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Breakthroughs in Bioscience

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Title: Breakthroughs in Bioscience


1
Breakthroughs in Bioscience
  • From NIH-Funded Basic Research to Improved Health

Washington

2
National Institutes of Health (NIH)
  • Nations medical research agency
  • Funds the science that leads to medical
    advancement
  • Campus in Bethesda, MD but most funding is
    distributed to university researchers throughout
    the United States
  • Univ. of Washington (UW) ranks 5th overall among
    institutions in NIH funding (gt390M) the state
    ranks 9th overall.

3
Research Enterprise Is Critical to Washingtons
Economy
  • The biotech and medical device industry
    employed approximately 20,000 people in
    Washington in 2002
  • The indirect job multiplier for a single high
    biotech job ranges between 2.23 and 3.4, adding
    significant additional employment to Washingtons
    economy
  • The Seattle area is the sixth largest
    biotechnology center in the country
  • Research supported 7,600 full-time equivalent
    employees at Univ. of Washington (UW) in FY 2005
    and research funding generated about 34,000 jobs
    statewide
  • UW technology licenses generated over 18.6
    million in revenue (FY 2005)
  • The economic activity of Washington State Univ.
    (WSU) translates into more than 10,000 jobs
    statewide

4
Leveraging the States Investment with
Extramural Research Dollars
  • UW receives more federal research funding than
    any other American public university, a position
    it has held each year since 1974
  • 188 new companies have been based on UW research
    advances
  • In fiscal year 1996, WSU leveraged 226.2 million
    of state funding into a total budget of 515.5
    million
  • The Technology Alliance (a statewide consortium
    of business leaders, research institutions, and
    high-tech trade associations) is advocating a
    grants program through 2017 that would make an
    impact of 1.35 billion, generate over 20,000
    jobs and innovate health care advancements for
    the citizens of WA

5
The NIH Top 20 Universities An Elite Group
  • Johns Hopkins
  • UC San Francisco
  • Pennsylvania
  • Michigan Ann Arbor
  • Washington
  • Washington U
  • Pitt
  • Yale
  • Duke
  • UCLA
  • UNC Chapel Hill
  • UC San Diego
  • Stanford
  • Vanderbilt
  • Columbia
  • Minnesota
  • Wisconsin
  • Emory
  • Baylor
  • MIT

6
NIH Saving Lives Through Science
  • Current annual budget of around 29.3 billion
  • Greater than 80 distributed throughout the
    country
  • More than 50,000 grants
  • 212,000 scientists
  • 2,800 universities
  • Four Nobel Prizes in Physiology or Medicine
    awarded to UW scientists since 1990
  • Portfolio of basic, translational, and clinical
    research

NIH has been involved in nearly all the medical
health related discoveries of the past century
7
How NIH Makes Science Happen
  • Researchers working at local universities,
    hospitals and research institutions are dependent
    on federal support to fund their research, hire
    lab personnel and train young scientists
  • They write research grant proposals to compete
    for funding
  • Must explain why they think its a good idea, how
    theyre going to do the experiments, and what
    impact it will have on science medicine
  • Proposals are reviewed in a two-tiered system
  • Peer-reviewed by scientists to ensure highest
    quality science
  • Reviewed again for applicability to scientific or
    health priorities by NIH officials and other
    stakeholders, including public members
  • NIH review system is the envy of the world!
  • Very competitive!!!
  • Before - 1 in 3 proposals funded now closer to 1
    in 6
  • High quality research is not being done for lack
    of funding

8
Basic Research From Bench to Bedside
  • Much of NIH funding goes to basic or fundamental
    research
  • Basic research is driven by interest in a
    scientific question
  • The main motivation is to expand knowledge and
    understanding, not to create or invent something
  • However, the insight into how the human body
    works and understanding of how diseases and
    disorders operate provides the foundation for
    medical progress

"People cannot foresee the future well enough to
predict what's going to develop from basic
research. If we only did applied research, we
would still be making better spears." Dr.
George Smoot, Berkeley National Lab
9
What about medical breakthroughs?
  • Medical breakthroughs often come from unrelated
    areas of science or medicine
  • Research on cancer biology has led to drugs for
    heart disease viral diseases like influenza,
    Herpes AIDS and osteoporosis
  • Physicists studying the effects of magnets on
    atomic particles made the discovery that gave us
    MRI
  • Usually based on years or decades of fundamental
    knowledge
  • Over time, scientists solve or find different
    pieces of the puzzle
  • This makes it difficult to predict where the next
    breakthrough will come from
  • Makes it imperative to support a broad range of
    scientific research
  • Much of this research is too basic for the
    private sector
  • The federal investment often lays the foundation
    for advances in healthcare

10
Evolution of Research to Healthcare
Selected modern examples
11
Cardiovascular disease
  • Information on the biochemical structure
    synthesis of cholesterol led to the development
    of statins
  • Discoveries in basic kidney biology and blood
    pressure regulation converged with an unexpected
    finding involving snake venom to yield ACE
    inhibitors, one of our most effective
    hypertension medications
  • Understanding how the blood clots, together with
    a new cancer treatment and the first commercial
    use of recombinant technologies, resulted in
    rtPA, a clot-busting drug that can prevent death
    from heart attack or stroke

RESULTS?? 63 REDUCTION IN DEATHS FROM HEART
DISEASE AND A 70 REDUCTION IN DEATHS DUE TO
STROKE MORE THAN 1 MILLION LIVES SAVED IN 2006
ALONE
12
Cardiovascular disease
60
70
Economic return of improved treatment
prevention 2.6 TRILLION
30-year Investment per American 110.00 Total
13
HIV / AIDS
  • Fundamental knowledge of how viruses replicate
    gave scientists targets for therapy. Researchers
    looking for a new cancer drug hit one of those
    targets when they discovered a way to block
    replication, resulting in the development of AZT.
  • Increased understanding of how HIV operates at
    the cellular and molecular level identified more
    targets, and eventually led to the combination of
    drugs knows as the triple cocktail.

RESULTS?? AIDS HAS BEEN TRANSFORMED FROM AN ACUTE
FATAL ILLNESS TO A CHRONIC CONDITION THE
PROPHYLACTIC USE OF ANTI-VIRALS PREVENTED ALMOST
350,000 DEATHS WORLDWIDE IN 2005
14
HIV / AIDS
Survival rates for those infected with HIV has
increased by 10 years
15
Cancer
  • Basic research into the shape and characteristics
    of the estrogen receptor gave us tamoxifen, which
    can reduce breast cancer incidence among women at
    risk by over 45.
  • The breakthrough finding that human
    papillomavirus (HPV) could cause cervical cancer
    has led to a new vaccine that NIH estimated could
    reduce cervical cancer incidence by as much as
    90.
  • While investigating the cellular machinery
    controlling cell growth, scientists developed
    bortezomib - now used to treat patients with
    multiple myeloma.

RESULTS?? FROM 1993-2002, CANCER DEATH RATES
DROPPED 1.1 PER YEAR MORE THAN 2/3 OF PEOPLE
DIAGNOSED WITH CANCER CAN EXPECT TO LIVE 5 YEARS
16
Cancer
30-year Investment per American 260.00 Total
17
Infant mortality
  • Studies on lung function led to the discovery of
    surfactant. This protein-lipid mixture is crucial
    for the survival of premature infants, decreasing
    the number of infant deaths from respiratory
    distress from 15,000 per year to less than 1,000.
  • The use of anti-virals to prevent mother to child
    HIV transmission has reduced the rate from 25 to
    about 1 in the U.S.
  • Studies on a metabolite of progesterone, known as
    progesterone 17P, have led to the finding that
    injections of this compound can reduce pre-term
    deliveries by as much as 30, a particularly
    important result for African American women.

RESULTS?? IN LESS THAN A CENTURY, INFANT
MORTALITY IN THE U.S. HAS BEEN REDUCED BY 90,
TRANSLATING TO ALMOST 500,000 BABIES SAVED PER
YEAR
18
NIH-Funded Discoveries at UW
  • Developed a targeted gene therapy that eradicated
    the genetic mutations in adult stem cells
    associated with brittle bone disease, leading to
    possible therapy
  • Development of EPO growth factor for treatment of
    anemia due to kidney failure, also used in cancer
    patients with anemia
  • Discovered a protein involved in muscle-wasting
    diseases that plays a role in moving water in and
    out of brain cells, opening new avenues for
    treating brain swelling
  • Use of recombinant DNA to develop clotting
    factors for those with hemophilia
  • Created the treadmill test for exercise tolerance
    for people with suspected or known heart disease
  • Created software that performs rapid DNA analysis

19
The Bottom Line
  • People are living longer, healthier lives because
    of NIH funded medical research
  • What were once swiftly fatal illnesses have
    become treatable or manageable conditions
  • For those suffering from diseases that have no
    current treatment or cure, medical research
    provides hope which has a major impact on
    quality of life

20
The Challenge
  • NIH funding is entirely dependent on
    Congressional support
  • In recent years, Congressional support has
    diminished, and the NIH budget is slowly eroding
    from lack of funding and inflation
  • Lack of understanding in Congress about the
    importance of medical research and the treatments
    and hope it provides
  • As the NIH budget falls, success rate also falls
  • Diminished investment in NIH loss of talented
    researchers missed opportunities delays in
    medical progress

21
Washingtons Congressmen Need to Advocate for NIH
Funding
  • Nothing should surpass improving our health as a
    national priority
  • Opportunities for discoveries that translate to
    improved health for our citizens have never been
    greater
  • Every increase in the NIH budget means additional
    funding for research in the state and new jobs

22
We Need your HelpWorking Together for NIH
  • Contact Senators Murray and Cantwell and your
    Congressional Representative
  • Let them know that medical research is important
    to you and what a bargain it is
  • Write a letter to the newspaper and talk to your
    friends
  • Help educate policymakers and neighbors about the
    important work NIH is doing
  • Nothing is more important than our health
  • The National Institutes of Health (NIH) should be
    an American priority

23
Want to know more??
Please visit http//opa.faseb.org
Federation of American Societies for Experimental
Biology (FASEB)
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