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AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY CHAPTER 5 CLASS NOTES

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AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY CHAPTER 5 CLASS NOTES Processes and Cycles of Population Change DTC con. 3. Late Expanding Stage - Now declining BR, already low DR ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY CHAPTER 5 CLASS NOTES


1
AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY CHAPTER 5 CLASS NOTES
  • Processes and Cycles of Population Change

2
The Population Explosion of the 20th Century
  • 2.5 million years for the worlds pop. to reach 1
    Billion,
  • Only 200 more years to reach 6 billion
  • Key to reducing population growth rates?
  • WOMEN!!!
  • education
  • rights

3
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4
Thomas Malthus ???
  • British Economist
  • Essay on Population, 1798
  • Worlds Population is increasing faster than the
    food supplies needed to sustain it

5
Malthus Theory
  • Population increases at an Exponential rate
  • Means of Subsistence (food supply) increases at
    an Arithmetic rate

6
Growth Types
7
Linear (Arithmetic) Growth
  • Constant
  • (arithmetic rate) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, etc.

8
Exponential (Geometric) Growth
  • Compounded (doubling)
  • 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, etc.

9
Pick a Side
  • Neo-Malthusian Supports ideas of Malthus
  • Inevitable stage in history
  • Human suffering greater than M. predicted
  • Anti-Malthusian not in agreement
  • Food production not lineargt has become
    exponential as well
  • Cultivated land increased
  • New seeds and fertilizers used (biotech, yield)

10
Natural Increase (pop.) ???
  • Difference between of births and of deaths in
    a period
  • Crude Birth Rate (CBR) live births per year
    per 1,000
  • Crude Death Rate (CDR) of deaths per
    1,000 (mortality rate)

11
High Birth Death Rate
  • High BR
  • S. Asia, SW Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa (50 per
    1000)
  • Highest DR
  • Africa
  • Deteriorating health conditions
  • No Access
  • Infant Mortality Rate ???
  • die before 1st BDay

12
Low Birth Rate
  • Low BR Europe (15 per 1,000), N. America,
    Australia, China, Japan
  • Low BR
  • modernization, industrialization,
    urbanization, education (women)

13
Total Fertility Rate (TFR)
  • of children born to women of child bearing age
  • TFRs are declining all over the world
  • Chinas fell from 6.1 to 1.7 in just 30 years
  • A TFR of 2.1 is needed to maintain stable
    population over time (60 countries below)

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15
Past Limits on Population Growth (until 19th
Century)
  • (Malthus said we needed to check Pop.)
  • Epidemics Plagues (Black Death, AIDS)
  • Famines (weather)
  • Wars
  • (Khmer Rouge killed 3 of 7 million people)

16
After 1800s
  • Marked increase in Pop. Growth rate in Europe
  • 2nd Agricultural Revolution
  • Farming methods improved
  • Tools
  • Industrial Revolution
  • Sanitation, vaccines,

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18
Demographic Change Formula To figure out the
total POP. change
  • TP OP B D I E
  • TP total population
  • OP original population
  • B births
  • D deaths
  • I Immigration
  • E Emigration

19
Living Old
  • DEPENDENCY RATIO
  • Ratio of of people either too old or too young
    to provide for themselves to the of people who
    must support them through their own labor
  • n 100
  • n the number of dependents

20
POPULATION PYRAMIDS (Age Sex Pyramids)
  • Instantly conveys the demographic situation in a
    country
  • See what age group (of M F) has what share of
    the population

21
POPULATION PYRAMIDS (Age Sex Pyramids) World
POPULATION
  • What does this tell us???

22
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23
What is happening to POP in each???
24
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25
Nigeria 1963
26
Nigeria 2003
27
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28
Demographic Transition Cycle MODEL
29
Demographic Transition (Cycle) 4 STAGES MODEL
  • Development BR / DR
  • (Based on Europe Model of Growth (UK))
  • 1. High Stationary Stage
  • high fertility (BR), high mortality (DR),
    little long term POP growth
  • Farming, Mining
  • (poor, underdeveloped countries)

30
Demographic Transition Cycle MODEL
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33
  • 2. Early Expanding Stage
  • high BR, declining DR
  • POP growth rate high
  • Food Supply Country Stable, Trade

34
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35
DTC con.
  • 3. Late Expanding Stage -
  • Now declining BR, already low DR
    so continued POP growth
  • Industrialization, Urbanization

36
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37
  • 4. Low Stationary Stage
  • low fertility, low mortality,
  • low POP growth rate
  • Modernization, Education, Women Rights
  • CORE COUNTRIES (Rich,
    Industrialized)

38
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40
Key Questions
  • Why Unwise to assume that
    ALL countries growth follows
    DTCM (Europe)?
  • Stationary Population Level (SPL)
    (DTM Stage 5?)
  • Worlds pop. will stop growing in
    21st Cen. (Will Stabilize)
  • Why??? How???

41
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