Dar al-Islam - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Dar al-Islam PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 6ceda6-ZjEzY



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Dar al-Islam

Description:

... on Tigris River Richest city in the world (only Chang an ... the journey to holy city of Mecca that every adult Muslim must undertake at least once ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:18
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 73
Provided by: bean6
Learn more at: http://www.npenn.org
Category:
Tags: adult | dar | islam | only

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Dar al-Islam


1
Dar al-Islam
  • literally House of Islam
  • commonly refers to lands heavily influenced by
    Islam or where Muslims can practice freely
  • along with China, Dar al-Islam drives the history
    of the Post-Classical Era

2
Mediterranean Red Sea Persian Gulf Atlantic Ocean Arabian Peninsula Near East Anatolia Sahara Persia Byzantine Empire Umayyad Empire Abbasid Empire Damascus Baghdad Spain Cordoba
3
Key Terms
  • Arab
  • originally a resident of the Arabian Peninsula,
    then a speaker of Arabic
  • Bedouin
  • nomads of the Arabian Peninsula
  • Islam submission
  • monotheistic religion that grew out of
    Christianity teaching of Muhammad
  • Muslim one who submits
  • person who practices Islam

4
Nomadic Life in the
  • Pre-Islamic Arab World

5
Bedouins
  • Center of Arab culture
  • Tribal
  • Filled w/ rivalry competition
  • Animistic polytheism
  • On periphery of civilization

6
Towns Trade
  • Bedouin herders trade with oasis towns

7
(No Transcript)
8
Examples
9
Examples
10
Examples
11
The Rise of Islam

12
Muhammad
Jesus
Abraham David Moses
13
Judaism a primer
  • 1 god Yahweh
  • Prophets 1st Abraham, founder Moses
  • Religion of practice
  • Belief in covenant
  • Text Torah (Old Testament of Bible)
  • No clear hierarchy in leadership

14
Christianity a primer
  • 1 god Yahweh
  • Prophets 1st Abraham, founder Jesus
  • Religion of faith
  • Strong belief in missionary work
  • Text Bible - Old Testament New Testament
    (life of Jesus)
  • Hierarchical leadership (Pope in Rome, Patriarch
    in Constantinople)

15
Islam a primer
  • 1 god Allah
  • Prophets 1st Abraham, founder Muhammad
  • Religion of faith practice
  • Strong belief in missionary work
  • Text Quran believed to be exact word of god
  • No clear hierarchy

16
Islam
  • 5 Pillars
  • most basic customs that support Islam
  • Profession of Faith
  • There is only 1 god, Allah, and Muhammad is his
    messenger

17
Gulzar
18
Zoomorphic
19
Tughra
20
Bowl w/ Foliated Calligraphy
21
Qur'an
22
Rare illustrated version of the Life of the
Prophet
23
Marble Wall in Afghanistan
24
  • Practices 5 Pillars
  • Prayer
  • Pray 5 times daily at prescribed times (dawn,
    noon, afternoon, evening, after sundown)
  • Face Mecca

25
The Haram (Great Mosque)
26
(No Transcript)
27
  • Practices 5 Pillars
  • Charity
  • systematic giving of 2.5 of one's wealth each
    year to benefit the poor

28
Great Mosque of Qairawwan
29
Great Mosque of al-Mutawakkil
30
(No Transcript)
31
(No Transcript)
32
  • Practices 5 Pillars
  • Fasting
  • Fast during the holy month of Ramadan

33
  • Practices 5 Pillars
  • Pilgrimage (Hajj)
  • the journey to holy city of Mecca that every
    adult Muslim must undertake at least once

34
(No Transcript)
35
(No Transcript)
36
(No Transcript)
37
(No Transcript)
38
Significance of 5 Pillars on Islam
  • Unity, equality, common experience
  • Travel, trade, exchange
  • Building of universities centers of learning
  • Study of astronomy

39
Comparing Monotheistic Religions
  • Using World Civilization doc reader
  • Compare beliefs/attitudes toward god practices.
  • Judaism Old Testament (pg. 11)
  • Christianity New Testament (pg. 101)
  • Islam Koran (pg. 114)

40
(No Transcript)
41
Crisis After Muhammads Death
  • Faced Two Main Problems
  • Arabic tribes leave Muslim community
  • Who should succeed Muhammad leadership?
  • Caliph (successor, deputy) political religious
    leader
  • Results
  • Dispute b/t Sunni Shia

42
Sunni
  • Feel that devout Muslims can be caliphs even if
    not related to Muhammad
  • Make up approximately 80 of world Muslim
    population today
  • Supported Abu Bakr
  • Friend of Muhammad's early convert to Islam
  • Becomes 1st caliph

43
Shi'a
  • Only accepted caliphs who were direct descendants
    of Muhammad
  • Supported Ali
  • Muhammads cousin son-in-law
  • Believe rule of first three caliphs was
    illegitimate

44
(No Transcript)
45
Crisis After Muhammads Death
  • Result of dispute b/t Sunni Shia
  • Conflict allows the sunni Umayyad clan to rise to
    power

46
Umayyad Empire
  • -Arab
  • -Conquerors

47
Timeline pt1
  • 597 Byzantine Persian Wars
  • 613 Muhammad begins preaching
  • 632-661 Early Caliphs
  • 661-750 Umayyad Empire

48
(No Transcript)
49
Umayyad Empire stretched from Spain to central
Asia
  • Administrative Reforms
  • Caliph appointed governors to rule far-flung
    provinces
  • Governors ruled from strong garrison towns
  • Spoils from victories helped finance Umayyad
    government
  • Bureaucracy military dominated by Muslim Arab
    elite

50
  • Instituted a three-level tax system
  • 1) Muslim Arabs
  • approx 4 of population
  • not taxed
  • 2) Muslim converts (non-Arab)
  • approx 6 of population, largest land owners
  • paid land tax
  • 3) Non-Muslims People of the Book
  • approx 90 of population
  • paid land tax
  • paid jizya (head tax) for security
  • subject to own laws courts

51
The Down Fall of Umayyad in 750
  • Revolt?
  • Led by
  • Devout Muslims upset with extravagance of Umayyad
    leadership
  • Shias
  • Muslim converts (non-Arabs)

52
(No Transcript)
53
Abbasid Caliphate
  • Replaced Umayyad in 750
  • Read primary docs to find out what Abbasid Empire
    its capital city (Bagdad) was like
  • Ben Tudela was Jewish from Spain
  • Ibn Battuta was Muslim from Morocco
  • What was Baghdad Abbasid leadership like
    according to these two travelers?
  • How does the authors backgrounds influence their
    accounts?

54
Abbasid
  • -Islamic flowering
  • -Preservers

55
Umayyad
Abbasid
56
Mediterranean Red Sea Persian Gulf Atlantic Ocean Arabian Peninsula Near East Anatolia Sahara Persia Byzantine Empire Umayyad Empire Abbasid Empire Damascus Baghdad Spain Cordoba
57
Timeline pt2
  • 750-1258 Abbasid
  • 777-809 strong Abbasid Era, wars of succession
  • 945 Buyid Persians capture Baghdad
  • 1055 Seljuk Turks capture Baghdad
  • 1096 Crusades start
  • 1258 Mongols overthrow Abbasid, end Caliphate

58
Rise of Abbasid Party
  • Abbasid
  • (the party of Abbas, tracing descent from
    Muhammads uncle)
  • Revolt dethroned Umayyad captured capital
  • Supported by
  • Devout Muslims who opposed extravagant Umayyad
  • Persian Muslims who resented secondary status
  • Shia Muslims who did not recognize Sunni caliphs
  • al-Abbas slaughtered Umayyad family at
    Reconciliation Banquet

59
Early Abbasid Era
  • Built off of Umayyad precedent
  • Rejected revolutionary allies (Shia) defended
    Sunni
  • Time of
  • Wealth
  • Learning
  • But, clearly different

60
Islamic Conversion
  • Mass conversions to Islam were encouraged
    throughout the empire.
  • Most converts were won over peacefully because of
    appeal of Islamic beliefs and advantages they
    enjoyed
  • - didnt have to pay head tax
  • - educational opportunities
  • - jobs as traders, administrators, judges

61
Abbasid Policies
  • Centralizing forces
  • More complex bureaucracy
  • Created position of chief minister, wazir
  • Used Persian ruling concepts
  • Decentralizing forces
  • Strained leadership succession problems
  • Influence of external groups
  • Provinces at outer reaches broke away or failed
    to forward taxes

62
Wealth Prosperity
  • Commercial boom financed art, literature, palaces
  • Thrones of gold jewels
  • Harems
  • Elitism!

63
Thousand and One Nights
  • Read inset on pg. 145
  • Answer the questions at the bottom

64
Reason for wealth learning
  • Agrarian Expansion
  • Commercial Boom

65
New Crops Urban Growth
  • Several factors led to strong internal economy
  • Location
  • Size of empire
  • Beliefs of Islam
  • Hajj
  • View of merchants
  • People of the Book

66
New Crops Urban Growth
  • Fostered diffusion of crops technologies
  • Sugarcane, rice, eggplants, oranges, lemons,
    limes, bananas, coconuts, watermelons, cotton
  • Irrigation, fertilization, crop rotation
  • Impact more planting seasons, increased food
    supplies, urban growth, wealthy merchant
    landlord class, slave trade
  • Camel, camel saddle, compass, paper, astrolabe,
    triangular lateen sail, dhows
  • Impact formation of hemispheric trading zone

67
Hemispheric Trading Zone
  • Acting as merchants on Silk Roads
  • Acting as merchants on Trans-Sahara Routes
  • Acting as merchants on Indian Ocean
  • Impact Interconnection b/t Africa, Europe, South
    Asia, Southeast Asia, China Improved banking
    New business forms that spread risks
  • Example Africa

68
Wealth Prosperity
  • Commercial boom fostered urbanization
  • Baghdad
  • New capital
  • Richest city in the world

69
Era of Learning
  • Commercial boom financed science
  • After Islam
  • Receptive to accomplishments of conquered civs
  • Translated built on Greek works
  • Religious, legal, philosophical, scientific,
    mathematic treatises flourish
  • (Empire of Faith Baghdad city of scholars
    science)

70
Review Compare Caliphates
  • With a partner, create a poster of words
    visuals that compares contrasts
  • the Umayyad Empire OR the Abbasid Empire
  • with
  • A classical empire of your choice.

71
Review Impact of Islam on World
72
Timeline pt3
  • 1291
  • Last Christian Crusader state falls
  • 1300s
  • Ottoman Turks enter Middle East fill power
    vacuum
  • 1453
  • Ottomans conquer Constantinople, establishing a
    new Muslim empire in the Middle East ending the
    Byzantine
About PowerShow.com