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Acids and Bases

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Acids and Bases Chapter 19 Hydrolysis Cations of weak bases donate hydrogen ions leaving solutions acidic Buffer Solution in which the pH remains relatively constant ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Acids and Bases


1
Acids and Bases
  • Chapter 19

2
Review
  • Electrolyte
  • A substance that conducts an electrical current
    when melted or in solution
  • Ionic compounds

3
Acid-Base Theories
  • Different definitions of acids and bases
  • Arrhenius
  • Bronsted-Lowry
  • Lewis

4
Arrhenius
  • Acid
  • Compounds that ionize to produce hydrogen ions
    (H) in aqueous solutions
  • Examples HCl, HBr, H2SO4, CH3COOH
  • Note CH3COOH is an organic acid

5
Arrhenius
  • Base
  • Compounds that ionize to produce hydroxide ions
    (OH-) in aqueous solutions
  • Examples KOH, NaOH, LiOH
  • Note CH3OH is not a base, its an organic
    alcohol

6
Bronsted-Lowry
  • Acid
  • Hydrogen ion donor
  • Examples HCl, HBr, H3O
  • Base
  • Hydrogen ion acceptor
  • Examples H2O, NH3

7
Lewis
  • Acid
  • Accepts a pair of electrons
  • Example H
  • Base
  • Donates a pair of electrons
  • Example OH-

8
Acid-Base Theory
9
Properties of Acids
  • Taste Sour
  • Will change color of acid base indicator
  • Can be strong or weak electrolytes in an aqueous
    solution

10
Properties of Bases
  • Taste Bitter
  • Feel Slippery
  • Will change color of acid base indicator
  • Can be strong or weak electrolytes in an aqueous
    solution

11
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12
Ionization
  • Electrolytes will dissociate into ions when
    dissolved in water
  • Strong Electrolytes will completely dissociate
  • Weak Electrolytes will only partially dissociate

13
Ionization of Water
  • Water can be split into 2 ions
  • H and OH-
  • Ionization of Water
  • H2O ? H OH-
  • H2O H2O ? H3O OH-

14
Strong Acids
  • Completely dissociate when in solution
  • HCl(s) ? H(aq) Cl-(aq)
  • HNO3(s) ? H(aq) NO3-(aq)

15
Polyprotic Acids
  • Acids that have more than one H
  • ExamplesH2SO4, H3PO4
  • Can release more than one H into solution
  • H2SO4(s) ? 2H(aq) SO42-(aq)

16
Strong Bases
  • Completely dissociate when in solution
  • NaOH(s) ? Na(aq) OH-(aq)
  • KOH(s) ? K(aq) OH-(aq)

17
Neutral Solutions
  • For neutral solutions
  • H OH-
  • For all aqueous solutions
  • H OH- 1.0 x 10-14

18
Measuring Acidity (Alkalinity)
  • Traditionally we measure H
  • pH -log H
  • Neutral solution H 1.0 x 10-7
  • pH 7
  • pOH -log OH-
  • pH pOH 14

19
Acidity
  • Acidic Solutions pH lt 7.0
  • H gt 1.0 x 10-7
  • Basic Solutions pH gt 7.0
  • H lt 1.0 x 10-7

20
Changes in pH
  • pH increases by 1 for every decrease in H by a
    magnitude of 10

H pH
1.010-7 7
1.010-8 8
1.010-9 9
1.010-10 10
21
Measuring pH
  • Litmus paper
  • Red in acid
  • Blue in base
  • pH paper
  • pH Meter
  • Acid Base Indicators (Table M)

22
Table M
23
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24
Neutralization
  • Acid Base ? Water Salt
  • Double Replacement Reaction
  • HA BOH ? HOH BA

25
Neutralization
  • Examples
  • HCl NaOH ? H2O NaCl
  • HNO3 LiOH ? H2O LiNO3
  • H2SO4 2KOH ? 2 H2O K2SO4

26
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27
Titration
  • Process in which a volume of solution known
    concentration is used to determine the
    concentration of another solution
  • Usually shown by a color change of an indicator
    (end point)

28
Titration Example
  • 2 Liters of an unknown conc. of NaOH is titrated
    with 1 Liter of 6M HCl, what is the concentration
    of the base?
  • MAVA MBVB
  • (6M) (1L) (X) (2L)
  • X 3M NaOH

29
Polyprotic Acids
  • Acids that have more than one H
  • ExamplesH2SO4, H3PO4
  • H2SO4 1M
  • H 2M
  • H3PO4 1M
  • H 3M

30
Another Titration Example
  • 500 milliliters of an unknown conc. of NaOH is
    titrated with 1 Liter of 1M H2SO4, what is the
    concentration of the base?
  • MAVA MBVB
  • (2M) (1L) (X) (0.5L)
  • X 4M NaOH

31
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32
Hydrolysis
  • In salt hydrolysis, cations or anions of
    dissociated salts remove hydrogen ions from or
    donate hydrogen ions to water

33
Hydrolysis
  • Anions of weak acids remove hydrogen ions leaving
    solution basic

34
Hydrolysis
  • Cations of weak bases donate hydrogen ions
    leaving solutions acidic

35
Buffer
  • Solution in which the pH remains relatively
    constant when small amounts of acid or base are
    added
  • Solution of a weak acid and one of its salts, or
    a solution of a weak base and one of its salts
  • H2CO3/HCO3-
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