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Wars: Korea and Vietnam

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Title: Wars: Korea and Vietnam


1
Wars Korea and Vietnam
  • The Korean War
  • 1950-1953

2
38th Parallel
  • After WWII Korea is a divided nation
  • 38th Parallel divides North the Japanese
    surrendered to the Soviets (Com-munist)
  • South surrendered to the U.S.

3
Standoff
  • 1949 Most troops from U.S. and Soviet R. were
    withdrawn
  • Gamble Soviets did not think U.S. would defend
    S. Korea so they armed the North to take over.

4
Surprise Attack
  • 1950 N. Korea crossed the 38th Parallel and
    attacked S. Korea
  • Pres. Truman was determined to keep S. Korea
    non-communist
  • S. Korea sought help from the UN
  • Soviets were absent in protest could not veto
    any votes
  • 15 nations (incl. U.S. and Britain) participated
    in helping S. Korea

5
Douglas MacArthur
  • Was in charge
  • 1950 launched a surprise attack
  • Pincer Action troops moving north from Pusan
    (non-communist) met amphibian landing at Inchon.
  • Half of the North Koreans surrendered the rest
    retreated.

6
The Fighting Continues
  • The UN troops (mainly U.S.) pursued the
    retreating N. Koreans back to N. Korea to the
    Chinese border
  • 1950 the Chinese felt threatened and sent
    300,000 troops into N. Korea
  • They outnumbered the UN troops and drove the U.N.
    and S. Korean troops out of N. Korea.
  • Then, they captured the S. Korean capital of
    Seoul.

7
We face an entirely new war. D. MacArthur
  • MacArthur wanted a nuclear attack against China.
  • Truman thought this reckless said no.
  • MacArthur went to Congress and the press.
  • Truman removed him.

8
Next Two Years
  • UN forces fought to drive the Chinese and N.
    Koreans back.
  • 1952 UN troops regain control of S. Korea
  • 1953 UN forces and N. Korea signed a cease-fire
    agreement
  • The border was set again near the 38th parallel.
  • 4 million soldiers and civilians had died.

9
Aftermath
  • Korea remained divided a demilit-arized (no
    military activity) zone it still exists
  • North Korea Kim Il Sung communist and
    established collective farms
  • He developed heavy industry and built up the
    military.
  • Died - 1994

10
Next North Korean Leader
  • Sungs son, Kim Jong Il, took over.
  • Developed nuclear weapons had serious economic
    problems

11
South Korea
  • Prospered because of massive aid from U.S. and
    other countries who were anti-communist
  • 1960s concentrated on developing industry and
    foreign trade
  • 1987 free elections
  • 1980s 90s S. Korea had one of the highest
    econ. growth rates in the world.

12
Today.
  • North and South Korea still divided over
    political differences
  • N. Koreas possession of nuclear weapons is a
    major obstacle.
  • The U.S. still keeps troops in S. Korea

13
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14
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15
You Tube Video 2824 The Korean War 1950-53
16
The Vietnam War 1957 - 1973
17
Vietnam
  • Stemmed from Cold War Containment policy
  • After WW2, stopping communism was the goal of
    U.S. foreign policy

18
Ho Chi Minh
  • Early 1900s France controlled most of Southeast
    Asia aka Indochina (now Vietnam, Laos, and
    Cambodia)
  • Vietnam resource-rich
  • Nationalist indepen-dence Movement began
  • Ho Chi Minh leader

19
  • He turned to Communists for help
  • 1930s his Indochinese Communist Party led
    revolts against the French
  • The French jailed protesters also sentenced Ho
    Chi Minh to death
  • He fled into exile returned to Vietnam in 1941

20
-Japanese had control of during WW2 -Ho and
other nationalists founded the Vietminh
(Independence) League -1945 Defeated, the
Japanese were forced out of Vietnam, -Ho Chi
Minh thought they would have independence -The
French wanted to regain Vietnam as its colony
21
The Fighting Begins
  • Vietnamese Nationalists and Communists joined to
    fight the French
  • French held most major cities
  • Vietminh had widespread countryside support
  • Vietminh used hit-and-run tactics to confine the
    French to the cities
  • 1954 major French defeat at Dien Bien Phu
  • French surrendered to Ho

22
Domino Theory
  • Because of the French defeat, U.S. saw a threat
    to the rest of Asia
  • President Eisenhower the SE Asian nations were
    like a row of dominoes
  • The fall of one to communism, would lead to the
    fall of its neighbors

23
  • This was the major justification for U.S. foreign
    policy during the Cold War

24
A Divided Country
  • After Fr. Defeat international peace conference
    in Geneva
  • To discuss the future of Indochina
  • Vietnam was divided at 17degree north latitude

25
Leaders
  • North Ho Chi Minh and Communist forces
  • South the U.S. and France set up an
    anti-Communist govt. under
  • Ngo Dinh Diem - he became a dictator

26
Vietcong
  • Opposition to Diems govt. grew
  • Vietcong were Communist guerrillas - trained
    soldiers from N. Vietnam
  • Most were S. Vietnamese who hated Diem

27
  • Gradually the Vietcong won control of the large
    areas of the countryside
  • 1963 a group of S. Vietnamese generals had Diem
    assassinated.
  • New leaders were just as bad as Diem
  • A takeover by the Communist Vietcong, backed by
    N. Vietnam was inevitable

28
The U.S. Gets Involved
  • 1964 Pres. Lyndon Johnson told Congress that
    two U.S. destroyers were attacked by the N.
    Vietnamese Gulf of Tonkin
  • Congress gave the okay to have U.S. troops go
    into Vietnam

29
  • 1965 185,000 U.S. soldiers were in Vietnam
  • U.S. planes had begun to bomb N. Vietnam
  • 1968 more than half a million U.S. soldiers
    were in combat there.

30
Two Major Problems for the U.S.
  • U.S. troops were the best equipped and most
    advan-ced, but
  • 1. Guerrilla warfare was new to them
  • Unfamiliar country
  • 2. S. Vietnam (U.S. was fighting for them) was
    unpopular

31
U.S. Air Power
  • Unable to win a victory on ground U.S. used air
    power
  • Bombed millions of acres of farmland and forests
    to destroy enemy hideouts
  • This made peasants hate S. Vietnam even more and
    opposed their government

32
The United States Withdraws
  • Late 1960s U.S. citizens protested war too
    much loss of life
  • 1969 - Pres. Richard Nixon starts withdrawing
    U.S. troops from Vietnam in 1969

33
Vietnamization
  • U.S. troops would gradually pull out giving South
    Vietnam an increased combat role
  • Nixon authorized a massive bombing campaign
    against N. Vietnam bases and supply routes
  • Also authorized bombing of Laos and Cambodia to
    destroy Vietcong hideouts

34
  • Because of U.S. protesting, Nixon kept
    withdrawing U.S. troops
  • 1973 the last U.S. troops left
  • Two years later N. Vietnam overran S. Vietnam
  • 1.5 million Vietnamese died
  • 58,000 Americans died

35
Draft Protests
  • 18-26 years of age
  • 366 blue plastic capsules contained the birthdays
    that would be chosen in the first Vietnam draft
    lottery drawing on December 1, 1969. The first
    birth date drawn that night, assigned the lowest
    number, "001," was September 14. (Selective
    Service Archive)

36
How to avoid being drafted
  • Student or medical deferments
  • Other reasons (hardship)
  • Volunteered
  • Fled to Canada

37
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38
Kent State May 4, 1970
  • When Pres. Nixon okayed the inva-sion of
    Cambodian to destroy Viet-namese Commu-nist bases
  • U.S. nationwide protest on college campuses
  • Military was sent to Kent State

39
  • 4 students died
  • 9 wounded
  • U.S. was shocked

40
You Tube Kent State Shooting 40 years later
359
41
Vietnam Memorial Wash. DC
42
L360 U.S. Wars Vietnam War 2827
43
Assignment Draw a Venn diagram and compare and
contrast the Korean and Vietnam Wars.
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