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Vietnam War

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Vietnam War 1964-1973 Early History Chinese refer to area as Nam Viet 111 B.C. to 939 A.D China ruled over Vietnam and the Vietnamese constantly fought their rule ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Vietnam War


1
Vietnam War
  • 1964-1973

2
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3
Early History
  • Chinese refer to area as Nam Viet
  • 111 B.C. to 939 A.D China ruled over Vietnam
    and the Vietnamese constantly fought their rule
  • 939 A.D. to 1887 semi-independence from China
    and allowed for Vietnamese culture to grow

4
French enter the picture Why?
  • Hoping to secure land and sea bases from Europe
    to Asia
  • Competing with British for colonial possessions
  • Trying to convert area to Catholicism
  • French signed treaty in 1887 creating Indochina

5
WWII
  • Vietnamese resist Japanese control over the area
  • Office of Strategic Services (OSS) works with Ho
    Chi Minh to rescue downed allied pilots
  • War ends and Ho issues Declaration of
    Independence and at the same time French reassert
    control

6
First Indochina War 1945 - 1954
  • Truman has a choice?
  • - Ho Chi Minh
  • -French rule as colonial power
  • French use fear of communism saying that if they
    lost Indochina then they would be too weak and
    their government would fall to French Communist
    party
  • 1952, US supplied 1/3 of French military budget

7
Siege of Dien Bien Phu
8
Siege
  • French want to create a fortress and battle enemy
    in one of attrition
  • Viet Minh bring in 40,000 additional troops
    around Dien Bien Phu and put it to a siege
  • Lasts from March 1954 to May 7 1954 when the
    French surrendered
  • French- 3,000 killed and Viet Minh 8,000 killed

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10
Why they lost?
  1. They are French
  2. Monsoon weather did not allow ofr successful
    supply drops
  3. Too far from supply base
  4. Viet Minh held the high ground
  5. Did not bomb Viet Minh positions with significant
    aircraft

11
Geneva Conference - 1954
  • Split Vietnam along 17th parallel
  • Called for elections to unite country in 1956
    (Diem worried Ho would fix elections but North
    had greater population not necessary)
  • Withdrawal of French Union Forces from Indochina
  • Leader in the North Ho Chi Minh
  • Leader in the South Ngo Dinh Diem

12
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13
Democratic Republic of VietnamAKA North Vietnam
  • Leader Ho Chi Minh led anti-colonial forces
    from 1945 to his death in 1969
  • Vo Nguyen Giap commander of all military forces
    in North Vietnam from 1945 to 1973
  • Le Duan took over control of North Vietnam
    after death of Ho Chi Minh
  • Pham Van Dong skillfull diplomat

14
Leaders
15
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16
North Vietnam Organizations
  • Viet Minh (NVA) organization of committed
    communists founded in 1941
  • Viet Cong (VC) opposition communist group in
    South Vietnam committed to overthrowing Diem
    government
  • Lao Dong Party - name of communist party
    organization

17
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18
The Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam)
  • Ngo Dinh Diem worked with the US as Prime
    Minister of South Vietnam. His policies would
    alienate many South Vietnam people
  • Duong Van Minh - military General of the South
    Vietnamese army (ARVN)

19
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20
Diems policies
  • Sought harsh methods to root out communists at
    the village and city level
  • Tru Gian Viet Minh organization devoted to
    political assassinations
  • -1959, 1,000 assassinations
  • - ignored the corrupt and inefficient
    officials

21
Ho Chi Minhs trouble
  • a poorly executed plan nearly resulted in famine
  • The five-year plan failed
  • Overall Goal of Ho - wants to unite North and
    South into one communist country and expel US
    use NVA and VC

22
Eisenhower and Vietnam
  • Sent military equipment and financial aid to
    France
  • 1955 set up Military Assistance advisory Croup
    Vietnam (MAAGV) worked as military advisors in
    training ARVN capped at 342
  • Tried to work with French in the South unitl they
    left in 1956
  • Domino theory increases US interests in Vietnam

23
Eisenhower and Vietnam
  • Sent Ed Lansdale to support Diem and counter
    coups against him
  • State Department representative Collins does not
    support Diem

24
Eisenhower and Vietnam
  • By end of of 2nd term Eisenhower increased
    military advisors to 700
  • Also sent more military men in civilian clothes
    to get around cap on foreign military troops in
    Vietnam

25
Kennedy and Vietnam
  • 1960 campaign vowed to be strong on communism
  • Kennedy believed in exporting democracy and
    capitalism to stop spread of communism
  • Knowing this Diem screams Communists! and gets
    more aid from Kennedy

26
Increasing aid
  • Diem request enough aid for a 270,000 men ARVN
    force
  • Increased VC activity leads to Diems call for US
    combat troops
  • Kennedy sends General Taylor and Walt Rostow

27
Two policies to choose from
  • Increase military advisors and support units of
    pilots and helicopters
  • Also, send 8,000 combat soldiers to help with
    humanitarian relief
  • Send six divisions numbering 200,000 soldiers to
    Vietnam
  • Shows commitment to Vietnam

28
Counterinsurgency
Green Berets
29
Winning the hearts and minds
  • Building schools
  • Providing medical assistance
  • Improving irrigation and roads
  • Protecting Vietnamese peasants from the Viet Cong
  • Colin Powell was an advisor during these years
  • VC
  • -taxing them
  • -Drafting their young men into service
  • -Terrorizing them

30
Assassination of Diem
  • Ruled as a virtual dictator
  • Gave preference to Catholics in government
    positions, and giving land
  • Hamlet programs were a disaster
  • Banned the display of Buddhist flags (90 of
    country was Buddhist)

31
Kennedy and the Vietnam war
  • Increased advisors from 700 to 16,000
  • Ordered withdrawal of 1,000 advisors
  • Diem coup created revolving door governments and
    great instability
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