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DISEASE

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DISEASE An abnormal or malfunctioning condition in the body. When the body is unable to cope with, adapt to, or fight off injury, infection, stress, or any other ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: DISEASE


1
DISEASE
  • An abnormal or malfunctioning condition in the
    body.
  • When the body is unable to cope with, adapt to,
    or fight off injury, infection, stress, or any
    other environmental situation.

2
INFECTIOUS DISEASES
  • Also called COMMUNICABLE diseases
  • Caused by PATHOGENS
  • Can be passed from person to person
  • Name some examples.

3
TYPES OF PATHOGENSBacteria
  • Bacteria is a one celled organism
  • Bacterial infections can be treated with
    ANTIBIOTICS
  • Some bacteria is needed and good for our body to
    function normally

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Bacteria good for you???
  • Probiotics
  • Over 400 species found in the walls of the
    stomach and intestines
  • Some bacteria that are found in yogurt that are
    beneficial to our bodies
  • 2 points extra creditfind me the name of two
    bacteria in yogurt
  • In the intestine there are 10 to the power 14
    bacteria (that's 1000,000,000,000,000 bacteria -
    a million billion bacteria).
  • The gut does not replace these bacteria and can
    easily be flushed out of the digestive tract.

8
VIRUSES
  • Smallest of all the pathogens
  • Needs a living host
  • The viruss genetic material directs the cell to
    produce more of the virusmultiplies.
  • Examples of Viruses..
  • Colds, flu, measles, ebola, herpes, hepatitis,
    HPV, rabies, HIV

9
Flu Attack How a Virus Invades Your Body
10
FUNGUS
  • Plant-like organism that feeds off a host.
  • The reproductive cell, or spore, of a fungus can
    be spread by direct contact, air, and water.
  • Examples are
  • Athlete's foot, jock itch, ringworm, nail
    fungus..

11
Keep Your Feet Amazing!!
12
PROTISTS
  • One celled organisms
  • Common in tropical countries
  • Panama Canal and Malaria
  • French 1st
  • United States 2nd
  • DDT

13
PARASITES
  • Organisms that live by feeding on or in another
    animal
  • Pinworm Enter your body when eggs are swallowed.
  • Hookworm You can get hookworms by walking
    barefoot over contaminated (fecal) soil.
  • Body/Head/Pubic Lice
  • Food borne diseases
  • Scabies (Mite Infestation)

14
  • Between 1900- 1920
  • Tape Worms were
  • all the rage!
  • They were packaged
  • and then ingested for
  • a quick diet fix.
  • YIKES!!!!

15
Monsters inside me Flesh Eating Hook Worms
16
Monsters Inside Me Bot Fly Invasion
17
NON-INFECTIOUS DISEASES
  • Also called Non-Communicable Diseases
  • Caused by genetics, diet, lifestyle, or by
    chance.
  • Name some examples of
  • NON-INFECTIOUS DISEASES

18
How to spread Infectious Diseases?
  • Through the AIR
  • Foods that are contaminated
  • Direct contact
  • Blood to Blood
  • Animal Bites vector-carrier
  • Indirect contact (needles)

19
How does the body fight infectious diseases?
  • Structural Defenses The bodys first form of
    defense.
  • Examples
  • Skin, cilia, mucous membranes, and tonsils.

20
  • Cellular Defenses
  • Designed to attack foreign invaders
  • Examples
  • White blood cells (phagocytes) fever/inflammations

21
  • Immune System Takes over when the WBCs and
    fever are overwhelmed.
  • The lymph nodes produce 2 types of cells
  • T-cells and B-cells

22
T-Cells 3 TYPES
  • Helper T-cells
  • Start immune response, triggered by phagocytes.
  • Killer T-cells
  • Divide and destroy invaders
  • Suppressors
  • Turn off the immune system
  • Helper T-cells Killer T-cells
    Suppressor Cells

23
B-CELLS
  • Produce antibodies which stick to a pathogen and
    make it difficult to attack a body cell
  • ANTIBODY Proteins in the blood that produce
    reactions against pathogens

24
  • VACCINATIONS
  • Small doses of the disease to force the body to
    produce antibodies.
  • ANTIBIOTICS
  • Medicines that are used to fight disease causing
    bacteria

25
Hepatitis Causes serious liver damage
  • Type A Caused from food contaminated by fecal
    material (usually cleared up in 4-8 weeks)
  • Type B Spread by blood, semen, saliva, body
    fluids. No cure.
  • Type C Spread through blood exchange. No cure

26
HIV and AIDS
  • HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus
  • AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
  • WHAT IS IT?
  • A complex syndrome in which HIV invades the
    T-cells, takes over the nucleus, then divides. It
    divides into 2 more HIV and 1 less T-cell.
    Without the T-cells the body cant fight
    infections.

27
What body fluids?
  • Semen
  • Vaginal Secretions
  • Blood
  • Breast Milk

28
How is HIV spread?
  • Unprotected sex with an infected person
  • Vaginal, Oral, Anal
  • Mother to child
  • Needles (IV intravenously)
  • Blood to Blood
  • Needles (IM intramuscular)

29
  • CARRIER
  • A person who tests positive for HIV but shows no
    signs or symptoms of the disease
  • INCUBATION
  • The period of time between exposure to a disease
    and the onset of symptoms

Opportunistic diseases Pneumocystic Carini
Pneumonia (PCP) Karposes Sarcoma Tuberculosis
30
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
  • Your task is to investigate a STD
  • All of the information you find you will transfer
    to a poster/pamphlet and present to the class as
    experts on your topic
  • Information must include
  • What is it? What is it caused by?
  • What are symptoms for Men and Women?
  • How is it spread?
  • How is it diagnosed?
  • Treatments? Cures?
  • Places to get help? Three other facts?

31
Non-Infectious Diseases
  • Non-infectious diseases can come from
  • HEREDITY Caused by a defective gene passed from
    one or both parents to child.

32
Common Hereditary Diseases
  • Sickle Cell Anemia Deformed RBCs
  • Cystic Fibrosis A very thick mucus builds up in
    the lungs and digestive tract
  • Hemophilia Blood does not clot well (males)
  • Diabetes Insulin is either lacking or not being
    used properly
  • Type I (Juvenile/ Childhood)
  • Type II (Adult/Late Onset)

33
TYPE II Diabetes(Late Onset)
  • The body produces insulin but the body does not
    use it properly
  • Causes
  • Poor Diet
  • Lack of exercise
  • Obesity
  • Treatments
  • Proper healthy diet
  • Exercise
  • Weight loss

34
TYPE I Diabetes(Juvenile)
  • Caused by an attack on the pancreas
  • (Isles of Langerhans)
  • Little to no insulin is made by this organ.
  • What happens when there is no insulin?
  • AboutKidsHealth Diabetes An Overview of Insulin

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Congenital Diseases
  • Present from birth,
  • but is NOT inherited!!!
  • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
  • Cerebral Palsy Brain damage that causes
    paralysis cant control muscles
  • Epilepsy Electrical activity in the brain
    becomes abnormal for short periods of time.

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38
Auto immune Diseases
  • A persons own immune system attacks itself
    damaging organs
  • Examples
  • Type I Diabetes
  • Multiple Sclerosis
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis

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Degenerative Diseases
  • A disease that results from gradual damage over
    time
  • Cardiovascular Disease Progressive damage to the
    heart and blood vessels
  • Atherosclerosis
  • Hypertension
  • Heart Attack
  • Stroke

41
Images of Atherosclerosis
42
Images of a Heart Attack
43
STROKES
44
CANCER
  • Cells that have undergone a rapid, uncontrolled
    growth. These cells invade and destroy other
    tissue.

45
Two Types of Tumors
  • Benign
  • Usually harmless.
  • Does not metastasize.
  • Malignant
  • Uncontrolled growth
  • May metastasize.

Metastasize Spread through the body as in Cancer
Cells
46
  • Change in bowel or bladder habits
  • A sore that doesnt heal
  • Unusual bleeding or discharge
  • Thickening or lump in the breast or elsewhere
  • Indigestion or difficulty swallowing
  • Obvious change in a wart or mole
  • Nagging cough or hoarseness

47
Ways to treat CANCER
  • Surgery Removal of the cancerous tissue
  • Radiation Therapy Exposing the cancerous tissue
    to X-rays
  • Chemotherapy Powerful drugs used to destroy
    cells or slow growth. Also used when the cells
    have metastasized.

48
BIOPSY
  • A tiny tissue sample is taken from the growth
    and examined under a microscope to detect
    cancerous cells

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CarcinogensCancer Causing Agents
51
HOW TO PREVENT CANCER
  • See last page in packet!!
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