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Combining Sentences

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Combining Sentences When is it a good idea to combine sentences? How to combine sentences Inserting words and phrases Coordinating ideas Compound subjects, verbs, and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Combining Sentences


1
Combining Sentences
When is it a good idea to combine sentences? How
to combine sentences Inserting words and
phrases Coordinating ideas Compound subjects,
verbs, and objects Compound sentences Subordinat
ing ideas Review A Review B
2
When is it a good idea to combine sentences?
Too much of the same thing can be boring.
Too many short, choppy sentences in your writing
can put your reader to sleep.
3
When is it a good idea to combine sentences?
Look for ways to combine sentences when
  • consecutive sentences have the same subject and
    verb

The Titanic was the largest ship of its time. The
Titanic was also the most luxurious ship of its
time. The Titanic was on its maiden voyage.
  • your sentences have the same word order,
    pattern, or rhythm

The accident happened at night. The night was
clear and cold. The date was April 14, 1912.
The accident happened at night. The night was
clear and cold. The date was April 14, 1912.
The accident happened at night. The night was
clear and cold. The date was April 14, 1912.
4
When is it a good idea to combine sentences?
Do these sentences hold your attention?
The sinking of the Titanic was a maritime
disaster. It was one of the worst in history. The
Titanic was the largest ship of its time. It was
also the most luxurious ship. The Titanic was on
its maiden voyage. The ship struck an iceberg.
The iceberg was near Newfoundland. The accident
happened on April 14, 1912. The night was clear
and cold.
The sinking of the Titanic, the largest and most
luxurious ship of its time, was one of the worst
maritime disasters in history. On the clear, cold
night of April 14, 1912, the ship, which was on
its maiden voyage, struck an iceberg near
Newfoundland.
Sentence combining makes the paragraph shorter,
more precise, and more interesting.
End of Section
5
How to combine sentences Inserting words and
phrases
Combine short sentences by taking a key word from
one sentence and inserting it into the other.
key word
Magicians guard the secrets of their tricks.
closely
Magicians
guard the secrets of their tricks.
They guard their secrets closely.
closely
You may have to change the form of the word.
Houdini performed impossible escapes.
Houdini performed
impossible escapes.
seemingly
The escapes only seemed impossible.
seemed
seemingly
6
How to combine sentences Inserting words and
phrases
When changing the form of a word, you often add
an ending that makes the word an adjective or an
adverb.
Grammar Guy Says...
VERB
ADVERB
seemed
seemingly
NOUN
ADJECTIVE
culture
cultural
7
How to combine sentences Inserting words and
phrases
You can also combine sentences by inserting a
phrase from one sentence into another.
  • Prepositional Phrase

The trees were bent nearly double. They were bent
in the wind
The trees were bent nearly double
in the wind.
in the wind.
  • Participial Phrase

I was puzzled by her behavior. I asked her to
explain.
puzzled by her behavior
Puzzled by her behavior,
I asked her to explain.
8
How to combine sentences Inserting words and
phrases
You can also combine sentences by inserting a
phrase from one sentence into another.
  • Absolute Phrases

The wind started gusting. Constance returned home.
The wind
gusting
Constance returned home.
The wind gusting,
  • Appositive Phrases

Calligraphy is an elegant form of handwriting. It
requires a special pen or brush.
an elegant form of handwriting
an elegant form of handwriting,
Calligraphy,
requires a special pen or brush.
9
How to combine sentences Prepositional phrases
A prepositional phrase contains
  • a preposition
  • a noun or pronoun
  • (the object of the preposition)
  • any modifiers of the object

door
behind
door
the mysterious
10
How to combine sentences Participial phrases
A participial phrase contains
  • a verb form usually ending in ing or ed
  • a noun, pronoun, or adjective
  • (complement of the participle)
  • any modifiers

preparing
dinner
for their friends
11
How to combine sentences Absolute phrases
An absolute phrase contains
  • a participle or participial phrase
  • a noun or pronoun that the participle or
    participial phrase modifies
  • any other modifiers of that noun or pronoun

having been tied
knots
having been tied
secure
having been tied
knots
12
How to combine sentences Absolute phrases
An absolute phrase has no grammatical
relationship to any particular word in the
independent clause it modifies. It modifies the
entire independent clause by telling when, how,
or why.
Grammar Guy Says...
The absolute phrase tells how the geese rose from
the pond.


Wings flapping furiously, the flock of geese rose
from the pond.
13
How to combine sentences Appositive phrases
An appositive is a word that identifies a nearby
noun or pronoun.
The cowboys horse reared and snorted.
The cowboys horse, Ranger, reared and snorted.
An appositive phrase consists of an appositive
and its modifiers.
The cowboys horse, a nervous young stallion,
reared and snorted.
14
How to combine sentences Inserting words and
phrases
Combine the following short sentences by
inserting the italicized word or phrase into the
first sentence. Add commas where necessary. Hints
in parentheses tell how to change word forms.
1. The surgeon performed the operation. She was a
skillful surgeon.
2. The children went down the slide. They took
turns. (Change took to taking.)
3. This city has a famous cathedral. The city is
the capital of the country.
15
How to combine sentences Inserting words and
phrases
Combine the following short sentences by
inserting the italicized word or phrase into the
first sentence. Add commas where necessary. Hints
in parentheses tell how to change word forms.
1. The skillful surgeon performed the operation.
The sentences have been combined so that the
adjective skillful modifies surgeon.
16
How to combine sentences Inserting words and
phrases
Combine the following short sentences by
inserting the italicized word or phrase into the
first sentence. Add commas where necessary. Hints
in parentheses tell how to change word forms.
Possible Answer
2. Taking turns, the children went down the
slide.
The sentences have been combined so that the
participial phrase taking turns modifies
children.
17
How to combine sentences Inserting words and
phrases
Combine the following short sentences by
inserting the italicized word or phrase into the
first sentence. Add commas where necessary. Hints
in parentheses tell how to change word forms.
Possible Answer
3. This city, the capital of the country, has a
famous cathedral.
The sentences have been combined so that the
appositive phrase the capital of the country
modifies city.
18
How to combine sentences Inserting words and
phrases
On Your Own
Combine each pair of sentences by inserting words
or phrases. Some sentences may be combined in
different ways. Hints in parentheses indicate
changes to word forms. 1. Natalie opened the
trunk slowly. The trunk was antique. 2. She moved
some papers aside. She peered deeper into the
trunk. (Change moved to moving.) 3. She found the
photographs. They were at the bottom of the
trunk. 4. Natalie lifted the top photograph. She
lifted it with care. (Change care to carefully.)
End of Section
19
How to combine sentences Inserting words and
phrases
Possible Answers
Combine each pair of sentences by inserting words
or phrases. Some sentences may be combined in
different ways. Hints in parentheses indicate
changes to word forms. 1. Natalie opened the
antique trunk slowly. 2. Moving some papers
aside, she peered deeper into the trunk. 3. She
found the photographs at the bottom of the
trunk. 4. Carefully Natalie lifted the top
photograph.
20
How to combine sentences Coordinating ideas
You can also join equally important words,
phrases, and clauses by using coordinating
conjunctions or correlative conjunctions.
words,
phrases,
clauses
This bike needs brakes.
This bike needs brakes.
This bike needs brakes and a taillight.
It needs a taillight.
It needs a taillight.
We saw the surface of the moon.
We saw the surface of the moon.
We saw the surface of the moon and the rings of
Saturn.
We also saw the rings of Saturn.
We also saw the rings of Saturn.
Kris liked the jacket.
Kris liked the jacket.
Kris liked the jacket, but it was too expensive.
It was too expensive.
It was too expensive.
21
How to combine sentences Coordinating
conjunctions
Coordinating Conjunctions Coordinating Conjunctions Coordinating Conjunctions Coordinating Conjunctions
and but or nor
for yet so
A coordinating conjunction joins words or groups
of words that are used in the same way.
22
How to combine sentences Correlative conjunctions
Correlative Conjunctions both . . . and either . . . or neither . . . nor not only . . . but also whether . . . or
Correlative conjunctions are pairs of
conjunctions that join words or groups of words
that are used in the same way.
23
How to combine sentences Compound subjects,
verbs, and objects
You can combine sentences by making compound
subjects, verbs, direct objects, or indirect
objects.
Step 1. Look for sentences that have the same
subject, verb, or object.
He plays basketball.
He plays basketball.
Same subject
He likes baseball more.
He likes baseball more.
Nick sings well.
Nick sings well.
Same verb
Sharon sings well.
Sharon sings well.
I like grapefruit.
I like grapefruit.
Same object
Matt likes grapefruit.
Matt likes grapefruit.
24
How to combine sentences Compound subjects,
verbs, and objects
Step 2. Join the verbs, subjects, or objects of
the two sentences with a coordinating conjunction
or a correlative conjunction.
IF
He plays basketball.
the subjects are the same,
He enjoys baseball more.
THEN
He plays basketball but enjoys baseball more.
keep the subject and join the verbs.
25
How to combine sentences Compound subjects,
verbs, and objects
Step 2. Join the verbs, subjects, or objects of
the two sentences with a coordinating conjunction
or a correlative conjunction.
IF
Nick sings well.
the verbs are the same,
Sharon sings well.
THEN
Both Nick and Sharon sing well.
keep the verb and join the subjects.
26
How to combine sentences Compound subjects,
verbs, and objects
Step 2. Join the verbs, subjects, or objects of
the two sentences with a coordinating conjunction
or a correlative conjunction.
IF
the objects are the same and verbs are the same,
I like grapefruit.
Matt likes grapefruit.
THEN
keep the object and the verb and join the
subjects.
Matt and I like grapefruit.
27
How to combine sentences Compound subjects,
verbs, and objects
Combine the sentences by forming a compound
subject, compound verb, or compound object. Be
prepared to explain your answers.
1. Juan works after school. Kinesha also works
after school.
2. Mrs. Braxton could sponsor the class trip.
Mrs. Braxton could recruit parents to help.
3. Karen brought the cake to the party. Karen
also brought the candles.
28
How to combine sentences Compound subjects,
verbs, and objects
Combine the sentences by forming a compound
subject, compound verb, or compound object. Be
prepared to explain your answers.
1. Juan and Kinesha work after school.
Since the two original sentences have the same
verb, the combined sentence has a compound
subject. The verb work is now plural.
29
How to combine sentences Compound subjects,
verbs, and objects
Combine the sentences by forming a compound
subject, compound verb, or compound object. Be
prepared to explain your answers.
2. Mrs. Braxton could sponsor the class trip or
recruit parents to help.
Since the two original sentences have the same
subject, the combined sentence has a compound
verb. The conjunction or expresses a choice
between two possibilities.
30
How to combine sentences Compound subjects,
verbs, and objects
Combine the sentences by forming a compound
subject, compound verb, or compound object. Be
prepared to explain your answers.
3. Karen brought the cake and the candles to the
party.
Since the two original sentences have the same
subject and the same verb, the combined sentence
has a compound object.
31
How to combine sentences Compound subjects,
verbs, and objects
On Your Own
  • Combine each pair of sentences by forming a
    compound subject, a compound verb, or a compound
    object.
  • 1. Apples grow on trees. Peaches grow on trees.
  • 2. My cat enjoys music. My cat does not like loud
    noises.
  • 3. Stan could write the letter. Alternatively,
    Frank could write the letter.
  • I will finish my paper tonight. I will finish
    my project, too.
  • 5. Ann went to bed early. Ann could not fall
    asleep.

End of Section
32
How to combine sentences Compound subjects,
verbs, and objects
Possible Answers
  • Combine each pair of sentences by forming a
    compound subject, a compound verb, or a compound
    object.
  • 1. Apples and peaches grow on trees.
  • 2. My cat enjoys music but does not like loud
    noises.
  • 3. Either Stan or Frank could write the letter.
  • I will finish my paper and my project tonight.
  • Ann went to bed early but could not fall asleep.

33
How to combine sentences Compound sentences
If two sentences are related and equally
important, you can form a compound sentence.
A compound sentence is made by joining the two
sentences with
  • a comma and a coordinating conjunction
  • or a semicolon
  • or a semicolon and a conjunctive adverb

The phone rang.
No one answered it.
The phone rang, but no one answered it.
The phone rang no one answered it.
The phone rang however, no one answered it.
34
How to combine sentences Conjunctive adverbs
Common Conjunctive Adverbs Common Conjunctive Adverbs Common Conjunctive Adverbs Common Conjunctive Adverbs
also however meanwhile still
besides instead nevertheless then
consequently likewise otherwise therefore
A conjunctive adverb shows how ideas relate to
one another. It expresses a relationship between
two independent clauses.
35
How to combine sentences Compound sentences
Notice the difference between a compound subject
or verb and a compound sentence.
Grammar Guy Says...
In a compound sentence, each half of the sentence
has its own subject and its own verb.
Subject
Verb
Subject
Verb
The phone rang, but no one answered.
The phone rang, but no one answered.
The phone rang, but no one answered.
36
How to combine sentences Compound sentences
Combine each of the following pairs of sentences
by forming a compound sentence. Be prepared to
explain your answers.
1. It was hot in the sun. We went to sit in the
shade.
2. Marta stayed up too late. She feels tired this
morning.
3. Owning a dog is a big responsibility. A dog
needs a lot of care and attention.
37
How to combine sentences Compound sentences
Combine each of the following pairs of
sentences by forming a compound sentence. Be
prepared to explain your answers.
Possible Answer
1. It was hot in the sun, so we went to sit in
the shade.
The conjunction so relates two equally important
ideas by showing that one idea is a result of the
other.
38
How to combine sentences Compound sentences
Combine each of the following pairs of
sentences by forming a compound sentence. Be
prepared to explain your answers.
Possible Answer
2. Marta stayed up too late consequently, she
feels tired this morning.
The semicolon shows that the two ideas are
closely related. The conjunctive adverb
consequently indicates cause and effect.
39
How to combine sentences Compound sentences
Combine each of the following pairs of
sentences by forming a compound sentence. Be
prepared to explain your answers.
Possible Answer
3. Owning a dog is a big responsibility a dog
needs a lot of care and attention.
The semicolon shows that the two ideas are
closely related.
40
How to combine sentences Compound sentences
On Your Own
Combine each pair of sentences by forming a
compound sentence. 1. I cant go to practice
today. Ill be there tomorrow. 2. We could go to
an early movie. We could eat dinner first and go
to a later show. 3. Clouds covered the moon. He
could not see the trail. 4. Our house is easy
to find. Its right on the corner. 5. Everyone
had a test that day. We postponed the meeting
for a week.
End of Section
41
How to combine sentences Compound sentences
Possible Answers
Combine each pair of sentences by forming a
compound sentence. 1. I cant go to practice
today, but Ill be there tomorrow. 2. We could go
to an early movie, or we could eat dinner first
and go to a later show. 3. Clouds covered the
moon, so he could not see the trail. 4. Our
house is easy to find its right on the
corner. 5. Everyone had a test that day
therefore, we postponed the meeting for a week.
42
How to combine sentences Subordinating ideas
When two related sentences contain ideas of
unequal importance, you can make one idea
subordinate to the other in a complex sentence.
Independent Clause
Independent Clause
The whole team left the field.
The band played.
Independent Clause
Subordinate Clause
while the whole team left the field.
The band played
Independent Clause
Subordinate Clause
While the band played,
the whole team left the field.
43
How to combine sentences Complex sentences
A complex sentence contains one independent
clause and one or more subordinate clauses.
Subordinate Clause
Independent Clause
Have you practiced the speech that you will give?
Have you practiced the speech that you will give?
Have you practiced the speech that you will give?
Subordinate Clause
Independent Clause
Whenever I have spare time, I practice my speech.
Whenever I have spare time, I practice my speech.
Whenever I have spare time, I practice my speech.
44
How to combine sentences Independent clauses
An independent clause (or main clause) expresses
a complete thought and can stand by itself as a
sentence.
An independent clause has a subject and a verb
and expresses a complete thought.
Subject
Verb
The hurricane howled.
The hurricane howled.
The hurricane howled.
Subject
Verb
The dog barked every night for a week.
The dog barked every night for a week.
The dog barked every night for a week.
45
How to combine sentences Subordinate clauses
A subordinate clause (or dependent clause) does
not express a complete thought and cannot stand
by itself as a sentence.
A subordinate clause has a subject and a verb but
does not express a complete thought.
Subject
whenever I have spare time
whenever I have spare time
whenever I have spare time
Verb
46
How to combine sentences Subordinating ideas
There are three types of subordinate clauses
adjective, adverb, and noun clauses. Each type
can replace an ordinary adjective, adverb, or
noun.
  • Adjective
  • Adjective Clause

We invited
new
students.
We invited students
who are new.
  • Adverb Clause
  • Adverb

He awakened
early.
when the alarm went off.
  • Noun
  • Noun Clause

what was on her mind.
She explained
her idea.
47
How to combine sentences Subordinating ideas
Make one sentence into an adjective clause by
replacing the subject with who, which, or that.
The lighthouse is perched on a cliff.
which
It has stood for more than a century.
Then use the adjective clause to provide
information about a preceding noun or pronoun.
The lighthouse, which has stood for more than a
century, is perched on a cliff.
48
How to combine sentences Subordinating ideas
If an adjective clause is not essential to the
meaning of the sentence, set it off with commas.
If it is essential, no commas are necessary.
Grammar Guy Says...
Not essential
The lighthouse, which is more than a century old,
is perched on a cliff.
Essential
Is this lighthouse the one that is more than a
century old?
49
How to combine sentences Subordinating ideas
Turn one sentence into an adverb clause by adding
a subordinating conjunction, such as after,
although, because, if, when, or where.
I didnt really understand the movie.
I didnt really understand the movie until I
finished the book.
I finished the book.
If the adverb clause begins a sentence, place a
comma after it.
Until I finished the book, I didnt really
understand the movie.
50
How to combine sentences Subordinating
conjunctions
Common Subordinating Conjunctions Common Subordinating Conjunctions Common Subordinating Conjunctions Common Subordinating Conjunctions
as before since when
as if if so that whenever
as long as once unless while
A subordinating conjunction shows a relationship
between an adverb clause and the word(s) that it
modifies. For example, before, once, since, when,
and while indicate time.
51
How to combine sentences Subordinating ideas
Turn a sentence into a noun clause by adding a
word like that, how, what, who, or whoever to the
beginning of the sentence.
Noun clause
that he had broken his wrist.
The doctor told him.
He had broken his wrist.
Insert the clause into another sentence just as
you would an ordinary noun.
Ordinary noun
The doctor told him the results.
The doctor told him that the results showed he
had a broken wrist.
Noun clause
52
How to combine sentences Subordinating ideas
When you place the noun clause in another
sentence, you may have to change or remove some
words.
Grammar Guy Says...
That
Three inches of rain fell yesterday.
That three inches of rain fell yesterday does not
mean the drought is over.
This does not mean the drought is over.
53
How to combine sentences Subordinating ideas
Combine the following short sentences by turning
one of the sentences into an adjective clause,
adverb clause, or noun clause, as indicated in
parentheses.
1. The man lives in this apartment building. He
drives our bus. (adjective clause)
2. I print out my final draft. I will proofread
it. (adverb clause)
3. The players were notified. The game had been
cancelled. (noun clause)
54
How to combine sentences Subordinating ideas
Combine the following short sentences by turning
one of the sentences into an adjective clause,
adverb clause, or noun clause, as indicated in
parentheses.
Possible Answer
1. The man who drives our bus lives in this
apartment building.
The sentences have been combined so that the
clause who drives our bus modifies the noun man.
55
How to combine sentences Subordinating ideas
Combine the following short sentences by turning
one of the sentences into an adjective clause,
adverb clause, or noun clause, as indicated in
parentheses.
Possible Answer
2. Before I print out my final draft, I will
proofread it.
The sentences have been combined so that the
clause before I print out my final draft modifies
will proofread.
56
How to combine sentences Subordinating ideas
Combine the following short sentences by turning
one of the sentences into an adjective clause,
adverb clause, or noun clause, as indicated in
parentheses.
Possible Answer
3. The players were notified that the game had
been canceled.
The sentences have been combined so that the
clause that the game had been canceled is the
direct object of the sentence.
57
How to combine sentences Subordinating ideas
On Your Own
  • Combine each pair of sentences by turning one
    sentence into an adjective clause, adverb clause,
    or noun clause, as indicated in parentheses.
  • 1. Someone ate the eggs. I was saving them for
    the cookies. (adjective clause)
  • 2. We ate dinner. After that, we went to a movie.
    (adverb clause)
  • 3. You said. I could borrow your book tonight.
    (noun clause)
  • The girl is running for student body president.
    She sits behind me in class. (adjective clause)

End of Section
58
How to combine sentences Subordinating ideas
Possible Answers
Combine each pair of sentences by turning one
sentence into an adjective clause, adverb clause,
or noun clause, as indicated in parentheses. 1.
Someone ate the eggs that I was saving for the
cookies. 2. After we ate dinner, we went to a
movie. 3. You said that I could borrow your book
tonight. 4. The girl who sits behind me in class
is running for student body president.
59
Review A
Using all the sentence-combining skills you have
learned, combine each of the following pairs of
sentences.
  1. The child gave a shout. The shout was joyful.
  1. Carter knew. He should have studied for the exam.
  1. Erin began the discussion. Erin is a skilled
    debater.
  1. Steam rose from the pan of water. The water had
    just begun to boil.

5. The wood was wet from the rain. We couldnt
get the fire started.
End of Section
60
Review A
Possible Answers
Using all the sentence-combining skills you have
learned, combine each of the following pairs of
sentences.
  1. The child gave a joyful shout.
  1. Carter knew that he should have studied for the
    exam.
  1. Erin, a skilled debater, began the discussion.
  1. Steam rose from the pan of water, which had just
    begun to boil.

5. The wood was wet from the rain consequently,
we couldnt get the fire started.
61
Review B
Using all the sentence-combining skills you have
learned, revise and rewrite the following
paragraph without changing its original meaning.
The Japanese comics are called manga. Manga look
like American comics. They have panels and word
balloons. Manga were also influenced by American
animated movies. That was after World War II. Now
manga appear first in magazines. Later they are
collected into books. Many readers think manga
are like novels. Reading manga is like reading
novels. Reading manga is also like watching
movies.
End of Section
62
Review B
Using all the sentence-combining skills you have
learned, revise and rewrite the following
paragraph without changing its original meaning.
Possible Answer
Like American comics, the Japanese comics called
manga have panels and word balloons. After World
War II, manga were also influenced by American
animated movies. Now manga appear first in
magazines but are later collected into books.
Many readers think reading manga is like reading
novels or watching movies.
63
The End
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