MIDDLE ADULTHOOD... - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Date added: 17 February 2020
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Gerontology is the study of aging. It is
distinguished from geriatrics, which is the study
of the diseases of the aging.
Gerontology covers the social, psychological, and
biological aspects of aging.
A gerontologist takes a multidisciplinary
approach, focusing on senescence, which combines
a process of deterioration with a following
period of development. Their studies might
include an investigation of the effects of our
aging population on society, and applying this
knowledge to policies and programs.
Middle adulthood is considered the period of time
between ages 40 - 59. As human longevity
increases, middle age expectations have changed.
The U. S. population is living longer, primarily
due to better living conditions and advanced
Middle age...
Humor is a reflection of the human
condition and culture. In the U.S. culture of
youth, aging becomes the target of many
jokes. This is especially true when adults reach
milestones such as 40, 50, and 60 years old.
I demand a recount. After fifty everything that
doesn't hurt doesn't work! In dog years I'm
dead. Just when I find the key to success,
someone goes and changes all the locks. Be kind
to your kids they'll be choosing your nursing
home. I don't have hot flashes, I have power
surges. Age is like underwear, it creeps up on
you! Age is important only if you're cheese or
wine. Eat right, exercise regularly, die anyway.
Mid-life crisis...
A mid-life crisis is an emotional state of doubt
and anxiety in which a person becomes
uncomfortable with the realization that life is
halfway over. It commonly involves reflection on
what the individual has done with his or her life
up to that point, often with feelings that not
enough was accomplished. The individuals
experiencing such may feel boredom with their
lives, jobs, or their partners, and may feel a
strong desire to make changes in these areas.
There is research indicating that midlife crises
occur more often in men than women.
Midlife crisis may not occur at all or may occur
naturally or may be triggered by life-altering
events such as death, divorce, children leaving,
This text of this car ad targets men who may be
experiencing boredom, associated with mid-life
crisis These dazzling models ooze style and
power -- perfect candidates for revving up boring
lifestyles and dispelling the blues!
Symptoms associated with a
mid-life crisis may
include Exhaustion, or frantic energy
Self-questioning Daydreaming about who you are
where your life is going Irritability,
unexpected anger Acting on alcohol, drug, food
or other compulsions Greatly decreased or
increased sexual desire Sexual affairs,
especially with someone much younger Greatly
decreased or increased ambition Discontentment/bor
edom/restlessness with life or lifestyle (people
and things) that have provided fulfillment for a
long time
The term midlife crisis was coined by Canadian
psychologist Elliot Jacques, but the credit for
recognizing and understanding this emotional
state must be given to psychologist Carl Jung. In
his mid-life studies he described the crisis as
normal in the process of maturing. He
developed a model containing 5 stages of
mid-life accommodation, separation, liminality,
reintegrations, and individuation. These steps
dealt primarily with self reflection.
Empty nest syndrome...
Empty nest syndrome refers to feelings of
depression, sadness, and/or grief experienced by
parents and caregivers after children come of age
and leave their childhood homes. This may occur
when children go to college or get married..
Sociologists popularized the term in the 1970s,
and the media have helped make its existence part
of conventional wisdom.
Empty-nest syndrome appears to be more difficult
for stay-at-home mothers, who sometimes seemed to
exist only for their children. Many women now
work outside the home, so have a role beyond that
as a parent. Men now have the same feelings of
emptiness as women.
Many parents actually look forward to, and enjoy
the advantages of the empty nest. Grocery bills
are lower. There's food in the refrigerator. The
house stays clean. They only have to wash clothes
and towels once a week. Their calendar is often
just as busy as it ever was, but it is filled
with fun things to do with spouse or friends.
The hard work of raising children is now
finished. With more free time, they are now able
to do projects and hobbies that they never had
time or money for before. There is an absence of
the day-to-day stressors that come with living
together and children's often stormy adolescent
Adult children coming back home...
Empty nests are now refilling in record numbers
as adult children return home after college or
even after their first post-college jobs.
According to the 2000 census, almost four million
young adults between 25 and 34 years old now live
with their parents--possibly the result of a
tough job market, delayed marriage, high housing
costs, economics, divorce, extended education,
drug or alcohol problems, or temporary
Psychologist Allan Scheinberg coined the phrase
"boomerang kids, noting that many young adults
want the "limited responsibility of childhood and
the privileges of adulthood. Some expect to live
the same lifestyle with the same material
possessions that their parents have achieved
after working many years so move back home to
get them.
Middle age conception...
Conception during middle age presents risks, but
having a baby later in life is a consideration
for some couples. Women sometimes delay
childbearing, due to careers. Still other
couples want to have a baby, to delay the empty
Female fertility declines significantly after age
40, and an advanced maternal age increases the
risk of a child being born with some disorders
such as Downs Syndrome.
Some conditions are also correlated with advanced
paternal age Dwarfism craniofacial disorders
such as Apert Syndrome and Crouzon Syndrome
mental retardation autism and 25 of
schizophrenia cases.
Downs Syndrome Apert Syndrome
Menopause is the physiological cessation of
menstrual cycles associated with advancing age in
women. The menopause is sometimes referred to as
change of life or climacteric. Menopause occurs
as the ovaries stop producing estrogen, causing
the reproductive system to gradually shut down.
The term menopause comes from the Greek roots
'meno-' (month) and 'pausis' (a pause, a
As the body adapts to the decreasing levels of
the hormones estrogen, progesterone, and
testosterone, vasomotor (muscles and nerves)
symptoms such as hot flashes and palpitations
(fast heartbeat), psychological symptoms such as
depression, anxiety, irritability, mood swings,
lack of concentration, and atrophic symptoms such
as vaginal dryness and urgency of urination
Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) provides the
best relief, but certain forms appear to pose
significant health risks such as slightly
increased risk of breast cancer, heart disease,
stroke, and Alzheimers disease.
A woman has officially reached menopause when she
has not had a period for one year. Changes and
symptoms can start 2-5 years earlier Shorter,
longer, lighter, or heavier periods Hot flashes
and/or night sweats Trouble sleeping Vaginal
dryness Mood swings Trouble focusing Less hair
on head, more on face Decreased elasticity of
skin Urinary frequency, urgency, and/or
incontinence Osteoporosis and/or muscle,
joint, or back pain
It's estimated that, by the age of 55, one in
five women will have had their uterus surgically
removed one in 3 women by the age of 60. This
operation is called a hysterectomy.
Types of hysterectomies Partial removes
uterus but not cervix Total
removes uterus and cervix
Hysterectomy and Oophorectomy removes uterus,
cervix, fallopian tubes, and ovaries
Radical removes all reproductive tissue as
well as the top of the vagina and surrounding
lymph nodes
A hysterectomy might be recommended for non
cancerous tumors (fibroids) endometriosis
(uterine tissue grows elsewhere such as the
vagina) uterine prolapse (uterus drops into
vagina) cancer (of the uterus,
cervix, or ovaries) vaginal bleeding chronic
pelvic pain.
Andropause is a biological change experienced by
men during their mid-life, often compared to the
female menopause.
The concept of andropause is more widely accepted
in Australia and Europe than it is in this
country. Most clinicians in the United States
recognize a progressive decline in levels of male
androgens, specifically testosterone, but not
dramatic, and not enough to end reproductive
abilities. Many recognize symptoms associated
with andropause as psychological rather than
Andropause usually occurs between the ages of 40
and 55. Symptoms may include loss of libido
(sexual desire), nervousness, depression,
impaired memory, the inability to concentrate,
fatigue, insomnia, hot flushes, sweating, and
some degree of erectile dysfunction (impotence).
Social development...
Men tend to decrease the number and intensity of
same-gender friends. Men most often meet other
men in work settings. Because of this, many of
their potential friends are people with whom they
compete for raises or advancement, or with whom
they are involved either as supervisors or
subordinates. Neither of these conditions is
conducive to the openness and concern necessary
for the development of a close friendship.
Social relationships may depend on family
availability and interaction. Friendships and
neighbor interactions are important. Womens
friendships are very personal, but they tend to
separate friends into work friends, activity
friends, and real friends.
The Red Hat Society...
The Red Hat Society is a social organization for
women over 50, founded in 1998 by Sue Ellen
Cooper of California. There are approximately
40,000 chapters in the United States and thirty
other countries. The founder or leader of a local
chapter is usually referred to as a "Queen".
Members are called "Red Hatters".
The Society takes its name from the opening lines
of the poem Warning by Jenny Joseph, which
starts When I am an old woman I shall wear
purple With a red hat that doesn't go and doesn't
suit me.
Queen Sue Ellen Cooper and her court.
The Red Hat Society fondly refers to itself
as a
"dis-organization" with the aim of social
interaction, tea parties, and to encourage
fun, silliness, creativity, and
friendship in middle age and beyond.
The Society is not a sorority or a voluntary
service club. There are no initiations or
fundraising projects. Members over fifty years
old wear red hats and purple attire to all
functions. A woman under age fifty may also
become a member, but she wears a pink hat and
lavender attire until reaching her fiftieth
Homeostasis is the property of a
living organism to regulate
its internal environment to maintain
a stable, constant condition. Human beings, as
they age, will lose efficiency in their control
systems. This is known as homeostatic imbalance,
and will increase the risk for illness and be
responsible for some physical changes associated
with aging. There are 3 important mechanisms
human bodies need to regulate Among the most
important are
Thermo-regulation - the ability to regulate body
temperature Osmo-regulation - the active
regulation of bodily fluids concentration and
pressure, directly affecting absorption of
nutrients, excretion, hormone levels, blood,
skin, hydration, and kidney function Glucoregulati
on - the maintenance of blood sugar levels
Beginning at age 40, it becomes more important to
have annual physicals, checking teeth, blood
pressure, cholesterol, blood sugar levels, and
Health issues...
Men over the age of 50 need a yearly rectal
exam to check
for colorectal cancer and
prostate cancer. Women over the
age of 40
should continue with monthly breast
self-exams, have
yearly pelvic exams and pap smears, and have a
mammogram done every year to check for breast
Coronary heart disease is the 1 cause of death
in the U.S. 20 of deaths due to heart disease
occur in men and women under the age of 65.
Risk factors for heart disease include smoking,
obesity, high-fat diet, physical inactivity, high
blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, stress,
and type A personality.  
Type A Personality impatient, excessively
time-conscious, insecure about one's status,
highly competitive, hostile and aggressive,
incapable of relaxation, workaholics,
hard-driving, frequent hostility, driven by
Osteoporosis is a condition that
features loss of the normal
density of bone, and fragile
bone associated with ageing. This disorder of the
skeleton weakens the bone leading to an increase
in the risk of breaking bones (bone fracture). It
is estimated that 1 in 3 women and 1 in 12 men
over the age of 50 worldwide have osteoporosis.
Risk factors include Getting older Being small
and thin (frailty) Family history of
osteoporosis Taking certain medicines Being a
white or Asian woman Tobacco smoking Alcoholism C
alcium/ Vitamin D deficiencies Insufficient or
excessive physical activity Exposure to heavy
metals such as cadmium or lead
Everyone should have regular eye exams every 2
years after the age of 40. After the age of 45, a
check for glaucoma should be included.
Aging eyesight...
Glaucoma is the leading cause of blindness,
affecting one in two hundred people aged fifty
and younger and one in ten over the age of
eighty. Untreated glaucoma leads to permanent
damage of the optic nerve, which can progress to
blindness. Glaucoma initially causes no symptoms.
Normal optic nerve
Damaged optic nerve
Advanced damage
People at the highest risk of developing glaucoma
are women, diabetics, African-Americans, Asians,
Inuits, people who use steroids, and those with a
family history of the disease.
Most forms of glaucoma are characterized by high
intraocular pressure. Intraocular pressure is
maintained at normal levels when some of the
fluid produced by the eye is allowed to flow out.

When fluid cannot flow out effectively, this
causes an increase in intraocular pressure and
damage to the optic nerve leading to vision
loss. Early detection is the key to successful
Intellectual development...
Research on intellectual development during
middle adulthood shows declines in perceptual
speed (ability to make visual discriminations)
and numerical ability (simple arithmetic
It shows stable and/or peaks in abilities in
vocabulary (understand ideas expressed in verbal
form), verbal memory (recall lists of words,
etc.), inductive reasoning (recognize patterns
and relationships and use them to solve further
problems), and spatial orientation (visualize
rotated stimuli in 3-D space.
Intellectual development...
IQ tests rely on timed, physical responses, so
may lack validity for middle aged adults due to
decreases in perceptual speed and reaction times
rather than cognitive changes.
Psychologist Jean Piaget categorized cognitive
development into 4 stages sensorimotor,
preoperational, concrete, and formal operational.
Middle aged adults, however, are capable of
postformal thought in solving problems. They go
beyond abstract thought, relying on subjective
feelings and intuition. They can integrate
opposing views, and are able to reconcile and/or
choose between conflicting views.
JEAN PIAGET 1896 - 1980
Fluid and crystallized intelligence are factors
of general intelligence identified by Raymond
Cattell (1971). Fluid intelligence is the ability
to find meaning in confusion and solve new
problems. It is the ability to draw inferences
and understand the relationships of various
concepts, independent of acquired knowledge. It
appears to peak during early adulthood and then
declines during middle age.
Crystallized intelligence is the ability to use
skills, knowledge, and experience. It should not
be equated with memory or knowledge, but it does
rely on accessing information from long-term
memory. It appears to be stable, peaks, or
improves during middle age and beyond.
Memory is an organism's ability to store, retain,
and subsequently recall information. A steady
decline in many cognitive processes are seen
across the lifespan, starting in one's thirties.
Memory loss...
Short-term memory refers to the amount or bits of
information we can hold in our head at any given
time and lasts between 1 second and 24 hours
depending upon how much importance you put on the
information. You would use this type of memory
for phone numbers, messages, and zip codes.
Research does not show a noticeable decline in
short term memory with normal aging.
Memory loss...
There are 3 types of long-term memory. Research
has found decline in explicit memory with aging,
but not of implicit or semantic memory Explicit
or episodic memories are facts that you made a
conscious effort to learn and that you can
remember at will, for example, the names of state
capitals also includes memories of events and
experiences. Implicit or procedural memory is
information you draw on automatically in order to
perform actions such as driving a car or riding a
bicycle. Semantic memories are facts that are so
deeply ingrained they require no effort to
recall. An example would be the months of the
  • Lack of appropriate effort, interference or
    distraction, inefficient memory strategies, and
    health problems may decrease memory. To improve
    or maintain memory you can
  • Increase your sensory abilities (use of
    prescription glasses or hearing aid)
  • Limit medications if possible
  • Take care of your physical health
  • Eat a well-balanced diet
  • Get physical exercise (to increase blood and
    oxygen flow)
  • Keep mentally fit by challenging your mind
  • Use external aids (such as lists, calendars,
    timers, or computers)
  • Maintain an organized living environment
  • Use context cues to recall information
  • Avoid depression, as it can affect thinking
  • Limit alcohol, as it can affect thinking

Cosmetic surgery...
More than 10 million elective cosmetic surgery
procedures were performed in the United States in
2006, about 40 of which were people entering
middle age and wanting to look younger.
Cosmetic surgery is performed to improve
appearance and self-esteem. It involves reshaping
parts of the body that are otherwise functioning
properly. Costs of various procedures range from
a few hundred to tens of thousands of dollars.
Cosmetic surgery...
Procedures include Botox (injections to
temporarily smooth out wrinkles), Blepharoplasty
(eyelid surgery), Breast reduction or
augmentation, Breast lift, Brow lift, Buttock
Augmentation, Chemical peel, Dermabrasion,
Endoscopy (Keyhole plastic surgery), Face lift,
Facial implant, Facial scar revision, Forehead
lift, Gynecomastia (Male breast tissue)
reduction, Hair replacement, Laser skin
resurfacing, Liposuction, Mentoplasty (chin
surgery), Otoplasty (ear surgery),
Microdermabrasion (skin rejuvenation),
Rhinoplasty (nosejob surgery), Rhytidectomy (face
surgery), Thighplasty (thigh lift), and Tummy
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