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Observing the Earth using Technology

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Observing the Earth using Technology COS 10 Bullet 1 Describe technology used to investigate Earth. (Examples: sonar, radar, seismograph, weather balloons.) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Observing the Earth using Technology


1
Observing the Earth using Technology
  • COS 10 Bullet 1
  • Describe technology used to investigate Earth.
    (Examples sonar, radar, seismograph, weather
    balloons.)

2
The History of Observing Objects from Afar
  • Navigators began experi-menting with ways to
    observe the stars and planets during the
    nineteenth century.

3
  • One example to obtain long-range photographs was
    to attach a camera to a pigeon.

4
  • During the American Civil War, balloons were
    lifted during battles to see the placement of
    enemy troops.

5
  • During the First World War, unarmed observation
    planes would take off with a camera strapped to
    the undercarriage.

6
  • As technology progressed, it became possible to
    use Sonar, Radar, the seismograph, and orbiting
    satellites.

7
  • SONAR
  • SONAR is an acronym for SOund NAvigation and R
    anging. 

SONAR   is a technique that uses sounds under
water to navigate, communicate or to detect other
vessels.
8
Exploration by SONAR
Sonar image of the USS Monitor on the ocean
floor.
  • Shipping lanes on the nation's waterways are
    continually shifting. Surveyors create maps of
    the bottom of rivers, lakes, and oceans using
    Sonar. No matter the method used, the resulting
    maps are used to aid in maritime navigation,
    scientific research, sports, and mineral
    exploration.

9
  • Surveyors observe the oceans floor for
    volcanoes and other features that stick up above
    the surrounding seafloor.

http//www.punaridge.org/doc/factoids/DigitalData/
Default.htm
10
RADAR is an acronym that stands for RAdio
Detection And Ranging.
  • Radar is a system that uses electromagnetic
    waves to identify the range, altitude, direction,
    or speed of both moving and fixed objects such as
    air craft, ships, motor vehicles, weather
    formations, and terrain.

11
  • A transmitter emits radio waves, which are
    reflected by the target and detected by a
    receiver, typically in the same location as the
    transmitter.

12
  • A weather Radar consists of a parabolic dish (it
    looks like a satellite dish) encased in a
    protective dome and mounted on a tower of up to
    five stories tall.

Exploration by Radar
Example of a Radar image
13
  • A meteorologist uses images that are received by
    Radar to give information about the weather.
    When looking at a weather map, a meteorologist
    needs to know where the cold air is, where the
    warm air is, where it is raining, what type of
    clouds are in the area, and many more things..
    Forecasts need to be timely and accurate and
    radars give meteorologists detailed information
    very quickly.

14
  • This is a location map for the Radar sites.

15
  • Earthquakes generate seismic waves which can be
    detected with a sensitive instrument called a
    seismograph.

http//www.thetech.org/exhibits/online/quakes/seis
mo/
16
http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seismograph
  • This is a Strong Motion seismometer that
    measures acceleration. This model is a K2 made by
    Kinemetrics and part of the Pacific Northwest
    Seismograph Network.

17
http//www.answers.com/topic/kinemetrics-seismogra
ph-jpg
  • Seismometers measure and record the size and
    force of seismic waves. By studying seismic
    waves, geologists can map the interior of the
    Earth, and measure and locate earthquakes and
    other ground motions.

18
http//cse.ssl.berkeley.edu/lessons/indiv/davis/hs
/Seismograph.html
  • Ever since people first became curious about
    earthquakes, they have tried to design some kind
    of seismograph. This seismograph can be built
    will some simple materials.

19
  • A weather or sounding balloon is a balloon which
    carries instruments aloft to send back
    information on atmospheric pressure, temperature,
    and humidity by means of a small, expendable
    measuring device called a radiosonde.

Close up of a hydrogen filled balloon at
Cambridge Bay Upper Air station, Nunavut, Canada
http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weather_balloon
20
  • Twice a day, every day of the year, weather
    balloons are released simultaneously from almost
    900 locations worldwide! 
  • This includes 92 released by the National
    Weather Service in the US and its territories. 

21
  • As the balloon climbs it encounters lower air
    pressure which causes it to expand to many times
    its original size. Eventually the balloon bursts
    and the radiosonde falls back to the surface.

The Balloon-Borne Sounding System or BBSS
22
  • A radiosonde measures various atmospheric
    parameters and transmits them to a fixed
    receiver.

The radiosonde that falls back to the Earths
surface.
23
  • As technology progressed, it became possible to
    use orbiting satellites.

The United States launched its first weather
satellite, TIROS 1, in 1960.
http//space.skyrocket.de/index_frame.htm?http//w
ww.skyrocket.de/space/doc_sdat/tiros.htm
24
http//noaasis.noaa.gov/NOAASIS/ml/genlsatl.html
  • GOES (Geostationary Orbiting Environmental
    Satellite) orbit the earth at the same rate that
    the earth rotates. It always sees the same area
    of the earth and stays at the same point over the
    equator.

25
  • POES (polar orbiting environmental satellite)
    scans the earth from north to south. As the
    earth rotates on its axis, the satellite is able
    to scan an area farther to the west with each
    pass.

http//noaasis.noaa.gov/NOAASIS/ml/genlsatl.html
26
www.primidi.com/images/cosmic_satellites.jpg
www.newscientist.com/.../dn9311/dn9311-1_600.jpg
  • Scientists use the information that they acquire
    from Space for geology studies, agriculture
    studies, meteorology, etc.

27
  • The moon is Earths only natural satellite.
    Observing the moon can be accomplished by using a
    variety of instruments ranging from the naked eye
    to large telescopes.

Moon as seen through a telescope
Moon as seen with a pair of binoculars
Moon as seen with the naked eye
http//www.netaxs.com/mhmyers/moon.tn.html
http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Observing_the_Moon
http//www.etsu.edu/physics/etsuobs/starprty/21200
mwc/moontour.html
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