nazis
  • Many were anti-Semitic
  • Selective membership
  • Bielski Brigade
  • Open Jewish membership
  • Included all ages and genders
  • White Rose
  • Students at University of Munich
  • Various Political Factions

Kalinin Jewish partisan unit (Bielski group)
31
Spiritual
  • Prayer Groups
  • Torah Studies
  • Religious Services
  • Kosher Tradition
  • Observance of Holidays
  • Religious Literature
  • Maintain the will to live

clandestine school in the Kovno ghetto
32
Cultural
  • Art
  • Music
  • Concerts
  • Cabarets
  • Operas
  • Plays
  • Literature
  • Schools/Libraries
  • Language
  • Yiddish
  • Hebrew

prisoners' orchestra in Buchenwald
33
Hiding
  • Bunkers
  • Concerns
  • Health
  • Age
  • Supplies
  • Secrecy
  • Assistance
  • Denouncing
  • Generosity of Others

hiding place for Dutch Jews
34
Passing
  • Physical appearance
  • Cultural norms
  • Language
  • New residency
  • Name
  • Family history
  • Societal expectations

Vladka Meed in Warsaw
35
Righteous Among the Nations
  • Gentiles who risked their own lives to save Jews
    honored at Yad Vashem
  • Raoul Wallenberg
  • Oskar Schindler
  • Corrie Ten Boom
  • Miep Gies
  • Varian Fry (only American)

Raoul Wallenberg
Oskar Schindler with Ludmila Pfefferberg-Page
36
Hiding/Destroying Evidence
  • Distribution of confiscated belongings
  • Transport stockpiled belongings and valuables
  • Dismantle camps
  • Physical destruction of Auschwitz-Birkenau
    crematoriums

Destroyed Crematorium in Birkenau
37
Death Marches
  • Forced marches to interior of the German Reich
  • killed for impeding progress
  • Death toll 250,000 - 375,000
  • Starvation Wounded
  • Sick Exposure
  • Those considered unable to survive the march left
    behind
  • Otto Frank in Auschwitz

death march from Dachau to Wolfratshausen
38
Now the world knows
  • Russia Majdanek July 23, 1944
  • Auschwitz January 27, 1945
  • British Bergen-Belsen April 15, 1945
  • America Dachau April 29, 1945
  • Germany Hitler suicide April 30, 1945
  • America Mauthausen May 5, 1945
  • VE Day WW II Ends May 8, 1945

39
After the War
40
Displaced persons
  • Those who did not want to be repatriated placed
    in DP Camps
  • German Army barracks
  • POW camps
  • Concentration Camps
  • Bergen-Belsen
  • Dachau
  • 1957 Last DP Camp closed - located in Belgium

vocational training in displaced persons camp
41
Bringing perpetrators to justice
Nuremberg defendants
Eichmann receives death sentence in Jerusalem
Amon Goeth Plaszow camp
  • International military tribunal
  • Crimes against humanity peace War
    crimes Conspiracy
  • 161 convictions
  • Trials within individual countries

42
Some Holocaust Legacies
  • Anti-Semitism
  • Common tie between hate groups
  • White supremacist organizations
  • Political ideologies tied to Nazi Philosophy
  • Hate Crimes
  • Establishment of Israel
  • UN acknowledgement of genocidal issues
  • Importance of civil rights and individual
    freedoms
  • Human Rights Organizations
  • Holocaust Centers and Museums

43
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meansNever Again
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