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The Rise and Rule of Stalin

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The Rise and Rule of Stalin The Great Purge/The Great Terror The Great Purge/Terror was a series of campaigns of political repression and persecution in ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Rise and Rule of Stalin


1
The Rise and Rule of Stalin
2
Joseph (Josef) Stalin
  • Born December 18, 1878
  • Died March 5, 1953
  • Joseph Stalin was leader of the Union of Soviet
    Socialist Republics (USSR) from 1924 -1953.

3
Timeline of Early Soviet History
  • Russia governed by Czar until 1917 autocratic
    political system.
  • Country faced heavy military losses in WWI
    popular unrest.
  • Moderates lead revolution in May 1917 Czar
    imprisoned.
  • Bolshevik Revolution in Nov. 1917 Czar and his
    family murdered Russia withdrew from the war

4
Bolshevik Revolution
  • V. I. Lenin was the head of Soviet government
    Bolshevik Communist party from 1917
  • to his death
  • in 1924.
  • Josef Stalin was a
  • top administrator in
  • Bolshevik Party

5
Background on Stalin
  • He was born in Georgia. The area was
    characterized by gang wars and street brawls
  • In 1906, he married and had a child. She died of
    typhus in 1907.

6
Early Life
  • He organized bank robberies, arms deals, and
    assassination attempts and put in prison in 1908.
  • He was again arrested in 1911 and exiled. He had
    another son April 1912.
  • He created Pravda in 1912. It was a Bolshevik
    newspaper. He was caught and again exiled.

7
  • During the Russian Civil War, Stalin was put in
    the Politburo (the executive committee for the
    Communist Party). He opposed many of Leon
    Trotskys policies (Trotsky was a Bolshevik
    Revolutionary and Marxist Theorist).
  • He was sent to Tsaristyn where he ordered the
    killings of former tsarist military leaders and
    counter-revolutionaries and burned villages to
    intimidate peasants.
  • In 1919, to stem mass desertions on the Western
    front, he had deserters and renegades publicly
    executed.

8
  • 1922, Stalin was made General Secretary.
  • Lenin had a stroke in 1922. Stalin visits him
    frequently and serves as his link to the outside
    world. They argued a lot.
  • Lenin did not like Stalins rude manners,
    ambition, politics, or excessive power. Lenin
    wanted Stalin removed. Stalin did not let this
    out.

Moving up!!!!
9
Lenins Death
  • With Lenins death, (January 21, 1924) a power
    struggle ensued.
  • Stalin a nationalist on the right seized
    power.

10
Joseph Stalin
  • Head of both the Communist party and Soviet
    government from 1924 to 1953.
  • Most interested in power and not ideology.
  • By 1928, established himself as absolute
    dictator.
  • Increasingly paranoid dangerous.

11
Stalins totalitarian elements
  • 1. Cult of the Leader the all-knowing and
    all-seeing Father of the People.

12
The Cult of Personality
  • After Lenins death (and very much against his
    wishes) a personality cult was created around his
    memory, using methods such as
  • Embalming his body and putting it on public
    display in Red Square
  • Lenins image appeared everywhere in posters,
    film, statues
  • Petrograd was renamed Leningrad (St.
    Petersburg-Petrograd (1914)-Leningrad (1924)-St.
    Petersburg (1991))
  • Stalin was an active promoter of this cult so as
    to link his name with that of Lenin
  • The Lenin personality cult made it easier for
    Stalin to create one around himself.

13
  • Celebrations for Stalins 70th birthday in 1949.
  • A huge picture of Stalin hangs over Red Square in
    Moscow as if by magic. In fact, it is
    suspended by a balloon and then lit by
    searchlights.

14
Stalins Cult of Personality
  • Stalin also had a city named in his honour in
    1923 Tsaritsyn became Stalingrad
  • The slogan Stalin is the Lenin of today was
    officially encouraged
  • Stalin adopted the title Vozhd (Great Leader)
  • Stalin was portrayed in various guises Stalin
    with peasants, Stalin with workers all designed
    to show him as an ordinary man of the people.

Stalin liked to be portrayed, as here, as the
friend of the workers, discussing the latest
project in this case the Dneiper Dam.
15
Youth Organizations
  • Party youth organizations were
  • The Pioneers for those under 14
  • Young people were encouraged to report members of
    their own families to the authorities for
    anti-Soviet views
  • One boy, Morozov, reported his father who was
    then jailed. When the boy was murdered by
    members of his own family, he was made a martyr
    and hero by the state.

16
EDUCATION
  • The 1935 Education Law undid most of the
    revolutionary ideas introduced in the early
    1920s
  • It reasserted discipline by restoring the
    authority of teachers
  • Schools could only use texts prescribed by the
    state
  • The Short Course history of the Communist Party
    became the standard text it presented Stalins
    view of the party and the Revolution.
  • By 1939 94 of those town-dwellers under 49 were
    literate 86 in the countryside.

A poster from 1920 You may as well be blind as
illiterate. The Bolsheviks believed that
illiteracy had been a key factor in maintaining
the power of the tsars.
17
Stalins totalitarian elements
  • 2. Radical Ideology
  • Marxism-Leninism the driving rationale for
    Stalins power grab. But Stalin altered the
    ideology to serve his personal nationalist
    ambitions.
  • Stalinism refers to a brand of communism that is
    both extremely repressive and nationalistic.

18
Stalins totalitarian elements
  • Stalin intertwined his own myth with the
    revolutionary struggle. One current gallery
    exhibit about Stalin notes
  • Only a few photographs of Stalin exist from his
    youth and the early revolutionary period. A past
    was created for Stalin through works of art. He
    was often cut and pasted into photographs to
    create an artificial history which placed him at
    the forefront of events.

19
Altering Photographs to fit the cause
  • An example of how the picture was altered again
    and again after each person fell out of favor
    with the regime of Joseph Stalin.

20
  • This image taken by the Moscow Canal was taken
    when Nikolai Yezhov was water commissar. After
    he fell from power, he was arrested, shot, and
    his image removed by the censors.

21
  • The background of the original image includes a
    store that says in Russian, "Watches, gold and
    silver". The image was then changed to read,
    "Struggle for your rights", and flag that was a
    solid color before was changed to read, "Down
    with the monarchy - long live the Republic!"

22
Stalins totalitarian elements
  • 3. Organization
  • Soviet communist party effectively solidified
    Stalins power. Party cells operated in every
    workplace classroom, with party members
    reporting on anyone who was not loyal enough.

23
Stalins totalitarian elements
  • 4. Secret police the KGB.
  • The KGB (???) is the common abbreviation for the
    (Komitet gosudarstvennoy bezopasnosti or
    Committee for State Security).
  • It was the national security agency of the Soviet
    Union from 1954 until 1991, and its premier
    internal security, intelligence, and secret
    police organization during that time.

24
The Media
  • All media were controlled by the government
  • Pravda was the paper of the Communist Party
  • Izvestiya was the paper of the Soviets
  • Radio stations conveyed the official party view

25
Stalins Five Year Plan
  • 5. Central control of all organizations.
  • News media no independent press
  • Heavily centralized command economy. Stalins
    1st goal to create an advanced industrial
    economy.
  • An economy where supply and price are regulated
    by the government rather than market forces.
    Government planners decide which goods and
    services are produced and how they are
    distributed.
  • Peasants resisted killings exile. Severe
    agricultural losses famine. After a decade,
    millions dead.

26
Command Economy
  • Stalin wanted a modern industrial power
  • The first of Stalins five year plans
  • Put ALL basic economic decisions under government
    control
  • Government owned ALL businesses

27
Collectives
  • Under Stalin, the Government seized ALL farm land
  • OR
  • The Government allowed Peasants to stay on their
    land if they gave it (and all resources) to a
    collective
  • The state controlled all supplies

28
Angry Peasants
  • Killed their animals, burned crops, and destroyed
    tools
  • Stalin responded with brutal force
  • In response, some Peasants grew just enough to
    feed themselves
  • Famine killed 5-8 million in Ukraine alone

29
Anti-Religion
  • Atheism was the official religion under Stalin
  • Russian Orthodox Churches were seized and turned
    into offices and museums
  • Priests and Religious leaders were killed
  • Jewish Synagogues were seized
  • Hebrew language was banned

30
Kulaks
  • Term for the wealthy peasants
  • Stalin purged kulaks
  • Over 5 million kulaks deported to Siberia

31
Art and Popular Culture
  • The experimental art of the early 1920s was
    abandoned and replaced by Socialist realism
    this was seen in all forms of culture art,
    cinema, literature.
  • Socialist realism was much more conventional,
    traditional but it was designed to convey
    pro-Soviet messages to inspire the population to
    work harder, love the leader etc.

A typical painting in the style of socialist
realism. Stalin is shown amongst the workers,
urging them to meet their production targets.
The workers look on, impressed.
32
  • Art, film, literature
  • was put in service
  • to the ideology.
  • Soviet art had to
  • praise noble
  • factory workers,
  • the new Soviet
  • man woman.

33
Stalins totalitarian elements
  • 6. Violence Terror. Brutality on massive
    scale. Targets political opponents party
    rivals.

34
The Great Purge/The Great Terror
  • The Great Purge/Terror was a series of campaigns
    of political repression and persecution in the
    Soviet Union orchestrated by Joseph Stalin in
    19341938.
  • It involved a large-scale purge of the Communist
    Party and Government officials, repression of
    peasants, Red Army leadership, and the
    persecution of unaffiliated persons,
    characterized by widespread police surveillance,
    imprisonment, and executions.

35
The Great Purge
  • In 1934 Stalin became paranoid that people were
    attempting to take his power.
  • Old Bolsheviks, Activists, Army heroes, writers,
    and ordinary citizens

36
The Gulag
  • Soviet system of forced labor camps
  • Corrective labor camps
  • Several million inmates

37
Stalins totalitarian elements
  • Creation of a gulag system. Gulags were slave
    labor camps for critics, former capitalists,
    non-cooperative peasants party rivals.

38
Military Vacuum
  • The Great Purge brought about a young loyal
    generation of new leaders
  • Most of the old military leaders were purged
  • Military experience was gone

39
  • In 1940, Leon Trotsky was assassinated in
    Mexico City, Mexico. He was killed with an ice ax
    by KGB agent Ramon Mercader.

40
Stalins totalitarian elements
  • Political purges from 1934 to 1936 were called
    the Great Terror.
  • Show trials, with coerced confessions and summary
    executions, from 1936 to 1938.
  • During his rule, one million direct killings 12
    million deaths in Soviet prisons slave labor
    camps.

41
  • Stalin died March 5, 1953 of an apparent stroke.
    He was embalmed on March 9, 1953.
  • He was buried in Lenins tomb until 1961 when his
    body was moved to outside the Kremlin wall during
    de-Stalinization.
  • Some believed he was poisoned possibly by
    Berria, interior minister.
  • 2003, Russian and U.S. investigation shows Stalin
    could have ingested warfarin, a powerful rat
    poison. The cause may never be known.

42
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