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World War I 1914-1919

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Title: World War I 1914-1919


1
World War I 1914-1919
http//www.historyofwar.org/Maps/ww1_a_prewar.gif
2
Causes of WWI- M.A.I.N
  • MILITARISM
  • ALLIANCES
  • IMPERIALISM
  • NATIONALISM

M.A.I.N.
3
Nationalism- Germany France
  • Germany was feeling strong ? military and new
    industrial growth
  • France wanted to regain
  • power as was before
  • Congress of Vienna
  • Regain pride/territory lost during
    Franco-Prussian War in 1870

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Austria-Hungary Empire
7
Nationalism- Eastern Europe
  • Russia- supported nationalism called Pan-Slavism
  • Russia ? defend all Slavs (Serbia)
  • Threatened Austria-Hungary and Ottoman Empires

POWDER KEG OF EUROPE
8
Militarism- Glorification of Military
  • Part of Social Darwinism
  • Increase in size of armies and navies
  • Germany V. Britain expanded funding for navies
    (Why Britain?)

http//www.mrswallace.com/Alliances/empiremap.jpg
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Standing Armies in Europe 1914
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Alliances- Central Vs. Allies
  • Two Big Alliances
  • Triple Alliance (1882) Germany, Italy, and
    Austria-Hungary (Ottoman)
  • Triple Entente (1904) France, Russia, and
    Britain (Japan)

http//www.historyofwar.org/Maps/ww1_a_prewar.gif
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Italys Irredenta
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Assassination- Immediate Cause
  • Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary was
    killed in Bosnia (nephew of Emperor)
  • Who/Why? Serbian (Slavs) nationalists wanted
    self-rule and end foreign government

http//clio.rediris.es/udidactica/IGM/images/assas
sination_archduke_ferdinand.gif
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Chain Reaction
  • Austria-Hungary got Germanys support (declared
    war on Serbia)
  • Serbia got help from Russia (Germany declared war
    on Russia)
  • Russia asked for help from France (Germany
    declared war on France)
  • Italy and Britain remain neutral at first

18
http//www.johndclare.net/images/Alliances.GIF
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The Great War
One out of every four men who went out to the
World War did not come back again
21
A Multi-Front War
  • German von-Schleifen Plan
  • Will it work?

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The Western Front
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The Western Front
  • Russia won small victories at first ? led Germany
    to move troops from the west to the east
  • Stalemate? deadlock

http//www.uark.edu/campus-resources/mbracy/Wester
nFront.jpg
24
http//coursedocs.slcc.edu/huma/1100/World20War2
0I.jpg
25
Trench Warfare
  • Dug out trenches
  • Hot summers, cold winters
  • No mans land ? in between enemy trenches

http//occawlonline.pearsoned.com/bookbind/pubbook
s/divine5e/medialib/images/div0093.jpeg
26
Trench Warfare http//www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.u
k/FWWtrenchsystem.JPG
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Trench Warfare
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Trench Warfare
No Mans Land
29
Verdun February, 1916
  • German offensive.
  • Each side had 500,000 casualties.

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The Somme July, 1916
  • 60,000 British soldiers killed in one day.
  • Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months.

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War Is HELL !!
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Sacrifices in War
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Krupps Big Bertha Gun
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Battles- Takes a Toll
  • 1916- attacks to break the stalemate
  • 11 month struggle that cost ½ million deaths on
    both sides (Verdun)
  • 1 million killed at Somme River with no side
    gaining an advantage

http//www.bergoiata.org/fe/digit/Digital20Art20
-20Chess20board20by20Joe20Wallis20-202002.j
pg
36
TheEasternFront
37
The Gallipoli Disaster, 1915
38
Turkish Cavalry in Palestine
39
T. E. Lawrence the Arab Revolt, 1916-18
40
T. E. Lawrence Prince Faisal at Versailles,
1918-19
41
The Tsar with General Brusilov
42
TheColonialFronts
43
Sikh British Soldiers in India
44
Fighting in Africa
Black Soldiers in the German SchutztruppenGerman
E. Africa
British Sikh Mounstain Gunner
45
Fighting in Africa
3rd British Battalion, Nigerian Brigade
46
Fighting in Salonika, Greece
French colonial marine infantry fromCochin,
China - 1916
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New Technology
  1. Machine guns
  2. Poison gas/gas masks (wind became problem)
  3. Armored tank
  4. Aircraft (zeppelins)
  • 5. German U-Boats
  • Convoys

48
Machine Guns http//freepages.military.rootsweb.co
m/worldwarone/WWI/Weapons/images/machinegun-grena
des-sm.jpg
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Poison Gas http//www.firstworldwar.com/photos/gra
phics/ww_gas_train_01.jpg
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Armored Tank http//www.nysl.nysed.gov/library/fea
tures/featmo/images/wwi_tank.jpg
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Aircraft
http//rwebs.net/avhistory/bluemax/wwiimgs.htm
http//catalog.chaosium.com/images/zeppelins.gif
52
U-Boats
http//images.search.yahoo.com/search/images/view?
backhttp3A2F2Fimages.search.yahoo.com2Fsearch
2Fimages3Fp3DWWI2Bu-boats26ei3DUTF-826fr3D
yfp-t-50126x3Dwrt26js3D126ni3D18w855h623
imgurlwww.dutchsubmarines.com2Fboats2Fimages2
Fsubmarines2Fboat_o7_ozd_baracks_den_helder_wwi.j
pgrurlhttp3A2F2Fwww.dutchsubmarines.com2Fboa
ts2Fboat_o7.htmsize70.4kBnameboat_o7_ozd_bara
cks_den_helder_wwi.jpgpWWIu-boatstypejpegno
10tt38oidd968a776b4da5bbeeiUTF-8
53
Total War
  • Using a nations entire resources into the war
    struggle
  • Conscription- draft
  • Raised taxes and rationed food supplies

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Propaganda
  • Controlling public perspective
  • Censored the press
  • Propaganda- spreading of ideas to promote a cause
    or to damage an opposing cause
  • Tales of atrocities

http//www.firstworldwar.com/posters/images/pp_uk_
08.jpg
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http//www.firstworldwar.com/posters/images/pp_uk_
04.jpg
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Australian Poster
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American Poster
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Financing the War
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Women
  • Took over mens jobs
  • Nurses
  • Helped lead to womens suffrage

http//frank.mtsu.edu/kmiddlet/history/women/gif/
wwi-seeds2.gif
60
Russian Revolution
  • Russians left the war for revolution at home
  • Overthrew the Russian monarchy
  • Signed the Brest-Litovsk Treaty with Germany
    (pulled out of war)

http//www.digitalbrain.com/roztru/web/AF/Russian
20Revolution.db_psc-tvl-path-baseX5fmainimg-u-5077
-z-f.jpg
61
AmericaJoinstheAllies
62
U.S. Enters War, 1917
  • Sinking of Lusitania in 1915 (128 Americans)
  • Most Americans supported the allies for cultural
    reasons
  • Zimmerman Note (1917)- German note that was
    intercepted on route to Mexico

http//www.usgennet.org/usa/mo/county/stlouis/ww1-
music/sinking-lusitania.jpg
63
The Sinking of the Lusitania
64
The Zimmerman Telegram
65
The YanksAre Coming!
66
Americans in the Trenches
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68
Wilson- Fourteen Points
  • List of terms for resolving the war and future
    wars
  • Freedom of seas, free trade, reduction of arms,
    and end to secret treaties, est. fair peace, est.
    League of Nations
  • Armistice- 11/11 at 11 AM in 1918 ? ended WWI

http//visualhistory.freewebpages.org/_webimages/1
420Points.gif
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70
The Effects of War
  • 8.5 9 million people died
  • Over 17 million were wounded
  • Pandemic (1918)- flu that killed 20 million

http//firstworldwar.com/photos/graphics/cpe_gas_e
ffects_01.jpg
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9,000,000 Dead
72
Effects of War
  • Europe was destroyed (infrastructure)
  • Pay of national debt and rebuilding was a problem
  • Reparations- payments for war damage (Germany)

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Effects of War
  • Governments collapsed
  • Russia
  • Germany
  • Austria-Hungary
  • Ottoman Empire

http//www.uiowa.edu/c016003a/versailles.gif
75
Treaty of Versailles (B.R.A.T.)
  • Germany had to take full Blame for war
  • Had to pay Reparations (leads to rise of Hitler)
  • 30 billion
  • Reduced Army and took away German Territory

76
Map Changes http//www2.bc.edu/heineman/maps/Vers
ailles.jpg
77
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk strips Russia of
landNew nations are formed in Eastern
EuropeNot all ethnic groups are satisfied
78
Deaths and Responsibilities
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80
11 a.m., November 11, 1918
81
The Somme American Cemetary, France
116,516 Americans Died
82
World War I Casualties
83
Turkish Genocide Against Armenians
A Portent of Future Horrors to Come!
84
Turkish Genocide of Armenians (1914 - 1922)
Turkish Genocide Against Armenians
Districts Vilayets of Western Armenia in Turkey 1914 1922
Erzerum 215,000 1,500
Van 197,000 500
Kharbert 204,000 35,000
Diarbekir 124,000 3,000
Bitlis 220,000 56,000
Sivas 225,000 16,800
     
Other Armenian-populated Sites in Turkey    
Western Anatolia 371,800 27,000
Cilicia and Northern Syria 309,000 70,000
European Turkey 194,000 163,000
Trapizond District 73,390 15,000
Total 2,133,190 387,800
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