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Health, Age, and Labor Force Disruption of Older Workers

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Title: Aging in North Carolina Author: borasky Created Date: 6/26/2001 5:15:31 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show Company: UNC Institute on Aging – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Health, Age, and Labor Force Disruption of Older Workers


1
Health, Age, and Labor Force Disruption of Older
Workers
Victor W. Marshall, Ph.D.Director, UNC Institute
on Aging
Aging is Good Business The Silvering Workforce
UNC GreensboroApril 8, 2009
2
Overview of Presentation
  • Aging of Population and Graying of the Workforce
  • Why older workers want to stay employed
  • Why we need to facilitate employment of older
    workers
  • Stereotypes about Older Workers and Health
  • Health and Labor Force Participation
  • What we need to do

3
Trends in Workforce Aging
  • Global Aging of Populations
  • US population is relatively younger
  • high numbers of younger immigrants
  • higher fertility rates than U.S. born population
  • decrease the median age
  • Median age of the US labor force increasing
  • 1986- 35.4
  • 2006 -40.8
  • 2016- 42.1 ( projected)

4
U.S. Population Pyramids
2000
2020
Source of charts U.S. Census Bureau, 65 in the
United States 2005, December 2005.
5
Projected Population Changes 2005-2025
  • The population age 25-54 will grow from about 126
    million to almost 131 million.
  • The population age 55 and over will grow at a
    much faster rate, from about 67 million to nearly
    105 million.

Source Patrick Purcell, Older Workers
Employment and Retirement Trends, CRS Report for
Congress, September 14, 2005.
6
Employment Trends Ages 25-54 Labor Force
Participation Rates, 1950-2005
Sources of data Patrick Purcell, Older Workers
Employment and Retirement Trends, CRS Report for
Congress, September 14, 2005 U.S. Census Bureau,
Statistical Abstract of the United States, 2007.
7
Employment Trends Ages 55-64 Labor Force
Participation Rates, 1950-2005
Sources of data Patrick Purcell, Older Workers
Employment and Retirement Trends, CRS Report for
Congress, September 14, 2005 U.S. Census Bureau,
Statistical Abstract of the United States, 2007.
8
Employment Trends Ages 65 Labor Force
Participation Rates, 1950-2005
Sources of data Patrick Purcell, Older Workers
Employment and Retirement Trends, CRS Report for
Congress, September 14, 2005 U.S. Census Bureau,
Statistical Abstract of the United States, 2007.
9
Percent Increase in Employment by Age and Gender,
1977-2007
Greater increase in older workers, older female
workers.
10
Projected Graying of the Workforce

11
Older Workers Expect to Stay in the Workforce
  • 70 to 75 of Americans expect to work to some
    extent after retirement (Merrill Lynch,
    2005Rutgers, 2008).
  • With deteriorating economic conditions 45 of
    Americans believe they will retire at a later age
    than they originally expected (Gallup, 2008)

12
Older Workers Profile
  • Older workers tend to be healthier, more
    prosperous, and better educated than their
    retired counterparts.
  • Many factors influence decisions to remain in the
    labor force.
  • Individual or family financial situations, based
    on general economic conditions, access to Social
    Security and pension benefits, and the
    availability of health insurance.
  • Personal situations, e.g., health and their
    enjoyment of work.

Sources Patrick Purcell, Older Workers
Employment and Retirement Trends, CRS Report for
Congress, September 14, 2005 U.S. Census Bureau,
65 in the United States 2005, December 2005.
13
Older Workers and non-traditional work
arrangements
  • As they transition to retirement, older workers
    are more likely to work part-time, be
    self-employed, or engage in other nontraditional
    employment arrangements.

Sources Patrick Purcell, Older Workers
Employment and Retirement Trends, CRS Report for
Congress, September 14, 2005 U.S. Census Bureau,
65 in the United States 2005, December 2005.
14
Why Work Beyond Normal Retirement?
  • AARP study of work after retirement
  • Need the income 76
  • Enjoy working/stay connected to others 70
  • Need for health benefits 61
  • Desire to stay mentally active, keep learning,
    and be useful 52
  • (AARP 2008)

15
Limited Savings for Older Workers
  • Savings Investments, workers aged 55
  • Less than 10,000 28
  • 25,000 8
  • 50,000 7
  • 100,000 16
  • 250,000 18
  • 250,000 23
  • Source Employee Benefit Research Institute,
    Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2008. (excludes
    value of home pension plans)

16
Changes in Retirement Benefits
17
Changes in Retirement Benefits
  • Over the last 2 decades companies have shifted
    from traditional pensions to 401(k)s,
    transferring retirement costs from companies to
    employees. (Greenhouse, 2008)
  • For too many Americans, 401(k) plans have become
    little more than a high stakes crapshoot.
    (George Miller, Chair, House Education and Labor
    Committee, Feb. 2009)
  • Workers have lost 2 trillion in 401(k)s in the
    last 15 months. (Congressional Budget Office,
    2009)
  • Just social security and 401(k) plans will not
    give retirees enough money. (Alicia Munnell,
    Center for Retirement Research, Boston College,
    2009)

18
Reemployment Experiences of Older Workers
Age group Reemployment rate 20-24 66 25-54 75
55-64 61 65 25 Source GAO, 2007
  •  Older workers are more likely than younger
    workers to be displaced
  •  Less likely to get another job
  •  It takes them longer to get another job
  •  Workers under 50 are 42 more likely to get an
    interview than those 50 (Lahey, 2005)

19
Reemployment Consequences for older workers
  • Greater earning losses than younger workers
  • Dislocated workers with 20 years of experience
    find jobs paying between 20-40 less than their
    previous job
  • Fewer employment opportunities in a narrower
    range of industries and occupations than younger
    workers(Heidkamp and Van Horn, 2008)          
  • Older men, especially those laid off in male
    dominated manufacturing industries, are
    disproportionately represented in the long-term
    unemployed (lasting more that 6 months)

20
Older Adult Unemployment, 2007-2009
Source www.urban.org/retirement_policy/url.cfm?ID
411846 (Bureau of Labor Statistics 2009b data)
21
Older Workers Part-time and Full-time Employment
  • Between 1990 and 1995 increase in part-time work
    and decline in full time work
  • Between 1995 and 2007 older workers on full-time
    schedules doubled, while part-time workers
    increased only 19
  • By 2007 56 of older workers full time trend
    likely to continue (Bureau of Labor Statistics,
    2008)

22
Older Workers Part-Time and Full-Time Employment
Part-time
Full-time
23
Why we need to facilitate employment among older
workers
  • Many of them want to work or need to work
  • We need people to work longer because the large
    baby boom cohort is passing into retirement
  • The need is greater in some sectors than others
  • Labor force disruption has negative health
    consequences
  • I WILL NOW FOCUS ON THE WORK AND HEALTH
    RELATIONSHIP

24
Barriers Ageism and Age Discrimination
  • National studies of employers show barriers to
    hiring and retaining older workers
  • Employers wrongly assume older workers are more
    expensive due to
  • Compensation
  • Costs of health insurance
  • Costs of training
  • Lower production and lower quality work than
    younger workers
  • Resistance to change
  • Employers also fear age discrimination lawsuits
    in laying off recently hired older workers (GAO,
    2007)

25
Countering Age Discrimination
  • Ageism (attitudinal) is not the same as Age
    Discrimination (behavioral)
  • Perceived age discrimination alone can lead to
    mental health problems (Yuan 2007)
  • Older job seekers 40 less likely to get
    interview (Lahey 2005)
  • Ageism related to concerns about health and
    ability to adapt to technological and
    organizational change

26
How true are the stereotypes?
  • Realistically, there are aging-associated health
    issues
  • But these are too frequently exaggerated

27

Percent of Population that is Obese (BMI equal to
or greater than 30) by Age, Selected Years.
Percent ()
Data source The National Health and Nutrition
Examination Survey
28
Note The need for assistance with activities of
daily living was not asked of children under 6
years. Source Brault, Matthew W. Americans
with Disabilities 2005 (2008) Current
Population Reports in U.S. Census Bureau, survey
of Income and Program Participation,
June-September 2005.
29
Life Expectancy at Age 65 by Sex and
Race/Ethnicity, 1950-2003
Years
Data Source The National Vital Statistic System
30
Average Length of Hospital Stay (in days) by
Age, 1970-2004
Average length of stay in days
Data Source The National Hospital Discharge
Survey
31
Current Cigarette Smoking by Age and Sex,
1965-2005
Percent ()
1965
1975
1995
1985
2005
Data source National Health Interview Survey
32
Older Adults Report Being Healthier
  • Older adults reporting excellent or good health
  • Source National Center for Health Statistics,
    2008.

Age 2008
55-64 65 80 66
Prepared by the UNC Institute on Aging
33
Schematicperformance ability and agemost people
will retire or reach very advanced age before
declines in ability fall below levels needed for
their job
34
Are Older Workers Less Productive?
  • There is no evidence that older workers
    performance and the importance of their
    accumulated knowledge do not compensate for their
    higher cost (ILO, 2005).
  • Older workers can be as productive as younger
    workers, especially if we increase job
    flexibility and design jobs suitable for them
    (Victor Marshall, UNC-Institute on Aging, 2008).

Prepared by the UNC Institute on Aging
35
Chesley Sullenberg An Older Worker (Age 58)
  • Pilot license at age 14 Best aviator in class,
    Air Force Academy Commercial pilot since 1980
  • Co-pilot, Jeffrey Skiles, Age 49, flying since
    age of 15 20 years experience as commercial
    pilot
  • Prior to 1959 no mandatory retirement age in US
    for pilots
  • 1959 imposed age 60 but in 2007 FAA approved age
    65 (LICAO requires one pilot to be under age 60
    for international)
  • Research on Air Traffic Controllers Experience
    can compensate for declines in cognitive function
    that might otherwise appear with aging (Nunes
    Kramer (2009), Journal of Experimental
    Psychology Applied 15 (1) 12-24

36
Health and Labor Force Disruption
  • The relationship between retirement and health
  • Health problems cause labor force disruption
  • Labor force disruption causes health problems
  • Recent reports show U.S. workers aged 50
    experience a disproportionate share of
    involuntary job loss

37
Consequences of Loss of Work
  • Loss of earnings a social determinant of health
  • Poorer job quality in replacement jobs
  • Forfeiture of health and pension benefits
  • Reduced social involvement
  • Harmful health behaviors
  • Anxiety and other mental health problems
  • Increased physical disability at two years
    post-loss (stronger effects in women than men)
  • Source Gallo, et al., and several studies they
    cite in Research on Aging 31 (3), May 2009

38
Consequences of Instability in Labor Force
Participation The Bell Canada Retiree Study
  • MALE AND FEMALE , early retirees from Bell
    Canada who experienced more post-retirement
    unemployment periods (greater labor force
    instability) and experienced higher perceived
    stress
  • The effects were stronger for women than for men
  • MEN who anticipated working post-retirement from
    Bell but did not (violated expectations) were
    more likely to report life stress and low life
    satisfaction
  • Source V. Marshall, P. J. Clarke, P.
    Ballantyne. (2001. Instability in the retirement
    transition, Research on Aging 23 (4) 379-409

39
What we need to do To promote working longer
  • Reverse the idealization of early retirement
  • (we will need the labor of older workers for
    economic growth)
  • Create Flexible Working Arrangements

40
What we need to do To promote health
  • Create age-friendly workplaces
  • Age-mixed teams
  • Mentoring
  • Better ergonomics
  • Retrain and Reassign for age-appropriate jobs
  • Increase workplace health promotion programs
  • Training for transitions into retirement

41
Aging Workforce Initiatives, UNC Institute on
Aging
  • Applied research, e.g., case studies at the
    company level
  • Aging Workforce Interest Group
  • Seminars
  • Digital Library
  • Pub Alerts on the aging workforce, Frontline
    Healthcare Workers, Health Promotion and Healthy
    Aging, and Lifelong Learning and Engagement
  • Available at www.aging.unc.edu or by contacting
    Dr. Peter J. Stein, Associate Director, Aging
    Workforce Initiatives pjstein_at_schsr.unc.edu
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