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The Presidency of Andrew Jackson

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Title: The Presidency of Andrew Jackson


1
The Presidency of Andrew Jackson
  • January 19, 2011
  • Adapting Project History

2
C-Span Presidential Leadership Rankings
  • Public Persuasion
  • Crisis Leadership
  • Economic Management
  • Moral Authority
  • International Relations
  • Administrative Skills

3
C-Span-2
  • Relations with Congress
  • Vision/Setting An Agenda
  • Pursued Equal Justice For All
  • Performance Within Context of Times

4
C-Span Presidential Leadership Survey (2009, 2000)
  • Abraham Lincoln 902, 1,1
  • George Washington 854, 2,3
  • Franklin D. Roosevelt 837, 3, 2
  • Theodore Roosevelt 781, 4,4
  • Harry S. Truman 708, 5,5
  • John F. Kennedy 701, 6,8
  • Thomas Jefferson 698, 7,7
  • Dwight D. Eisenhower 689, 8,9
  • Woodrow Wilson 683, 9,6
  • Ronald Reagan 671, 10, 11

5
Presidents, 11-20
  • Lyndon B. Johnson 641, 11, 10
  • James K. Polk 606, 12, 12
  • Andrew Jackson 606, 13, 13
  • James Monroe 605, 14, 14
  • Bill Clinton 605, 15, 21
  • William McKinley 599, 16,15
  • John Adams 545, 17, 16
  • George H. W. Bush 542, 18, 20
  • John Quincy Adams 542, 19, 19
  • James Madison 535, 20, 18

6
Presidents, 21-30
  • Grover Cleveland 523, 21, 17
  • Gerald R. Ford 509, 22, 23
  • Ulysses S. Grant 490, 23, 33
  • William Howard Taft 485, 24,24
  • Jimmy Carter 474, 25, 22
  • Calvin Coolidge 469,26, 27
  • Richard M. Nixon 450, 27, 25
  • James A. Garfield 445, 28, 29
  • Zachary Taylor 443, 29,28
  • Benjamin Harrison 442, 30, 31

7
Presidents, 31-42
  • Martin Van Buren 435, 31, 30
  • Chester A. Arthur 420, 32, 32
  • Rutherford B. Hayes 409, 33, 26
  • Herbert Hoover 389, 34, 34
  • John Tyler 372, 35, 35
  • George W. Bush 362, 36, NA
  • Millard Fillmore 351, 37, 35
  • Warren G. Harding 327, 38, 38
  • William Henry Harrison 324, 39, 39
  • Franklin D. Pierce 287, 40, 39
  • Andrew Johnson 258, 41, 40
  • James Buchanan 227, 42, 41

8
Election of 1828
  • Jackson supporters viewed Jacksons election as
    an election of the people over the politicians
  • Panic of 1819 aroused healthy suspicion and
    skepticism of politicians
  • Jackson movement part of and stimulated radical
    egalitarianism
  • Election of Jackson symbolized growing assumption
    that one man good as another

9
Inauguration of Jackson
  • Attracted thousands to Washington to usher in new
    era of government
  • Reception practically turned into a riot
  • Daniel Webster I never saw anything like it
    before. They really seem to think the country is
    to be rescued from dreadful danger

10
Washington Hostess on Inauguration
  • The Majesty of the People had disappeared, and a
    rabble, a mob, of boys, Negroes, women, children,
    scrambling, fighting, romping. What a pity, what
    a pity! No arrangements had been made, no police
    officers placed on duty and the whole house had
    been inundated by the rabble mob. We came too
    late. The President, after having been literally
    nearly pressed to death and almost suffocated and
    torn to pieces by

11
Washington Hostess on the Inauguration 2
  • the people in their eagerness to shake hands with
    Old Hickory, and retreated through the back way
    or south front and had been escorted to his
    lodgings at Gadsbys. Cut glass and china to the
    amount of several thousand dollars had been
    broken in the struggle to get the refreshments,
    punch and other articles had been carried out in
    tubs and buckets, but had it been in hogsheads

12
Washington Hostess on the Inauguration 3
  • it would have been insufficient, ice creams, and
    cake and lemonade, for 20,000 people, for it is
    said the number were there, tho I think the
    estimate exaggerated. Ladies fainted, men were
    seen with bloodied noses and such a scene of
    confusion took place as is impossible to
    describe--those who got in could not get out by
    the door again, but had to scramble out of the
    windows.

13
Jacksons Inaugural
14
Jacksons Inaugural
15
Jacksons Winning Coalition
  • States rightists and strict constructionists
    dislike nationalist policies of Clay and Adams
  • Bank men, anti-bank men, high and low tariff men
  • Former Federalists using Jacksons prestige to
    re-enter politics
  • New man in politics--men hoped to use politics to
    rise on social scale

16
Jacksons Conception of the Presidency
  • Few Presidents enter Office with well-developed
    Conception of Office
  • Shaped by Own History and Experiences,
    Personality and Character
  • Shaped by Demands and Crises Faced while in Office

17
Jacksons Conception of the Presidency
  • History Westerner, Outsider, Military Background
    and Election of 1824
  • Personal Character and Personality, He was
    impetuous and cautious, ruthless and
    compassionate, suspicious and generous. Driven
    by ambition, he was a skillful, hardheaded
    political operator.

18
Jackson and the Spoils System
  • Jackson believe supporters should be rewarded on
    grounds of necessity and principle
  • Entrenched bureaucracy with life tenure viewed as
    undemocratic not responsive to people
  • Jacksonians believe in rotation in office
  • Political offices change hands periodically
  • give more people opportunity
  • Government jobs simple anyone could do them
  • Symbolic influence--US government by and of the
    people--one man as good as another

19
Banking in the U.S.
  • Banks played major role in the creation of
    capital
  • Capital needed for roads, canals, railroads,
    steamboats
  • As well as for land, labor and materials
  • Credit has bought our land, made our canals,
    improved our rivers, cleared our fields, founded
    our churches, and erected our colleges and
    schools.

20
Growth of Banks
21
Bank Notes in Millions
22
Banking as a Political Issue
  • BUS most important bank--repository of federal
    funds, largest corporation in country, regulated
    state banks (in theory)
  • BUS had been controversial since Hamilton had
    proposed first BUS
  • Panic of 1819 alienated large number of Americans
    from banking and credit system
  • Widespread feeling that Panic and depression
    retribution for speculative fever after 1815

23
Deep Suspicion of Banking
  • Banks--not just BUS---symbolized unsettling
    transformation of American society from an
    agrarian to a commercial society
  • Jacksonian Democrats motley group--some for
    BUS---others opposed---some for state banks and
    others opposed to all banks

24
Nicholas Biddle (1786-1844)
  • Brilliant young man from influential Pennsylvania
    family
  • Asked by William Clark to write history of Lewis
    and Clark expedition
  • Edited leading literary journal in US
  • President of BUS, 1823-39

25
Nicholas Biddle
26
Nicholas Biddle
27
Biddle and the BUS
  • Biddle naïve, indiscreet, and arrogant
  • Asked by US Senate whether BUS ever oppressed
    state banks
  • Biddle answered There are few bankswhich might
    not have been destroyed by an exertion of the
    power of the Bank. None have ever been injured.
    Many have been saved. And more have been, and
    are, constantly relieved when it is found that
    they are solvent but are suffering under
    temporary difficulty.

28
Presidential Election of 1832
  • Biddle miscalculated and requested (on the advice
    of Henry Clay) a bill to grant new charter for
    BUS in early 1832
  • Believed that Jackson would be forced to sign
    recharter bill for popular Bank
  • If Jackson failed to sign, it would be used as
    campaign issue for Clays advantage
  • Bank recharter bill passed Congress

29
Campaigning Against Jackson
30
First Bank of the United States
31
Second Bank of the United States
32
The Banking Crisis Jacksons Veto
  • BUS Chartered in 1816 for 20 Years
  • Recharter Bill in 1832 Vetoed by Jackson
  • Veto Message Against on Policy Grounds BUS
    Unconstitutional BUS Foster Inequality
  • Denounced foreign stockholders
  • Jackson Vetoed 12 Measures in 2 Terms 6
    Predecessors Only Veto 10 Total

33
Jacksons Message
  • It is to be regretted that the rich and powerful
    too often bend the acts of government to their
    selfish purposes. Distinctions in society will
    always exist under every just government.
    Equality of talents, of education, or of wealth
    can not be produced by human institutions. In
    the full enjoyment of the gifts of Heaven and the
    fruits of superior industry, economy and virtue,

34
Jacksons Message 2
  • every man is entitled to protection by law but
    when the laws undertake to add to these natural
    and just advantages artificial distinctions, to
    grant titles, gratuities, and exclusive
    privileges, to make the rich richer and the
    potent more powerful, the humble members of
    society--the farmer, mechanics, and laborers--who
    have neither the time nor the means of securing
    like favors to themselves,

35
Jacksons Message 3
  • have a right to complain of the injustice of
    their Government. There are no necessary evils
    in government. Its evils exist only in its
    abuses. If it would confine itself to equal
    protection, and, as Heaven does its rains, shower
    its favors alike on the high and the low, the
    rich and the poor, it would be an unqualified
    blessing. In the act before me there seems to be
    a wide and unnecessary departure from these just
    principles.

36
King Andrew
37
The Monster
38
The Banking Crisis Withdrawal of Funds
  • Jackson Fires Secretary of Treasury, William
    Duane
  • Replacement, Roger Taney Withdraws Funds from BUS
    in 1833
  • Question Can the President Fire a Cabinet Member?

39
The Banking Crisis Congress Versus the President
  • Senate Critics of Jackson Charge Executive
    Usurpation, Boldness, Innovation and Defiance
  • Resolutions of Censure Pass Senate
  • By dismissing the late Secretary of Treasury
    because he would not, contrary to his sense of
    his own duty remove the federal deposits from
    the Bank of the United States and by appointing
    his successor to effect such removal.the
    President has assumed the exercise of power of
    the treasury of the United States, not granted to
    him by the constitution and law, and dangerous to
    the liberty of the people.

40
The Banking Crisis Congress Versus the President
  • Whig Conception of President
  • Whig View President Controls Sword and Congress
    Controls Purse
  • Jacksons Response to Senate Unauthorized by
    Constitution, President the direct
    representative of the American People....
  • Calhoun What effrontery, what boldness of
    assertion! The immediate representative! Why he
    never received a vote from the American people.
  • Standoff Between Congress and Jackson

41
Clays Attack on Jackson
  • Clay Jacksons notions of Presidency a military
    idea, wholly incompatible with free government
  • We are the midst of a revolution, hitherto
    bloodless, but rapidly tending towards a total
    change of the pure republican character of
    theGovernment, and to the concentration of all
    power in the hands of one man. The eyes and
    hopes of the American people are anxiously turned
    to Congress.

42
Clays Attack on Jackson (2)
  • They feel that they have been deceived and
    insulted their confidence abused their
    interests betrayed and their liberties in
    danger. They see a rapid and alarming
    concentration of all power in one mans hands.
    They see that, by the exercise of the positive
    authority of the Executive, and his negative
    power exerted over Congress, the will of one man
    alone prevails, and governs the republic.

43
Censure of Jackson
  • Jackson censured for executive usurpation of
    power
  • Deposits not restored to BUS
  • BUS charter expired in 1836
  • Last days of Jacksons presidencySenate voted to
    expunge resolution of censure

44
How Did Jackson Revolutionize the Presidency
  • Challenged Congress for Control
  • Saw President as Direct Representative of America
    People
  • Ended Tradition of Strong, Independent Cabinet
  • Short-Lived Revolution
  • Model for Twentieth Century Presidents
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