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Fatigue and driving

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Fatigue and driving What is fatigue? Subjective experience of sleepiness, tiredness, lack of energy that cause decrease in performance and arousal. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Fatigue and driving


1
Fatigue and driving
2
What is fatigue?
  • Subjective experience of sleepiness, tiredness,
    lack of energy that cause decrease in performance
    and arousal.
  • Five dimensions
  • Lack of energy
  • Physical exertion
  • Physical discomfort
  • Lack of motivation
  • Sleepiness

3
What is fatigue?
  • Fatigue is NOT equal to lack of sleep
  • Even after a full night sleep a monotonous
    driving task can lead to fatigue
  • Both being overload ( situational demands are
    higher than the fitness of the driver) and
    underload ( situational demands are lower than
    the fitness of the driver) can lead to fatigue
    among drivers (Oron-Gilad et al., 2002)

4
Effects of fatigue on driving
  • Fatigue especially impair attention and vigilance
    of drivers
  • Slower reaction times
  • Difficulty in estimation of speeds and headways
  • Reduced attention to road signs
  • Crossing a traffic light without noticing its
    color

5
Fatigue and accidents
  • The 2.7 of all fatal accidents occured due to
    fatigue, sleepiness and ilness in the US (NHTSA,
    2009)
  • Fatigue related accidents are underestimated
    because it is more difficult to detect fatigue

6
Sagberg, 1999
7
Objective mesaures of fatigue
  • Sleep deprivation
  • Not having enough sleep
  • Decrease detection of peripheral targets (Roge et
    al., 2003)
  • Circadian rhythm
  • Natural cycle of wakefullness
  • Sleepiness is greatest between 2am and 6am and
    increase slightly again early afternoon
  • Especially long-disrtance drivers who drive at
    nights and young drivers have more fatigue
    related crashes

8
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9
FMCSA, 2009
10
Objective mesaures of fatigue
  • Hours of driving
  • As the hours of driving increase, drivers showed
    a reduced detection to the targets that deviated
    from the center of the visual field (Roge et al.,
    2003)
  • Distance driven
  • Longer distances increase the likelihood of
    fatigue-related crashes

11
Physiological indicators of fatigue
  • EEG recordings
  • increase in alpha and theta waves indicates
    fatigue
  • Blinking behavior
  • When fatigued blink rate increases and amplitude
    of eye opening decrease
  • Heart rate variability

12
Fatigue and crash involvement
  • It is hard to assess the contribution of fatigue
    to crashes but fatigue related crashes are
  • more severe and fatal crashes especially the ones
    on dark and rural roads
  • more likely to be running off the road crashes
  • more likely to happen early morning hours
  • more likely to involve long vehicles

13
Fatigue and crash involvement
  • Fatigue vs alcohol
  • Effect of approximately 14-16 hours of sleep
    deprivation on driving performance is equivalent
    to the effect of 0.10 alcohol

14
Risk groups for fatigue-related crashes
  • Males
  • Young drivers
  • Drivers with untreated and unrecognized sleep
    disorders
  • E.g., insomnia, sleep apnea, narcolepsy...
  • Shift workers
  • Professional drivers

15
Fatigue countermeasures
  • Management of sleep, and napping
  • On long trips having short naps (10-20 minutes)
    is a effective way
  • Drivers behavioral strategies. For example,
  • Listening to radio
  • Talking to a passenger
  • Drinking a coffee
  • Sometimes driver need to increase their cognitive
    load

16
Fatigue countermeasures
  • Drinking coffee
  • Most effective when combined with a short nap
  • Environmental countermeasures
  • Providing drivers with rest areas
  • Putting rumble stripes to the road to reduce
    drive-off-the road crashes
  • Fatigue detection and warning systems in the cars
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