Physical and Cognitive Development in Late Adulthood - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


PPT – Physical and Cognitive Development in Late Adulthood PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 6cedbd-ZmRkM


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation

Physical and Cognitive Development in Late Adulthood


Physical and Cognitive Development in Late Adulthood ... may improve motor functions Sensory Development ... Development Sensory Development Sensory ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:32
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Date added: 22 February 2020
Slides: 41
Provided by: Jenn2154


Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Physical and Cognitive Development in Late Adulthood

Chapter 15
  • Physical and Cognitive Development in Late

Life Span and Life Expectancy
  • Life span -- maximum number of years an
    individual can live
  • 120125 years remains unchanged
  • Life expectancy -- number of years that the
    average person, born in a particular year, will
    probably live
  • has increased 31 years since 1900
  • average U.S. life expectancy 78 years

Differences in Life Expectancy
  • International differences due to health
    conditions, medical care, etc.
  • Sex differences
  • women outlive males an average of 5 years
  • due to health attitudes, habits, lifestyles,
  • biological factors -- females outlive males
    across species

  • Increasing numbers
  • 15,000 in 1980
  • 55,000 in 2008
  • Genes play a role
  • Also family history, health, exercise, education,
    personality, and lifestyle

Biological Theories of Aging
  • Evolutionary Theory of Aging
  • Natural selection has not eliminated many harmful
    conditions and nonadaptive characteristics in
    older adults
  • Natural selection is linked to reproductive

Biological Theories of Aging
  • Cellular Clock Theory
  • as we age, cells become less capable of dividing
  • telomeres -- DNA sequences that cap chromosomes
  • as cells divide, telomeres become shorter and
    eventually cells can no longer divide

Biological Theories of Aging
  • Free Radical Theory -- people age because as
    cells metabolize energy, the by-products include
    unstable oxygen molecules known as free radicals
  • free radicals damage DNA
  • resulting damage can lead to range of disorders
    such as cancer and arthritis

Biological Theories of Aging
  • Hormonal Stress Theory -- aging in the bodys
    hormone system can lower resistance to stress and
    increase likelihood of disease
  • prolonged elevation of stress-related hormones
    associated with risk of chronic disease

The Aging and Adaptive Brain
  • The brain loses volume and weight
  • Some areas of brain shrink more than others
  • As brain ages, it adapts
  • Lack of dendrite growth may be lack of
    stimulation and activity in brain
  • Using both hemispheres may improve cognitive

Physical Development
  • Inevitable if we live to old age
  • Wrinkles and age spots
  • Loss of height and weight
  • Slower movements
  • Exercise and appropriate weight lifting may help
    to reduce the decrease in muscle mass and may
    improve motor functions

Sensory Development
  • Vision
  • visual acuity, color vision, and depth perception
  • cataracts -- thickening of lens
  • glaucoma -- optic nerve damaged by pressure from
    fluid buildup
  • macular degeneration -- deterioration of retina

Sensory Development
  • Hearing
  • degeneration of cochlea
  • Smell and taste
  • most older adults lose some ability to taste
    and/or smell
  • Touch and pain
  • Changes in touch are not problematic
  • Decreased sensitivity to pain may mask injury and

The Circulatory System and Lungs
  • Blood pressure consistently over 120/80 should be
    treated to reduce threat of heart attack, stroke,
    or kidney disease
  • Lung capacity drops 40 percent between 20 and 80
    years even without disease
  • lungs lose elasticity, chest shrinks, and
    diaphragm weakens

  • Sexuality can be life-long
  • Aging changes sexual performance, especially in
  • orgasm less frequent
  • erectile dysfunction
  • education may help deal with these issues

Health Problems
  • As we age, probability of illness increases
  • Arthritis and hypertension are most common
    chronic disorders
  • Low income is strongly related to health problems
    in late adulthood
  • Approximately three times as many poor as
    non-poor older adults report that chronic
    disorders limit their activities

Causes of Death in Older Adults
  • Nearly 60 percent of U.S. adults aged 6574 die
    of cancer or cardiovascular disease
  • Cancer is now the leading cause of death
  • In the 7584 and 85-and-over age groups,
    cardiovascular disease is still the leading cause
    of death

  • Arthritis -- inflammation of the joints,
    accompanied by pain, stiffness, and movement
  • Incurable disorder that affects hips, knees,
    ankles, fingers, and vertebrae
  • Symptoms reduced by drugs, range-of-motion
    exercises, weight reduction, and joint replacement

  • Osteoporosis -- extensive loss of bone tissue
  • Women are especially vulnerable it is the
    leading cause of broken bones in women
  • More common in non-Latina White, thin, and
    small-framed women
  • Related to deficiencies in calcium, vitamin D,
    estrogen, and lack of exercise

  • Accidents are the sixth-leading cause of death
    among older adults
  • Falls are the leading cause of injury deaths in
    those 65 and older
  • Participation in an exercise class once a week
    for three years reduced the fall risk and the
    number of falling incidents

  • Gerontologists recommend strength training in
    addition to aerobic activity for older adults
  • Weightlifting can preserve muscle mass
  • Exercise helps people maintain independence and
    prevents institutionalization
  • Increases longevity

Nutrition and Weight
  • Leaner adults live longer, healthier lives
  • Calorie restriction works to increase life span
    of animals but human connection is not
    specifically known

Health Treatment
  • Quality of health treatment for older adults
    needs improvement
  • Geriatric nurses can be helpful
  • Quality of nursing homes varies and costs are
  • Concerns focus on patients medical care, right
    to privacy, access to medical information, safety
    and lifestyle freedom

Alternatives to Nursing Home Care
  • Home health care
  • Day-care centers
  • Preventive medicine clinics
  • Alternatives are potentially less expensive and
    less likely to depersonalize the patient
  • Patients perform better cognitively

Multidimensionality and Multidirectionality
  • Speed of processing information declines in late
  • Decline in speed is likely due to decline in
    functioning of brain and central nervous system
  • Health and exercise may be influencing factors

Cognitive Development
  • Ageism
  • Cognitive decline because of physical or social
  • What are common stereotypes of the elderly?
  • Do we see differences across cultures?

  • Selective attention -- focusing on a specific
    aspect of experience that is relevant while
    ignoring others that are irrelevant
  • Divided attention -- concentrating on more than
    one activity at the same time
  • Sustained attention -- state of readiness to
    detect and respond to small changes occurring at
    random times in the environment
  • also known as vigilance

  • Episodic memory -- retention of information about
    the where and when of lifes happenings
  • Semantic memory -- persons knowledge about the
  • fields of expertise general academic knowledge
    everyday knowledge of words, places, and things
  • Both show declines in older adults

  • Working memory -- closely linked to short-term
    memory but emphasizes memory as a place for
    mental work
  • Perceptual speed -- amount of time it takes to
    perform simple perceptual-motor tasks
  • Decline in perceptual speed in older adults is
    linked to decline in working memory

  • Explicit memory -- memory of facts and
    experiences that individuals consciously know and
    can state
  • also known as declarative memory
  • Implicit memory -- memory without conscious
    recollection it involves skills and routine
    procedures that are automatically performed
  • Implicit memory is less likely to be adversely
    affected by aging

  • Wisdom -- expert knowledge about the practical
    aspects of life that permits excellent judgment
    about important matters
  • practical knowledge
  • development of coping skills
  • High levels of wisdom are rare
  • Factors other than age are critical for wisdom to

Training Cognitive Skills
  • Training can improve the cognitive skills of many
    older adults
  • There is some loss of plasticity in late
    adulthood, especially in those older than 85
  • Cognitive vitality can be improved with training

Cognitive Neuroscience and Aging
  • Cognitive neuroscience -- field of study that
    links brain and cognitive functioning
  • Changes in brain can influence cognitive
    functioning, and changes in cognitive functioning
    can change brain
  • Lack of use of working memory may cause neural
    connections in prefrontal lobes to atrophy

  • Older adults increasingly work part-time in
  • Probability of employment also was positively
    correlated with educational attainment and being
    married to a working wife
  • Older workers have a lower rate of absenteeism,
    fewer accidents, and increased job satisfaction

Adjustment to Retirement
  • Best adjustment for those who are
  • healthy
  • have adequate income
  • active
  • educated
  • have an extended social network
  • satisfied with life before retirement

  • Major depression -- mood disorder in which the
    individual is deeply unhappy, demoralized,
    self-derogatory, and bored
  • Predictors of depression earlier symptoms, poor
    health, death of a spouse, and low social support
  • Insomnia is a risk factor for depression in older
  • Depression is a treatable condition

  • Dementia -- global term for any neurological
    disorder in which the primary symptoms involve a
    deterioration of mental functioning
  • Loss of ability to care for themselves and
    recognize familiar surroundings and people

Alzheimers Disease
  • Alzheimers Disease -- a progressive,
    irreversible brain disorder characterized by
    gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning,
    language, and eventually physical function
  • Early- (younger than 65) and late-onset (older
    than 65)
  • Formation of amyloid plaques -- deposits of
    protein accumulating in blood vessels
  • Neurofibrillary tangles -- twisted fibers that
    build up in neurons

Causes of Alzheimers Disease
  • No certain scientific proof of causes
  • Age is a risk factor
  • Genetic links seem to exist
  • Lifestyle factors
  • Lack of exercise
  • Mild cognitive impairment represents a
    transitional state between the cognitive changes
    of normal aging and very early Alzheimer disease
    and dementias

Care for Individuals with Alzheimers Disease
  • Family members and other care providers can
    become physically and emotionally drained
  • Need for respite care -- services that provide
    temporary relief to caregivers

Parkinsons Disease
  • Parkinsons disease -- a chronic, progressive
    disease characterized by muscle tremors, slowing
    of movement, and partial facial paralysis
  • Onset is triggered by degeneration of neurons
    that produce dopamine in the brain
  • Dopamine -- neurotransmitter necessary for normal
    brain functioning