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World History 1500 to present

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World History 1500 to present Unit 4 : Growth of Western Democracies, End of Old Empires, Causes and Effects of WWI SOLs: WHII 8 a-c; 9 a-c; 10a – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: World History 1500 to present


1
World History 1500 to present
  • Unit 4 Growth of Western Democracies, End of
    Old Empires, Causes and Effects of WWI
  • SOLs WHII 8 a-c 9 a-c 10a

2
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3
Unit 3 Review before moving on.
  • Industrialization
  • Need for natural resources
  • Need for new markets for industrially produced
    finished goods
  • Need to establish the most powerful empire
  • Need to embrace and justify IMPERIALISM

4
Imperialism
  • Justified as the White Mans Burden (Rudyard
    Kipling)
  • Idea that technologically advanced Europeans were
    morally and socially superior to natives of Asia,
    Africa, and the Americas
  • Colonies, Protectorates, and Spheres of Influence

5
Africa falls to Imperialism
6
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7
Berlin Conference 1884-1885
8
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11
CHINA Dynasty Song?!
  • Confucian values and traditional beliefs
  • External pressures from the Western powers
  • Internal pressures
  • Corruption and incompetence
  • Peasant unrest
  • Increased population growth and decreased food
    production (famine and death)

12
China Taiping Rebellion (late 1830s to 1850s)
  • Taiping Rebellion led by Christian convert who
    thought he was Jesus little brother
  • Means Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace
  • 14 year civil war with 20 million killed
  • Foreign powers came together to crush it

13
CHINA Opium War 1839-1842
  • Economics of trade balance
  • Britain spent too much silver on Chinese imports
  • British East India Co. sold Opium to Chinese
  • Chinese lost the war and Hong Kong

14
CHINA under Western spheres of influence
  • Extraterritoriality Europeans living in China
    did not have to live by Chinese laws, but by
    their own nations laws
  • USAs Open Door Policy declares equal access to
    China to all European nations(AND the USA!)

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17
CHINA Boxer Rebellion (1900)
  • Shadow-boxing and the name Society of the
    Harmonious Fists
  • Another attempt to get foreigners OUT of China
  • Failed after allied foreign armies crushed them
    and demanded they pay for damages (!)

18
China Moving into the Modern Age
  • Republic of China est. 1911 under Sun Yixian (aka
    Sun Yat-Sen)
  • Three Principles of the People
  • NATIONALISM
  • SOCIALISM
  • DEMOCRACY

Father of Modern China
19
Sun Yat-Sens 3 Principles
  • Nationalism to unite the Chinese people against
    foreign influences and give them a Chinese
    Identity
  • Socialism to lead to greater equality and
    opportunity
  • Democracy to give the people the ability to make
    their own future

20
Sun-Yat Sen Communists
  • Most of the intended reforms did not happen and a
    workable system did not emerge in modern China
  • By 1921, radical Chinese college students and
    faculty form The Chinese Communist Party
  • Communist International, formed in 1919,
    (Comintern) advised the new party to join Sun
    Yat-Sens Nationalist Party

21
Sun Yixian and Jiang Jieshi (aka Chiang Kai-Shek)
  • The Communist/Nationalist Alliance helped oppose
    Chinese warlords and drive out imperialist
    powers.3 years
  • Revolutionary army marches north to take control
  • Sun Yixian dies in 1925 and Jiang Jieshi becomes
    the head of the Nationalist Party

22
CHINESE NATIONALISTS (Nationalist Party)
Sun Yat-Sen
Chiang Kai-shek
23
Communists are a disease of the heart
Chiang Kai-shek and his forces attacked the
communists in Shanghai, killing thousands
(Shanghai Massacre)
24
The Nationalist Party-Chinese Communist alliance
was..over
25
Chinese Communists
  • After the Shanghai Massacre they go into hiding
  • In the mountainous south, they find a strong
    leader in MAO ZEDONG
  • Mao sees the future of Communism not in the urban
    working poor but in the rural peasants

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27
Chinese Nationalists vs Communists
  • By 1931, Nationalists drive most Communists from
    Shanghai
  • Maos Communists are smaller in number
    BUTeffective at guerilla tactics in battle
  • LONG MARCH 1935-1936 Maos communist forces
    marched 6,000 miles to the last base in the North

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29
90,000 troops marched North---only 9,000 made it
30
Nationalist Party (Kuomintang) tries to force
China to reform
  • Use of dictatorial powers to prevent spread of
    communism
  • Land reform program
  • Small middle class in urban areas accepted some
    western practices
  • material wealth
  • individual advancement
  • Peasants were 80 of Chinese population

31
Confucian Values and New China
  • Successes roads, railways, education
  • Chiang Kai-shek wanted to combine the BEST
    Western innovations with traditional Chinese
    values (while rejecting excessive greed and
    individualism)
  • Hard-work
  • Obedience
  • Integrity

32
Major Problems for China
  • Japan was threatening to take over more of
    Northern China (Manchuria, 1931)
  • Great Depression was affecting the Chinese
    economy
  • Chiang Kai-Sheks support base (landed gentry and
    urban middle class)..he did not want to lose
    their support
  • Did NOT attempt redistribution of wealth
    programs
  • Censorship and suppression of opposition
    alienated intellectuals and moderates

33
Nationalists CommunistsPart 2
  • Chiang Kai-sheks Nationalists and Mao Zedongs
    Communists put the civil war on hold in 1936 to
    work together against the JAPANESE
  • Japanese take capital of Nanjing
  • WW II ends in 1945
  • 1946 Nationalists and Communists go back to full
    scale civil war

34
Communists eventually win China
  • Peasants love the idea of free land
  • Millions join the Communists
  • Nationalists flee to Island of Formosa (TAIWAN)
  • Mao Zedong takes over China and begins the Great
    Leap Forward (but China falls on its butt)
  • Saga to be continued in Unit 5

35
JAPAN
36
Japan a brief review
  • By 1000 AD the Imperial period was in decline and
    the feudal age on the rise
  • Certain families gained power and weakened the
    central power of the emperor
  • Emperor becomes more of a ceremonial figure
    than a real POWER

37
  • Social organization in Japan
  • Shogun- appointed by emperor, military leader,
    most powerful person in Japan
  • Daimyo (DIME-yo)- landowners, loyal to the
    shogun, but powerful in their own right
  • Samurai- warrior class that supported the daimyo
    and shogun militarily in return for land and
    supplies
  • Peasants and Artisans exchange services for
    protection
  • Merchants bottom of the social scale, but rich

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39
China VS Japan
  • Scholars were respected in China
  • Buddhism and Confucian values focused on family
    and relationships
  • China was easily invaded
  • Warriors were respected in Japan
  • Japanese were able to repel attacks by invaders
    develop in isolation
  • Fostered a militaristic attitude (Code of Bushido)

40
Japan Between 1500 and 1800
  • 3 Great Unifiers (Last was the powerful daimyo of
    Tokugawa Ieyasu)
  • Tokugawa shogunate takes over 1603
  • great peace until 1868
  • Europeans come in with clocks, tobacco,
    eyeglasses, Christianity (Jesuits destroyed
    shrinesnot good PR move)

41
Japan Between 1500 and 1800
  • Japanese Christians were persecuted
  • European merchants were also forced out, only a
    small Dutch port was left in Nagasaki..one time
    every year, 2-3 months MAX
  • Daimyo hostage system of rule
  • Samurai lost warrior status and became managers
    of daimyo hans
  • Ronin were masterless samurai

42
Japan Between 1500 and 1800
  • Formal foreign relations until 1800 with only
    Korea, The Hermit Kingdom
  • Foreign trade ships were driven away from Japan
  • 4 US WARships under Commodore Matthew Perry
  • Perry brings a letter from President Millard
    Fillmore (sailors in cages, trade)
  • Perry comes back with bigger fleet
  • Treaty of Kanagawa signed

43
  • Treaty of Kanagawa
  • Return shipwrecked sailors (free from cages)
  • Open 2 ports for US trade
  • Consulate established
  • Exchange foreign ministers

44
Japanese Resistance
  • Samurai classes strongly resisted
  • 1863, Satsuma and Choshu areas formed an alliance
    to force the shogun to end relations with the
    West
  • Western ships were stronger and revealed to the
    Japanese that they were militarily WEAK!
  • The Sat-Cho alliance attacked the shogun and
    forced the restoration of the emperor

45
Meiji Restoration
  • Sat-Cho leaders began a new policy to make Japan
    strong enough to resist Western imperialism
  • Young emperor was Mutsuhito who called the new
    era Meiji for Enlightened Rule

46
Changes under Meiji rule in Japan
  • By 1890, the German model (attractive to
    Progressives) won
  • Traditional and modern..same power people had
    power
  • Democratic in form, authoritarian in practice
  • Western political style a legislative assembly
    with imperial rule
  • Liberals (want Parliament powerful and
    representative of people) and Progressives (power
    shared between legislative and executive) emerge

47
Japanese society under Meiji
  • Aristocratic privileges abolished
  • Women got jobs and education
  • More industrialization and shift to cities
  • LOTS of westernization (dancing, eating, playing
    games, clothing)
  • Exploitation of working classes
  • Demands for more political voice

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49
Japans Imperial dreams.
  • Need for colonies, just like the west
  • Ryukyu islands (had been under Chinese control)
  • Korean ports forced to open up
  • Manchurian city of Port Arthur and Taiwan
  • War with Russia over Korea, Japan wins (Peace
    negotiated by POTUS Teddy Roosevelt)
  • Japan becomesSignificant as a world power

50
Chilly relations with United States
  • USA wants more power in the Pacific and authority
    over Philippines
  • US restricts Japanese immigration
  • Racism and nativism in US, especially on West
    Coast

51
Causes of World War I
  • The Industrial Revolution leads nations to
    compete for economic dominance and international
    prestige.
  • Question By 1900, which countries were the most
    industrially developed in the world?

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53
Causes of World War I
  • Imperialism
  • Militarism
  • Alliance System
  • Nationalism

54
Imperialism (as a cause of WWI)
  • Competition over access to resources and markets
    economic rivalry
  • British and French concern over GERMAN
    competition and colonial claims
  • German growth in all areas

55
French Colonies 1914
British Colonies 1914
56
Militarism (as a cause of WWI)
  • Arms race Industrial nations build up better
    weapons
  • Military power national prestige
  • Glorification of all things military
  • Military leaders become powerful
  • ..Social Darwinism.stronger can outfight the
    weaker

57
Militarism New tech for WWI
  • Machine guns
  • Hand grenades
  • Poison gas
  • Zeppelins
  • Submarines
  • SOME airplanes
  • trench warfare strategy

58
Trench Warfare STALEMATE!
  • Defensive strategy
  • Horrific casualities
  • Rats feeding on dead
  • Lice everywhere
  • Mud WET, slimy
  • Trenchfoot

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Trench Warfare STALEMATE!
  • Rats feeding on dead
  • Lice everywhere
  • Mud WET, slimy

Trench Foot
61
Alliance System (as a cause of WWI)
  • Agreements between nations to aid each other if
    attacked (OLD, new, flimsy, etc.)
  • Russia is the protector of smaller Slavic
    nations
  • Emergence of the Allies (Britain, France,
    Russia)
  • Emergence of the Central Powers(Germany,
    Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire)

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64
Nationalism (as a cause of WWI)
  • French want revenge against Germany
  • French want Alsace and Lorraine back from Germany
    (after Franco-Prussian war)
  • Pan-Slavism unites those wanting a Southern
    European state for Slavic people
  • Germany wants a place in the sun (recognition
    and respect for its power)

65
Immediate CauseAssassination of Archduke
Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary, August 1914
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67
Alliance System (as a cause of WWI)
  • Agreements between nations to aid each other if
    attacked (OLD, new, flimsy, etc.)
  • Russia is the protector of smaller Slavic
    nations
  • Emergence of the Allies (Britain, France,
    Russia)
  • Emergence of the Central Powers(Germany,
    Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire)

68
Examples of Nationalism (as a cause of WWI)
  • French want revenge against Germany
  • French want Alsace and Lorraine back from Germany
    (after Franco-Prussian war)
  • Pan-Slavism unites those wanting a Southern
    European state for Slavic people
  • Germany wants a place in the sun (recognition
    and respect for its power)

69
Immediate CauseAssassination of Archduke
Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary, August 1914
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71
United States and World War I
  • For three years, America remained neutral, and
    there was strong sentiment not to get involved in
    a European war.
  • continuing German submarine warfare restricts
    freedom of the seas
  • American cultural ties to Great Britain.
  • Wilson wanted to make the world safe for
    democracy.

72
United States and World War I
  • 1. Propaganda fuels anti-German feelings
  • 2. Germany sinks Lusitania ship
  • 3. Zimmerman telegram intercepted
  • 4. Russian revolution breaks out and a
    non-autocratic government is set up..BEFORE it
    goes communist
  • 5. April 2, 1917USA declares war on Germany

73
United States and World War I
  • Draft laws
  • Rationing and government organizes war production
  • Americans SUPPORT war effort
  • Govt acts to STOP those who protest
  • Espionage and Sedition Act

74
  • Americas military resources of soldiers and war
    materials tipped the balance of the war and led
    to Germanys defeat.

75
Armistice Day
  • November 11th, 1100 am, 1918

76
Wilsons Fourteen Points
  • Wilsons plan to eliminate the causes of war
  • Key ideas
  • Self-determination
  • Freedom of the sea
  • League of Nations
  • Mandate system

77
Treaty of Versailles (Verse-EYE)
  • The French and English insisted on punishment of
    Germany.
  • A League of Nations was created.
  • National boundaries were redrawn, creating many
    new nations.

78
League debate in United States
  • Objections to U.S. foreign policy decisions made
    by an international organization, not by U.S.
    leaders
  • U.S. Senates failure to approve Treaty of
    Versailles

79
Russia and the Revolution
80
RUSSIA the Land and People
  • 1/6 of Earths surface is Russia and its
    republics
  • Tundra, taiga, steppe and desert from the Caspian
    Sea in Asiatic highlands
  • Ural mountains divide Europe from Asia
  • Volga River is longest in all of Europe (flows
    South to Caspian)
  • Lake Baikal is the deepest freshwater lake (1
    mile at deepest)

81
Historical Background of Russia
  • Earliest invaders were Vikings from the North
    (Norsemen or Varangians)
  • Reddish hair (rus) gave name to earliest state
    of Kiev
  • Kievan Rus..became Russia
  • Viking names (Helga and Waldamar) became
    Russian names (Olga and Vladimir)

82
Background History of Russia
  • Riches of Kiev led to its downfall
  • Tatar/Mongol Domination for almost 300 years
  • Paid taxes to Khans military service
  • Cut off from West
  • Allowed Orthodox Christianity to remain
  • Autocracy is accepted screws up Russian thinking
    about govt for..(ever?!)
  • Rise of Moscow Russian princes eventually put
    down Mongols 1380 at Battle of Kulikovo
  • Moscow is geographically important on trade
    routes from East
  • Princes of Moscow maintain a stable govt

83
Background History of Russia
  • Ivan III (The Great) 1462 1505
  • built a framework absolute rule
  • Limited the power of boyars
  • Adopted Byzantine customs,grandson
  • Ivan IV (The Terrible) 1533- 1584
  • Centralized royal power
  • Exchanged land to boyars for military service
  • Entrenched serfdom
  • Was NUTS

84
Background History of Russia
  • Time of Troubles 1604-1613
  • Political instability, peasant uprisings,
    invasions by foreigners
  • Ends with the Zemsky Sobor appointment of the
    Romanov Dynasty beginning with Michael in 1613

85
Brief Outline of the modern Age)Romanovs
  • Alexander III cracks down on dissent,
    censorship, secret police, exiled people,
    Russification esp against Jews (pogroms)
  • Nicholas II Ineffective ruler and soldier, WWI,
    October Manifesto, Bloody Sunday, assassinated
    w/family
  • Alexander I 1st to embrace liberal ideas, but
    after Napoleon, went conservative at COV
  • Nicholas I cracks down on dissent, uses secret
    police, starts modernization
  • Alexander II loses Crimean War FREES the serfs,
    assassinated

86
Russian Revolution
  • Czar Nicholas IIs reforms were too little too
    late
  • No industrial power no national power
  • Loss to the Japanese was humiliating announcement
    of weakness
  • WWI participation sucked Russia dry and made
    civil war inevitable
  • Weak resistance to well organized and mobilized
    Bolshevik radicals
  • Total abdication and assassination end the
    Romanov Dynasty

87
Vladimir Lenin
  • Marxist Revolutionary
  • NEP allowed some capitalism and helped Soviet
    economy recover from early communist stagnation
  • Dies of stroke, 1924

88
Leon Trotsky
  • Co-founder with Lenin
  • Organized and trained the RED ARMY
  • Practice of decimation made Red Army effective
  • Rival of Stalin
  • Assassinated in Mexico with an ice-pick

89
Lenins Communist Dictatorship in Russia
1917-1924 Bloodshed Brainwashing
  • Terror Tactics use mass executions to wipe out
    opposition
  • Economic Control nationalization of industry,
    banks, foreign trade ( NEP)
  • Centralization of Govt total control of govt,
    trade unions, youth groups, ban other political
    parties, ethnic republics est.
  • Religious Persecution seizure of church land
    property, jail/kill priests, close church
    schools, GOD does not exist, Lenin is your god
    now
  • Ideology censor critics and foreign news, use of
    PROPAGANDA

90
Rise of Totalitarian Regimes
  • Common Features
  • Single party dictatorship
  • State control of the economy
  • Secret police/state sponsored terrorism
  • Censorship Propaganda/government control of the
    media
  • Schools used to indoctrinate citizens
  • Unquestioning obedience to a single ruler

91
Totalitarian Regime at FDHS extra TEST grade
creative writing????
  • Follow each direction to the letter
  • It is a test grade
  • Video presentation is OK, but it must make sense,
    follow the rubric and not waste time!

92
Post World War I Nationalist Movements
93
Mehmet II enters the city of Constantinople in
1453..
by 1633, spans 3 continents
94
Ottoman Empire circa 1683
95
Ottoman Empire post WW I
  • Great Britain France decided during WWI
    (secretly via Sykes-Picot Agreement) to divide
    parts of the Ottoman Empire amongst themselves
  • Mandate system est. by League of Nations
  • New foreign rulers simply planted the seeds for
    future conflicts in the region

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Young Turks of the Ottoman Empire
  • shared the common goal of reform
  • Super-secular
  • Primarily envisioned an intellectual elite to
    govern the empirebut labeled liberal
  • military and social uprisings characterize the
    movement
  • Now blamed for the Armenian genocide of 1915
  • Term Young Turks" now used to identify any
    groups or individuals inside an organization who
    are more progressive and reform minded and are
    grabbing power

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99
Turkey under Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk)
  • democracy in theory, not practice
  • Suppression of critics
  • Romanized alphabet (Arabic gone)
  • Popular education
  • Last names for families (Euro style)
  • Industrialization
  • MAJOR secular ideas that dont sit well with
    super-Muslim conservatives

100
Cultural changes that Muslims hated
  • No fez for men or veils for women
  • Marriage inheritance rights for women
  • Right to vote for women
  • Right for anyone to convert to other religions

101
Emergence of Modern Iran
Reza Shah Pahlavi
102
Reforms under Pahlavi
  • Strengthen modernize military, government
  • Iran 1935
  • Remains Muslim
  • Forbids women wearing veils in public
  • Modern education

103
Pahlavi Dynasty
  • Friendly relations with Germany (by default)
  • Great Britain/USSR invade Iran
  • Reza Shah Pahlavi resigns, his son takes over

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107
Ibn Saud
108
Ibn Saud Saudi Arabia
  • Won a series of military victories over more
    powerful enemies
  • transformed himself from a minor sheikh into a
    respected king and was visited by world leaders
    such as Winston Churchill and Franklin D.
    Roosevelt (see picture)
  • took many wives concubines (fathered almost one
    hundred children)
  • A devout Muslim
  • Saudi Arabia is a CLOSE ally of the West
  • AND.the birthplace of Osama bin Laden and most
    of the 9/11 hijackers

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Other Arab Nationalist Movements
  • Mandate System creates artificial nations after
    WWI
  • Britain Palestine, Iraq and Jordan
  • Balfour Declaration
  • Not to undermine rights of non-Jews (98 Muslim
    residents)
  • Zionist Movement strenghtens
  • France Syria and Lebanon

111
Indian Nationalism
  • Mohandas Gandhi
  • Civil disobedience
  • Passive resistance
  • British extend political influence for SOME
    Indians
  • Salt March, 1930

112
Indian Nationalism
  • Western educated intellectuals challenge Gandhi's
    leadership which was traditional, religious and
    INDIAN.
  • Jawaharlal Nehru is most modern, secular and
    .Western

113
Nehru Dynasty
114
Indian Islamic nationalism
115
Indian Islamic nationalism
  • Calls for a separate Muslim state in India begin
  • Muhammad Ali Jinnah wants to see Pakistan ruled
    by Muslims

116
1. Define IMPERIALISM and then describe the
different forms of IMPERIALISM that Europeans
used to gain resources and markets for their
industrial economies.
117
2. Review CH11 and prepare a CHART of the
political, economic, social and cultural impacts
of European imperialism in each of the following
areas  AfricaMiddle EastIndiaSoutheast
Asia
118
3. Explain why China fell to European imperialism
and how European imperialists crushed Chinese
nationalism. 
119
4. How was Japan able to resist European
imperialism and ultimately become an imperial
power themselves? 
120
5. What role did the United States play in the
age of imperialism? What part of the world
most concerned the United States and. how
did US officials handle foreign policy in these
areas?
121
(6A).Explain the four main causes of WWI
..(6B.)and the GLOBAL impact of the
Treaty of Versailles.
122
7. Describe the causes of the Russian Revolution
and how Lenin and Stalin changed it under
communism.
123
8. Describe the position and politics of the
following people Sun YixianJiang
JieshiMao Zedong. How did their visions for
Chinas future differ?
124
9. Describe the Nationalist movement in India
under Gandhi. What methods did he use that were
most successful?
125
10. Compare and contrast the nationalist
movements in India, Turkey, Persia, and Saudi
Arabia. What cultural problems accompany
modernization in this area of the world? Use a
CHART to show your answer.
  • India Turkey Persia Saudi Arabia
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