BELLWORK - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Title: BELLWORK


1
BELLWORK
  1. List three factors that contributed to Canadas
    changing dominion status during WWI.
  2. Describe Wilsons policy of Moral Diplomacy.
  3. How was Moral Diplomacy different from the
    policies of the other Progressive presidents,
    Roosevelt Taft?
  4. Explain how naval warfare was waged during WWI.
  5. THINKER Do you think its possible for a
    superpower like the U.S. to be neutral during
    WWI? Are there any situations (modern or past) in
    which you feel the U.S. should remain neutral?

2
Woodrow Wilson
  • Nickname The School Master because he was the
    most educated President.
  • Despite his cold exterior, Wilson wrote 1,000s
    of sexy love letters to his wife, and frequently
    visited a woman in Bermuda
  • In 1919 Wilson suffered a stroke, his wife Edith
    was the gatekeeper during his recovery (first
    female president?)

3
(No Transcript)
4
U.S. Involvement in WWI
  • Should the U.S. remain neutral?

5
  • President Wilson on U.S. neutrality
  • We must be impartial in thought, as well as,
    action!

6
U.S. NEUTRALITY
  • In August 1914, Wilson officially declared the
    U.S. neutral.
  • Although neutral, the U.S. was secretly giving
    food and supplies to the Allies and loaned them
    2.25 billion.
  • Wilson was reelected in 1916 with the slogan, HE
    KEPT US OUT OF WAR!

7
View of American citizens
  • Allied war purchases fed an economic boom in the
    U.S.
  • America trade with allies rose from 825 million
    in 1914 to 3.2 billion in 1916.

8
By the Numbers
  • 1914 trade w/Britain 743 million
  • 1914 trade w/Germany 345 million
  • 1916 trade w/Britain 3 billion
  • 1916 trade w/Germany 29 million
  • Loans to Britain ? 2.3 Billion
  • Loans to Germany ? 27 million

9
German U-Boats
  • German U-Boats, or submarines, were used to
    attack enemy ships.
  • Submarine Warfare
  • Germany warned
  • All seas around Britain and Ireland to be a war
    zone
  • All enemy ships in the zone were targets to be
    sunk
  • Neutral ships might be attacked by mistake
  • American passengers should stay off all Allied
    ships

10
(No Transcript)
11
(No Transcript)
12
Wilsons Message to Germany
  • "If such a deplorable situation should arise, the
    Imperial German Government can readily appreciate
    that the Government of the United States would
    take any steps it might be necessary to take to
    safeguard American lives and property and to
    secure to American citizens the full enjoyment of
    their acknowledged rights on the high seas
  • To summarize ? Germany WILL be held responsible
    for loss of American ships or American lives!!!!

13
Britain was not innocent either
  • By November 1914, Great Britain was the strongest
    naval power in the world, so they used their
    power to
  • Mine the North Sea
  • Blockade goods to Germany
  • Seized shipments of non-military supplies from
    the U.S. that were bound for neutral ports
  • Increased their list of contraband, or prohibited
    supplies
  • Broke international law by searching neutral
    merchant ships
  • Why do you think the U.S. would punish Germany
    for breaking international law, but not Britain?
  • Pro-British sympathy among influential government
    officials
  • Secretary of State Robert Lansing
  • Wilsons personal advisor, Edward M. House
  • U.S. Ambassador to Great Britain, Walter Hines
    Page
  • The British blockade affected property but not
    lives. The German blockade threatened both.

14
(No Transcript)
15
Lusitania
  • May 7, 1915 German submarine attacked the
    Lusitania, a British passenger ship.
  • The Germans believed the ship was secretly
    carrying weapons to Britain.
  • Killed 1,000 people, including 128 Americans.
  • Wilson struggles to maintain neutrality.

16
(No Transcript)
17
(No Transcript)
18
(No Transcript)
19
(No Transcript)
20
Change in German War Strategy
  • On Christmas Day 1915, Falkenhayn (German Chief
    of Staff) wrote a letter to Kaiser Wilhelm
    (leader of Germany) to revise war strategy.
  • Falkenhayn argued that the key to winning the war
    was not Russia whom he believed was on the
    point of revolution subsequent withdrawal from
    the war but on the Western Front. 
  • He reasoned that if France could be defeated,
    Britain would in all likelihood seek terms with
    Germany, or else be defeated in turn.
  • He believed that Britain formed the foundation of
    the Allied effort against Germany and that she
    must be removed from the war. 
  • To that end he recommended implementation of a
    policy of unrestricted submarine warfare against
    merchant shipping, a policy directed squarely at
    starving Britain. 

21
Closer to War
  • Allies suffer major losses and beg the U.S. for
    help.
  • Germany announces an unrestricted submarine
    campaign
  • Germans sink U.S. supply ships City of Memphis,
    Illinois, and Vigilante.
  • 1916 Congress expands Army, National Guard, and
    Navy. (mobilization)
  • Wilson issues an ultimatum to Germany unless
    they abandon unrestricted submarine warfare
    against all ships, the U.S. would break off
    diplomatic relations. Germany promised to
    comply

22
Zimmerman Note
  • In January 1917, Arthur Zimmerman, a German
    official, proposed a deal with Mexico.
  • Mexico should ally itself with Germany to attack
    the U.S.
  • In return, Mexico would receive land lost to the
    U.S. in 1848.
  • A British official intercepted Zimmermans
    telegram and spread the news to the U.S.

23
(No Transcript)
24
(No Transcript)
25
(No Transcript)
26
Presidential Address to the Senate
  • Even after the Zimmerman Telegram, Wilson was
    still reluctant to declare war.
  • In an effort to justify neutrality he held a
    meeting with the Senate on January 22, 1917.
  • At this meeting he gave one of his most famous
    addresses in which he supports Moral Diplomacy
    and an attempted compromise with all nations at
    war. Its seen as his final effort to bring
    compromise, peace, and an end to war.
  • This speech will become the foundation for the
    League of Nations.
  • For the rest of class (potentially homework) you
    are going to read Wilsons Address to the Senate
    and analyze
  • OPVL
  • Summary of his important points (link to Moral
    Diplomacy and U.S. neutrality)
  • Plans for the future (How can the world achieve
    peace?)
  • Your personal response (Is compromise or peace
    possible? Do you agree with Wilsons ideas?)

27
BELLWORK
  1. What was the purpose of Wilsons January 22nd
    address to the Senate?
  2. During his speech, Wilson emphasized that peace
    only exists between equals. What do you think he
    means by this? Do you agree?
  3. List five things Wilson deemed necessary in order
    to establish a permanent peace.
  4. THINKER Read the last paragraph on pg. 3 in
    which Wilson proposed that the nations should
    with one accord adopt the doctrine of President
    Monroe as the doctrine of the world.. What do
    you think he means by this? Does this contradict
    his previous ideas of equality? Do you agree with
    this?

28
U.S. Involvement
  • Between Peace and War

29
What should Wilson do?
  • Even after Germany broke several ultimatums and
    promises, Wilson still wished to avoid war.
  • At this point, American citizens and the
    government supported a war to stop German
    aggression.
  • In the early days of March 1917, Wilson secluded
    himself for almost ten days, only seeing a few
    top advisors
  • From all sides the President was bombarded with
    advice for war and for peace
  • Then, on March 18th, German U-boats sank three
    more unarmed American ships, also without
    warning.
  • Two days later, on March 20th, Wilson held a
    three hour Cabinet meeting to hear opinions about
    what should be done.

30
Between Peace and War
  • The question on everyone's mind - should
    President Wilson ask Congress to declare war on
    Germany?
  • Now its time for you to decide!!!!
  • The class is going to be divided into groups of
    4.
  • Each group has a different argument or point they
    will focus on (money, international law,
    propaganda, death toll)
  • This exercise is based on the Cabinet meeting
    which President Wilson held on March 20, 1917 to
    hear opinions about the possibility of war.
  • After the groups read their viewpoints, a
    representative will summarize their argument.
  • Be ready to participate!

31
Cabinet Meeting Role Play
  • To start
  • Independently read your groups position and
    answer the following
  • What is your groups position on entering WWI?
  • List three examples that back up the opinion or
    argument.

32
PRO-WAR PRO-NEUTRALITY


33
President Wilsons War MessageApril 2, 1917
  • You will now read President Wilsons war message
    to Congress.
  • As you read, highlight/take notes, but focus
    on..
  • WHY neutrality was no longer an option
  • WHY the U.S. declared war
  • HOW the U.S. will prepare for war
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BELLWORK

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Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: BELLWORK


1
BELLWORK
  1. List three factors that contributed to Canadas
    changing dominion status during WWI.
  2. Describe Wilsons policy of Moral Diplomacy.
  3. How was Moral Diplomacy different from the
    policies of the other Progressive presidents,
    Roosevelt Taft?
  4. Explain how naval warfare was waged during WWI.
  5. THINKER Do you think its possible for a
    superpower like the U.S. to be neutral during
    WWI? Are there any situations (modern or past) in
    which you feel the U.S. should remain neutral?

2
Woodrow Wilson
  • Nickname The School Master because he was the
    most educated President.
  • Despite his cold exterior, Wilson wrote 1,000s
    of sexy love letters to his wife, and frequently
    visited a woman in Bermuda
  • In 1919 Wilson suffered a stroke, his wife Edith
    was the gatekeeper during his recovery (first
    female president?)

3
(No Transcript)
4
U.S. Involvement in WWI
  • Should the U.S. remain neutral?

5
  • President Wilson on U.S. neutrality
  • We must be impartial in thought, as well as,
    action!

6
U.S. NEUTRALITY
  • In August 1914, Wilson officially declared the
    U.S. neutral.
  • Although neutral, the U.S. was secretly giving
    food and supplies to the Allies and loaned them
    2.25 billion.
  • Wilson was reelected in 1916 with the slogan, HE
    KEPT US OUT OF WAR!

7
View of American citizens
  • Allied war purchases fed an economic boom in the
    U.S.
  • America trade with allies rose from 825 million
    in 1914 to 3.2 billion in 1916.

8
By the Numbers
  • 1914 trade w/Britain 743 million
  • 1914 trade w/Germany 345 million
  • 1916 trade w/Britain 3 billion
  • 1916 trade w/Germany 29 million
  • Loans to Britain ? 2.3 Billion
  • Loans to Germany ? 27 million

9
German U-Boats
  • German U-Boats, or submarines, were used to
    attack enemy ships.
  • Submarine Warfare
  • Germany warned
  • All seas around Britain and Ireland to be a war
    zone
  • All enemy ships in the zone were targets to be
    sunk
  • Neutral ships might be attacked by mistake
  • American passengers should stay off all Allied
    ships

10
(No Transcript)
11
(No Transcript)
12
Wilsons Message to Germany
  • "If such a deplorable situation should arise, the
    Imperial German Government can readily appreciate
    that the Government of the United States would
    take any steps it might be necessary to take to
    safeguard American lives and property and to
    secure to American citizens the full enjoyment of
    their acknowledged rights on the high seas
  • To summarize ? Germany WILL be held responsible
    for loss of American ships or American lives!!!!

13
Britain was not innocent either
  • By November 1914, Great Britain was the strongest
    naval power in the world, so they used their
    power to
  • Mine the North Sea
  • Blockade goods to Germany
  • Seized shipments of non-military supplies from
    the U.S. that were bound for neutral ports
  • Increased their list of contraband, or prohibited
    supplies
  • Broke international law by searching neutral
    merchant ships
  • Why do you think the U.S. would punish Germany
    for breaking international law, but not Britain?
  • Pro-British sympathy among influential government
    officials
  • Secretary of State Robert Lansing
  • Wilsons personal advisor, Edward M. House
  • U.S. Ambassador to Great Britain, Walter Hines
    Page
  • The British blockade affected property but not
    lives. The German blockade threatened both.

14
(No Transcript)
15
Lusitania
  • May 7, 1915 German submarine attacked the
    Lusitania, a British passenger ship.
  • The Germans believed the ship was secretly
    carrying weapons to Britain.
  • Killed 1,000 people, including 128 Americans.
  • Wilson struggles to maintain neutrality.

16
(No Transcript)
17
(No Transcript)
18
(No Transcript)
19
(No Transcript)
20
Change in German War Strategy
  • On Christmas Day 1915, Falkenhayn (German Chief
    of Staff) wrote a letter to Kaiser Wilhelm
    (leader of Germany) to revise war strategy.
  • Falkenhayn argued that the key to winning the war
    was not Russia whom he believed was on the
    point of revolution subsequent withdrawal from
    the war but on the Western Front. 
  • He reasoned that if France could be defeated,
    Britain would in all likelihood seek terms with
    Germany, or else be defeated in turn.
  • He believed that Britain formed the foundation of
    the Allied effort against Germany and that she
    must be removed from the war. 
  • To that end he recommended implementation of a
    policy of unrestricted submarine warfare against
    merchant shipping, a policy directed squarely at
    starving Britain. 

21
Closer to War
  • Allies suffer major losses and beg the U.S. for
    help.
  • Germany announces an unrestricted submarine
    campaign
  • Germans sink U.S. supply ships City of Memphis,
    Illinois, and Vigilante.
  • 1916 Congress expands Army, National Guard, and
    Navy. (mobilization)
  • Wilson issues an ultimatum to Germany unless
    they abandon unrestricted submarine warfare
    against all ships, the U.S. would break off
    diplomatic relations. Germany promised to
    comply

22
Zimmerman Note
  • In January 1917, Arthur Zimmerman, a German
    official, proposed a deal with Mexico.
  • Mexico should ally itself with Germany to attack
    the U.S.
  • In return, Mexico would receive land lost to the
    U.S. in 1848.
  • A British official intercepted Zimmermans
    telegram and spread the news to the U.S.

23
(No Transcript)
24
(No Transcript)
25
(No Transcript)
26
Presidential Address to the Senate
  • Even after the Zimmerman Telegram, Wilson was
    still reluctant to declare war.
  • In an effort to justify neutrality he held a
    meeting with the Senate on January 22, 1917.
  • At this meeting he gave one of his most famous
    addresses in which he supports Moral Diplomacy
    and an attempted compromise with all nations at
    war. Its seen as his final effort to bring
    compromise, peace, and an end to war.
  • This speech will become the foundation for the
    League of Nations.
  • For the rest of class (potentially homework) you
    are going to read Wilsons Address to the Senate
    and analyze
  • OPVL
  • Summary of his important points (link to Moral
    Diplomacy and U.S. neutrality)
  • Plans for the future (How can the world achieve
    peace?)
  • Your personal response (Is compromise or peace
    possible? Do you agree with Wilsons ideas?)

27
BELLWORK
  1. What was the purpose of Wilsons January 22nd
    address to the Senate?
  2. During his speech, Wilson emphasized that peace
    only exists between equals. What do you think he
    means by this? Do you agree?
  3. List five things Wilson deemed necessary in order
    to establish a permanent peace.
  4. THINKER Read the last paragraph on pg. 3 in
    which Wilson proposed that the nations should
    with one accord adopt the doctrine of President
    Monroe as the doctrine of the world.. What do
    you think he means by this? Does this contradict
    his previous ideas of equality? Do you agree with
    this?

28
U.S. Involvement
  • Between Peace and War

29
What should Wilson do?
  • Even after Germany broke several ultimatums and
    promises, Wilson still wished to avoid war.
  • At this point, American citizens and the
    government supported a war to stop German
    aggression.
  • In the early days of March 1917, Wilson secluded
    himself for almost ten days, only seeing a few
    top advisors
  • From all sides the President was bombarded with
    advice for war and for peace
  • Then, on March 18th, German U-boats sank three
    more unarmed American ships, also without
    warning.
  • Two days later, on March 20th, Wilson held a
    three hour Cabinet meeting to hear opinions about
    what should be done.

30
Between Peace and War
  • The question on everyone's mind - should
    President Wilson ask Congress to declare war on
    Germany?
  • Now its time for you to decide!!!!
  • The class is going to be divided into groups of
    4.
  • Each group has a different argument or point they
    will focus on (money, international law,
    propaganda, death toll)
  • This exercise is based on the Cabinet meeting
    which President Wilson held on March 20, 1917 to
    hear opinions about the possibility of war.
  • After the groups read their viewpoints, a
    representative will summarize their argument.
  • Be ready to participate!

31
Cabinet Meeting Role Play
  • To start
  • Independently read your groups position and
    answer the following
  • What is your groups position on entering WWI?
  • List three examples that back up the opinion or
    argument.

32
PRO-WAR PRO-NEUTRALITY


33
President Wilsons War MessageApril 2, 1917
  • You will now read President Wilsons war message
    to Congress.
  • As you read, highlight/take notes, but focus
    on..
  • WHY neutrality was no longer an option
  • WHY the U.S. declared war
  • HOW the U.S. will prepare for war
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