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CO-MORBIDITY Learning, Disabilities, ADHD, Behavioral Emotional Disorders

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Title: Co-morbidity of Learning Disabilities, ADHD, and Behavioral/Emotional Disorders Author: Mary Sanford Last modified by: Mary Sanford Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CO-MORBIDITY Learning, Disabilities, ADHD, Behavioral Emotional Disorders


1
CO-MORBIDITYLearning, Disabilities, ADHD,
Behavioral Emotional Disorders
2
Disorders of Behavior- Arriving at a Definition
  • Normal versus Disordered Behavior
  • A social construct
  • What constitutes good mental health?
  • Concerns of frequency, intensity, duration
  • Difficult periods of childhood vs. behavior
    disorder
  • Lack of social skills vs. behavior disorder
  • Operationalizing such terms as pervasive, normal,
  • inappropriate, etc.
  • Student's emotionalproblems vs. ability to
    learn. Males- in the past- propensity to rules
    breaking
  • Behavior vs. Race and cultural bias
  • Girls- internalize emotional disturbance.
  • Other classifications

3
Physiological Birth defect TBI Tourettes
Syndrome Fetal Alcohol Syndrome,
Depression Chemical and mood disorders.
Environmental Learned behaviors Mental
illness, etc. PTSS
4
  • Learning Disabled Students
  • interact awkwardly.
  • interact inappropriately in social situations.
  • socially imperceptive.

5
ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVE DISORDER
  • tend to react to others aggressively
  • are generally rejected by peers
  • lose the opportunity to learn social skills
  • are isolated from most social situations
  • (Westby, Cutler, 1994).
  • victims of parents who are abusive or lacking
    effective parenting skills.
  • (Parker, Asher 1987).

6
Learning DisabilitiesTypically a Disruptionin
Maturational Delay
  • Language skills
  • Motor skills
  • Uneven performance on IQ assessment
  • Visual-Motor
  • Incomplete or mixed dominance
  • Social Immaturity
  • Genetics

7
At Risk for LD
  • Established risk
  • identified through a medical diagnosis
  • failure to develop, thrive delay in language
    development. Unknown etiology is the important
    term.
  • Biological risk
  • early medical and health history indicates
    increased probability for later atypical
    development.
  • (HIV, premature, injury at birth (anoxia,
    chemical dependency at birth.)
  • Environmental risk
  • biologically sound
  • early life experience are characterized by a
    profound lack of stimulation- critical in the
    years birth to age five. Lack of cognitive
    stimulation in the formative years lack of
    nutrition, age of mother, lack of prenatal and
    neonatal care.
  • Child can be at risk for all three, one or two.

8
Children with LD and Behavior Disorders
  • Short Attention Span
  • Low Frustration Tolerance
  • Insatiability- need a significant level of
    intensity, often bored, need new and novel
    activities, chronically restless, incredibly
    future oriented
  • Distractibility
  • Low self esteem

9
Continued
  • Learned helplessness
  • Hyperactivity
  • Sequencing deficits
  • Memory deficits
  • Interrogoration
  • Disinhibition
  • Impulsivity

10
Common Elements in the DefinitionCommon Elements
in the Definitions
  • Central Nervous System Dysfunction
  • Uneven Growth Pattern /Psychological Processing
    Deficits
  • Discrepancy Between Potential and Achievement
  • Exclusion of Other Causes

11
Symptoms of ADD/ADHD
  • Severity
  • Symptoms more frequent and severe than other
    children
  • Early onset
  • Symptoms must have appeared before age seven
  • Duration
  • Symptoms persist for at least 6 months

12
Subtypes of ADHD in DSM-IV
  • Primarily inattentive
  • Primarily
  • hyperactive and impulsive
  • Combined
  • ADHD-IA
  • ADHD-HI
  • ADHD-C

13
Implications of the Law
  • Children with ADD/ADHD may be eligible for
    special education services under the category of
    other health impaired
  • Children with ADD/ADHD may receive services under
    the legislation of Section 504 of the
    Rehabilitation Act of 1973
  • ADD/ADHD is listed as a specific condition under
    other health impaired

14
Increase in Disorders
15
Psychostimulant Medications for ADD/ADHD
  • Ritalin
  • Dexedrine
  • Cylert
  • Adderall
  • Concerta
  • 3-5 hours
  • 3-5 hours
  • Long-lasting
  • 8 hours
  • 8-12

16
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17
Precursors of Learning Disabilities-Difficulties
in any of the following
  • Communication/oral language
  • Phonological awareness
  • Rapid naming skills
  • Knowledge of the alphabet
  • Visual-motor skills
  • Fine- and gross-motor skills
  • Attending abilities
  • Social skills

18
Age Span of Learning Disabilities Population
  • Preschool children
  • Elementary-age children
  • Secondary students
  • Adults

19
Ages that Children with LD Are Identified
20
Composition of Students with Disabilities
21
Left-Right Brain Processing
  • Left Brain Right Brain
  • Analytical Synthesizes
  • Verbal Strengths Visual (spatial imagery
  • Linear Simultaneous
  • Sequential Holistic
  • Sees parts, pieces Sees whole, gestalt
  • Precise accurate Makes sense of all the parts
  • Detail oriented Interpretation of non
    verbal cues
  • Step by step learner Organization
  • Ambiguity
  • Open ended questions

22
Nonverbal Learning Disabilities
  • Characteristics
  • Poor social perception
  • High verbal intelligence
  • Early reading achievement
  • More evident in adolescents and adults
  • Different than academic, language and cognitive
    disabilities
  • Aspergers (?)Syndrome
  • Video

23
Indicators of Social Disabilities
  • Poor social perception
  • Lack of judgment
  • Lack of sensitivity to others
  • Difficulty making friends
  • Problems with family relations
  • Social problems in school
  • Undiagnosed Syndromes

24

Verbal Linguistic Learning Disabilities
  • Difficulties in Reading
  • Students may
  • Have difficulty with one or more subject areas.
  • Have limited mastery of concepts.
  • Have limited fund of information.
  • Have limited expressive and receptive vocabulary.
  • Display limited knowledge of word
  • meanings.
  • Do not understand special multiple meanings of
    words.
  • Read significantly below level of text.

25
  • Content Area Reading
  • Technical Vocabulary- in the content areas
    carries the conceptual load.
  • Students may
  • Have difficulty with one or more subject areas.
  • Have limited mastery of area concepts.
  • Do not understand technical words.
  • Do not understand special uses of non
  • technical words.
  • Display limited knowledge of word
  • meanings.
  • Read significantly below level of text.

26
  • Causes
  • Weak listening speaking and sight vocabulary.
  • Weak contextual analysis skills.
  • Inability to apply same word in different
    contexts.

27
Dyslexia and the Brain
Wernicke's area Receptive language. Posterior
reading system.
Broca's area Expressive language
  • There are three neural pathways for reading
  • the parietal-temporal and frontal-(slower,
    analytical, used by beginning readers)
  • the occipital-temporal (word form, experienced
    readers).

28
Recent Brain ResearchSally Shaywitz, MD
  • At left, non-impaired readers activate neural
    systems that are mostly in the back of the left
    side of the brain (shaded areas) at right,
    dyslexic readers under activate these reading
    systems in the back of the brain and tend to over
    activate frontal areas.
  • In addition to their greater reliance on Broca's
    area, dyslexics are also using other auxiliary
    systems for reading, ones located on the right
    side as well as in the front of the brain.
  • This is evidenced by the activation of right
    hemisphere parts of the brain. (Dyslexics and
    slow readers often sub-vocalize. The physical
    aspect to their reading is an attempt to
    compensate for the disruption in the back of the
    brain.)

29
An Information-Processing Model of Learning
30
Difficulties in Mathematics
  • Sense of Body Image
  • Visual-motor Visual Perceptual Abilities
  • Spatial Relations
  • Memory Abilities

31
Progressing from Concrete to Abstract
  • Concrete Level- Use Real Objects
  • Representational Level- Use Graphic Symbols
  • Abstract Level- Use Numbers

32
Information Processing Problems in Mathematics
  • Attention
  • Visual-spatial Processing
  • Auditory Processing
  • Memory Retrieval
  • Motor Problems
  • Non Verbal LD
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