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A brief introduction

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Title: Biological Perspective focus upon Author: Cathy Holbrook Last modified by: end user Created Date: 9/14/2010 9:27:56 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: A brief introduction


1
A brief introduction
  • to the world of Psychology.

2
A deep thought
  • There are 100 billion galaxies. Just one of
    these, our own relative speck of a galaxy, has
    some 200 billion stars, many of which, like our
    sun, are circled by planets. On the scale of
    outer space, we are less than a single grain of
    sand on all the oceans beaches, and our lifetime
    but a relative nanosecond. Yet, there is nothing
    more awe-inspiring than our own inner space. Our
    brain is by far the most complex physical object
    in the entire cosmos. Our consciousness- mind
    somehow arising from matter- remains a profound
    mystery. Our thinking, emotions, and actions
    fascinate us. Outer space staggers us with its
    enormity, but inner space enthralls us. Enter
    the world of psychology

3
Part 1 The roots of Psychology
4
A quote
  • Psychology has a long past, but a short
    history.
  • -Hermann Ebbinghaus
  • What do you think this statement means?

5
Ancient prescientific roots
  • Since the beginning, humans have been intensely
    interested in themselves and others (Buddha,
    Confucius, ancient Hebrews)
  • Ancient Greece
  • Socrates (469-399 BCE)/Plato (428-348 BCE)
    determined that the mind is separate from the
    body knowledge is inborn
  • Aristotle (384-322 BCE) human behavior governed
    by patterns and rules i.e. seeking pleasure,
    avoiding pain used observation and data
    knowledge is not preexisting- it comes from
    experience
  • Hippocrates (460-371 BCE) strange behavior
    caused by brain abnormalities, not the gods four
    humors or fluids determined personality

6
1600s modern science begins
  • Rene DeCartes, France (1595-1650)
  • I think, therefore I am.
  • People used their inborn knowledge to reason
  • Theorized about brain fluids causing movement by
    flowing through nerves to our muscles
  • Francis Bacon, Great Britain (1561-1626)
  • Focused on experiments and common sense over
    superstition responsible for the scientific
    method
  • John Locke (1632-1704)
  • Tabula rasa blank slate

7
Birth of Modern Psychological Science
  • Bacon and Lockes insights lead to modern
    empiricism- that knowledge comes from experience
    and science relies on observation,
    experimentation, evidence.
  • December, 1879 1st psychology lab established in
    Germany at University of Leipzig by Wilhelm Wundt
  • The 1st ever psychology experiment on reaction
    time and perception
  • 1/10 sec. hit a button when you hear the sound
    of a ball.
  • 2/10 sec. hit a button when you are consciously
    aware of perceiving the sound.

8
The first two perspectives/theories
  • Edward Titchener (Wundts student)
  • Founded structuralism (1892) used
    self-reflective introspection used to discover
    the elements of the mind.
  • William James
  • Created functionalism how do our thoughts and
    behaviors help us adapt to our environments?
  • Wrote the first psychology textbook (1890)
  • Admitted the first female Psychology Ph.D at
    Harvard (Mary Calkins)

9
Other early landmarks
  • Hermann Ebbinghaus first experiments on memory
    (1885)
  • 1st Psychology Ph.D awarded (1886)
  • 1st American Professor of Psychology (1888)
  • APA (American Psychological Association) founded
    in 1892
  • Edward Thorndike first experiments on animal
    learning (1898)
  • Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Psychoanalysis
  • Alfred Binet first intelligence test (1905)
  • John B. Watson (1878-1958) Behaviorism
  • In order to be a reputable science, psychology
    should limit itself to observable, measurable
    behaviors (1913)
  • Gestalt Psychology (Wertheimer, Koffka, etc)
    (1920s) "The whole is greater than the sum of
    the parts learning comes from insight, not only
    from repetition and rewards
  • For more details, watch this video
  • http//www.learner.org/series/discoveringpsycholog
    y/history/history_flash.html

10
Part 2 The Tools and Perspectives of Modern
Psychology
  • The Bio-Psycho-Social Model and the 6 Modern
    Approaches

11
Bio-psycho-social model
12
1. Psychoanalytic approach
  • Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)

13
2. Behaviorist approach
  • John Watson (1878-1958)
  • B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)

14
3. Humanistic approach
  • The late 1950s and 1960s

15
4. Cognitive approach
  • CognitionThinking

16
5. Biological approach
  • How do the following impact an individuals
    mental processes and behavior

17
6. Sociocultural approach
  • How do the following forces impact a persons
    behavior and mental processes?
  • Does your language shape the way you think?
    Check these out
  • http//www.nytimes.com/2010/08/29/magazine/29langu
    age-t.html?_r1refmagazine
  • http//www.ecst.csuchico.edu/atman/Misc/eskimo-sn
    ow-words.html

18
Final thoughts
  • There are many approaches, therefore there are
    many possible answers.
  • Think of each of the six perspectives as a lens
    onto each individual.
  • Human beings have free will as a result, human
    behavior does not follow set laws, like physics.
  • However, there are still patterns and tendencies
    that can be discovered using the scientific
    method.
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