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TOP TEN WORDS MOST OFTEN CONFUSED/MISUSED

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TOP TEN WORDS MOST OFTEN CONFUSED/MISUSED These common errors should be avoided in ALL writing! Points will be deducted for each error. Special thanks to Nathan Wood ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: TOP TEN WORDS MOST OFTEN CONFUSED/MISUSED


1
TOP TEN WORDS MOST OFTEN CONFUSED/MISUSED
  • These common errors should be avoided in ALL
    writing! Points will be deducted for each error.
  • Special thanks to Nathan Wood for his
    contributions.
  • Also, to Grammar Girl-I am a big fan of her
    websites!

2
TOP TEN LIST
  • Theyre, Their, There
  • Your/Youre (you)
  • To/Too/Two
  • A lot/alot
  • Its/its
  • 6. S/s/s
  • 7. Then/Than
  • 8. COULD OF/MUST OF
  • SHOULD OF/WOULD OF
  • (HAVE)
  • 9. Who vs. That
  • 10. SVPS!
  • (everyone, anyone, anybody, everybody, a person,
    etc.-check subjects pronouns, check subjects
    and verbs)!

3
ERROR 1
  • THEYRE
  • THEIR
  • THERE

4
Theyre
  • This is a contraction of they are. It should
    only be used when expressing they are.
  • Example Theyre gone.
  • In academic/formal writing one would avoid the
    use of contractions opting for They are instead,
    thus avoiding this error.

5
THEIR
  • This is a possessive word. It is only used to
    express ownership.
  • Example their books

6
THERE
  • This is the most commonly used form. It expresses
    location.
  • Example There are some students. Go there.

7
ERROR 2
  • YOUR
  • YOURE

8
YOUR
  • This is a possessive word. It is only used to
    express ownership.
  • Example Your books.
  • WARNING Be careful when typing that you do not
    type you when you mean your.
  • Example Be sure to bring you book to class.

9
YOURE
  • This is a contraction of you are. It should only
    be used when expressing you are.
  • Example Youre friendly.
  • In academic/formal writing one would avoid the
    use of contractions opting for You are instead,
    thus avoiding this error.

10
ERROR 3
  • TO
  • TWO
  • TOO

11
TO
  • This word is a preposition. It expresses
    direction.
  • Examples
  • Go to the store.
  • Whom did you talk to?
  • (Preferred academic would be-To whom did you
    talk?)
  • Whom is used as the object form you is the
    subject of the sentence.

12
TWO
  • This word expresses the number two (2). It should
    only be used to express the number two.
  • Example Pick up two cases of pop.

13
TOO
  • This word is an adverb. It expresses also,
    sufficiently, or extremely. It should only be
    used when these words could be substituted.
  • Examples I am going too. (also)
  • One can never have too much chocolate.
    (sufficient)
  • I am too tired. (extremely)

14
ERROR 4
  • A LOT
  • ALOT

15
A LOT
  • If you wish to express a lot, write it as two
    SEPARATE words.
  • Example I have a lot of homework tonight.
  • Alot-This is not a standard English word.
  • DO NOT USE UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCES!

16
ERROR 5
  • ITS
  • ITS

17
ITS
  • This word is a contraction of it is. It should
    only be used when expressing it is.
  • Example Its cold outside.
  • In academic/formal writing one would avoid the
    use of contractions opting for It is instead,
    thus avoiding this error.

18
ITS
  • This is a possessive word. It is only used to
    express ownership by something that is singular,
    and neither male nor female.
  • Example Its cord is not plugged in.

19
ERROR 6
  • S
  • S
  • S

20
S
  • The letter s is the most common way to make words
    plural. It should be added to most words to
    indicate more than one.
  • Examples schools, books, desks, teachers

21
S
  • The s is the most common method for showing
    possession. It MUST be used to make a singular
    noun show ownership.
  • Examples
  • The schools policies
  • Jims car
  • Americas flag

22
S
  • The s is used to show that the word is plural
    AND possessive. The s makes the word plural, and
    the apostrophe makes it possessive.
  • Examples
  • two schools policies
  • three teachers desks

23
ERROR 7
  • THAN
  • THEN

24
THAN
  • This word is used for comparisons. It should be
    used to show a difference between two or more
    items.
  • Examples
  • He is taller than the door.
  • I did more work than they did.
  • Jim is smarter than Sam.

25
THEN
  • This word is used to express time or next in
    order of sequence or place. It cannot be used to
    compare in any circumstance.
  • Example
  • I went to English class, then math.

26
ERROR 8
  • COULD OF
  • MUST OF
  • SHOULD OF
  • WOULD OF
  • These are not standard English
  • DO NOT EVER USE!

27
ERROR 8
  • All should be expressed with the helping verb
    have.
  • Could have
  • Must have
  • Should have
  • Would have
  • In academic/formal writing one would avoid the
    use of contractions opting for could have etc.
    instead, thus avoiding this error

28
ERROR 9
  • WHO VS. THAT

29
WHO
  • WHO is used to indicate or in reference to a
    human.
  • The skateboarder that does tricks is awesome.
    (Wrong!)
  • The skateboarder who does tricks is awesome.
  • Example My grandma, who bakes delicious cookies,
    is coming over for Mothers Day.
  • Additional notes
  • A. a comma is used before and after the who
    clause because it describes grandma but is not
    necessary to the sentence because we know it is
    your grandma. This is called a nonessential
    clause.
  • B. Notice the apostrophe in Mothers as it is
    possessing a particular day.

30
THAT
  • THAT is used to indicate nonhumans or inanimate
    objects.
  • Examples
  • The dog that bit me is at the pound.
  • The rock that was found by the little boy,
    weighed 10 pounds.

31
10. SINGULAR VS. PLURALSVPS
  • Singular versus plural can happen between
    subjects and verbs, subjects and pronouns and all
    three.
  • The number is determined by the SUBJECT.
  • Be careful with verbs is/are (singular/plural
    present tense) and was/were (singular/plural past
    tense).

32
  • Anyone, Everyone, Someone, Anybody, Everybody,
    Each, Anything, etc.
  • Most often people use their as the associated
    pronoun. For example,
  • Everyone needs to bring their book to class.
  • This is incorrect.

33
SVP (singular versus plural)
  • WRONG-This author is able to pour a lot of
    creativity and emotion into their writing.
  • CORRECT-This author is able to pour a lot of
    creativity and emotion into his writing.
  • WRONG-The people who left their books is
    responsible for the mess.
  • CORRECT- The people who left their books are
    responsible for the mess. OR The person who left
    his/her book is responsible for the mess.

34
POSSESSIVE PRONOUN
  • The correct pronoun(s) to use with anyone,
    everyone, someone, anybody, everybody, is
    his/her.
  • Everyone needs to bring his/her book to class.

35
TOP TEN PLUSWORDS MOST OFTEN CONFUSED/MISUSED
  • Now lets go further!
  • 55 and counting!
  • These common errors should be avoided in ALL
    writing! Points will be deducted for each error.

36
11
  • EVERYDAY
  • vs
  • EVERY DAY

37
EVERYDAY
  • This word is an adjective. It describes a noun.
  • Example
  • I wear my everyday jacket to school.

38
EVERY DAY
  • These words are an expression of time.
  • Example
  • She wears the blue jacket every day.

39
12
  • ALL READY
  • vs
  • ALREADY

40
ALL READY
  • All ready means prepared.
  • Example John is all ready to go to school.

41
ALREADY
  • Already means previously.
  • Example Mom was going to clean the house, but
    Dad already did it.

42
13. ACCEPT vs. EXCEPT
  • Accept means to agree to
  • Except means with the exclusion of
  • I will accept all the recommendations except the
    last one.

43
14. ADVICE vs. ADVISE
  • ADVICE (noun) counsel
  • ADVISE (verb) to recommend
  • If I ask for her advice, she may advise me to
    quit.

44
15. AFFECT vs. EFFECT
  • AFFECT-MOSTLY A VERB to influence
  • His performance affected me.
  • She affected an air of superiority.
  • (noun) She had a happy affect. (from the field of
    psychology to acknowledge an emotion)
  • EFFECT-MOSTLY A NOUN the result
  • That drug has dangerous effects.
  • The sound effects were amazing.
  • (verb) to bring about
  • The teacher effected certain changes.
  • Visit grammargirl on line for more fun
    information
  • http//grammar.quickanddirtytips.com/affect-versus
    -effect.aspx

45
16. AISLE vs. ISLE
  • AISLE a passage between sections of seats.
  • The bride walked down the aisle.
  • ISLE a small island
  • He was stranded on the isle for 7 days before a
    plane rescued him.

46
17. All Right vs. Alright
  • NEVER USE ALRIGHT it is not standard English.
  • ALWAYS use ALL RIGHT.
  • Even when alright means okay it is still slang.
  • Can be used in creative writing in dialogue, but
    it is not acceptable in academic writing.

47
18. Altogether vs. All together
  • Altogether means entirely or on the whole
    (overall)
  • All together means that each of the parts of a
    group are considered at once.
  • Examples Altogether, the band played well.
  • The band played well all together.

48
19. AMONG vs. BETWEEN
  • AMONG use when referring to THREE or more of
    something.
  • BETWEEN use when referring to TWO only of
    something.

49
20. AMOUNT vs. NUMBER
  • AMOUNT use to refer to money or to things that
    cannot be counted.
  • NUMBER use to refer to things that can be
    counted.
  • The amount of student interest was measured by
    the number of homework assignments turned in.

50
21. ANY ONE vs. ANYONE
  • Spell as two words when followed by of
  • Spell as one word when the accent is on any
  • Example Anyone is allowed to attend any one of
    the classes.

51
22. ANYWAYS
  • anywayS is NOT A WORD!!!
  • The word is anyway (NO S!)
  • Now you know, right?

52
23. Apart vs A part
  • Apart-into pieces or parts ex. To take a watch
    apart separately in place, time, motion, etc.
    New York and Chicago are far apart.
  • A part article and a noun ex.
  • He had a part in the play.

53
24. ARE vs. OUR
  • ARE-verb
  • OUR- possessive pronoun.
  • Proof read carefully.

54
25. BECAUSE
  • Because and cause are two different words.
  • Because (conjunction) for the reason that
  • Cause reason, motive
  • Cause pronounced as cuz is slang!
  • NEVER USE CUZ.

55
26. CAN vs. MAY
  • Can indicates ability
  • May indicates permission
  • Example I can finish the project on time if I
    may have someone help me.
  • I can play the piano.
  • May I use a bathroom pass?

56
27. COMPLEMENT vs. COMPLIMENT
  • COMPLEMENT (noun) something that completes
  • Example A direct object is a sentence
    complement.
  • Also a (verb) to make whole or bring to
    perfection.
  • Example That color complements your eyes
  • COMPLIMENT (noun) Expression of praise.
  • Example Her hair receives many compliments.

57
28. COUNCIL vs. COUNSEL
  • Council-noun-a group of people gathered together
    to consider a topic or to deliberate ideas.
  • Counsel-noun-advice given
  • Verb-to give advice

58
29. Decent vs Descent
  • Decent-adjective-respectable, worthy
  • Descent-noun-the act or process of moving from a
    higher position to a lower one one who comes
    from a previous ancestor or parentage

59
30. DESSERT vs. DESERT
  • Id rather have two ss in dessert, sugar and
    sweets, than one s in desert, sand!

60
31. DEFINITELY vs. DEFIANTLY
  • DEFINITELY having distinct limits, fixed, clear
    in meaning
  • DEFIANTLY bold, impudent, challenge, a
    disposition to resist.

61
32. E.G. vs. I.E.
  • e.g. means for example and is followed by a
    comma.
  • Latin exempli grati Eexample
  • i.e. means that is or in other words and is
    followed by a comma. Use i.e. as a transition and
    use it to introduce a restatement or explanation
    of a preceding expression.
  • Latin id est Iin other words
  • The assignment has merit e.g., (for example) it
    is helpful, forward-looking and educational.
  • Unfortunately, it is also controversial i.e.,
    (that is/in other words) it will generate some
    unfavorable opinions.

62
33. EMINENT vs. IMMINENT
  • EMINENT means well-known.
  • IMMINENT means about to happen.
  • The arrival of the eminent teacher from Harvard
    is imminent.

63
34. FARTHER vs. FURTHER
  • FARTHER refers to distance
  • (think- literal)
  • FURTHER refers to extent or degree
  • (think-figurative)
  • Example We drove 10 miles farther while we
    discussed the matter further.
  • The farther he throws the ball, the further his
    chances are to be MVP.

64
35. FEWER vs. LESS
  • FEWER use fewer to refer to things that can be
    counted.
  • LESS use less to refer to money or to things
    that cannot be counted.
  • Alvin worked fewer hours on his homework and
    therefore generated a less interesting assignment.

65
36. GOOD vs. WELL
  • Good is an adjective
  • Well is an adverb or an adjective when referring
    to health.
  • Example Joe does a good job and performs well on
    tests, even when he does not feel well.
  • I am doing well.

66
37. IMPLY vs. INFER
  • IMPLY (verb) suggest (speaker or writer)
  • The lawyer implied that her client had been
    treated badly. (think-throw)
  • INFER (verb) conclude (listener or reader)
  • (think-catch)
  • I inferred from your argument that you intend to
    win.
  • A higher level thinking skill!

67
38. KNEW vs. NEW
  • Knew/new are two different words.
  • Know/now are two different words
  • Knew is the past tense of know.
  • Know is Knowledge
  • New not old
  • Now at the present time, or in view of the fact.

68
39. LAY vs. LIE
  • Lay (laid, laying) means to put and requires an
    object to complete its meaning.
  • Lie (lay, lain, lying) means to rest
  • Examples
  • Please lay the supplies on the shelf.
  • I laid the folders in the drawer
  • I lie on the couch when I get home from school.
  • The report lay on his desk for two days.

69
40. LED vs. LEAD
  • Led-verb-simple past tense of lead
  • He led us around the park.
  • Lead-verb-to go before, act as a guide
  • He will lead us on the tour.
  • Lead-noun-the first or foremost place
  • He is the lead guitarist.

70
41. LOOSE vs. LOSE
  • LOOSE not fastened
  • LOSE to be unable to find
  • Do not lose the loose change in your pocket.

71
42. MORAL vs. MORALE
72
43. PASSED vs. PAST
  • Passed is a verb meaning to move on or by.
  • Past is an adjective, adverb or preposition
    meaning earlier
  • Example
  • That car has passed me in the past.

73
44. PERSONAL vs. PERSONNEL
74
45. PRINCIPAL vs. PRINCIPLE
  • PRINCIPAL most important or leading person.
  • The principal person in our school is our
    principal, Mrs. Bustard.
  • The principal is my pal!
  • PRINCIPLE rule or law
  • He lives by his code of ethics, his principles.
  • His principles would never allow him to cheat on
    the assignment.

75
46. QUIET vs. QUITE
76
47. REAL vs. REALLY
  • Real is an adjective. Do not use real to modify
    another adjective.
  • Really is an adverb. Adverbs can add to a verb,
    another adverb, or an adjective.
  • WRONG He is real good at soccer.
  • (test-can you say he is real at soccer? If not,
    it is modifying good and it is wrong!)
  • CORRECT He is really good at soccer.
  • EX She was really (not real) proud (to what
    extent was she proudadverb) that her necklace
    contained real pearls (what kind of
    pearlsadjective).

77
48. SENSE vs. SINCE
  • Sense is a noun meaning to perceive or having to
    do with any of the senses, understanding or
    common sense.
  • Since means from that time or event until now.
  • Example His sense was that the room had not been
    cleaned since the last family had moved out.

78
49. SET vs. SIT
  • SET (set, setting) to place
  • SIT (sit, sat, sitting) to be seated
  • Please set your papers on the table.
  • She set the computer on the desk.
  • I have set the computer there before.
  • Please sit in the chair.
  • She sat in the first-class section.
  • I had not sat there before.

79
50. SITE vs. CITE vs. SIGHT
  • SITE (noun) a location
  • He chose a wonderful site for his new house.
  • Also for websites
  • CITE (verb) to refer to
  • He cited several sources in his research project.
  • SIGHT (noun/verb) the ability to see or
    something that is seen.
  • He lost his sight when he was five.
  • The nearly extinct bird was sighted flying over
    the jungle.

80
51. STATIONARY vs. STATIONERY
  • STATIONARY remaining in one place.
  • STATIONERY writing paper.
  • I used my personal stationery to write to them to
    ask whether the computer should remain
    stationary.

81
52. SURE vs. SURELY
  • Sure- means free from doubt.
  • Sure is an adjective. Do not use sure to modify
    another adjective.
  • WRONG I am sure happy today.
  • Surely is an adverb.
  • CORRECT I am surely happy today.
  • Example Im surely (not sure) glad that she is
    running and feel sure that she will be nominated.

82
53. Uninterested vs. Disinterested
  • Uninterested means having no interest.
  • Disinterested means neutral or unbiased

83
54. WEATHER vs. WHETHER
  • WEATHER (noun) general condition of temperature.
  • Check the weather before you dress.
  • Also a verb to get through safely
  • We will weather any storm together.
  • WHETHER (conjunction) if it be the case that
    either
  • He asked whether we were going.

84
55. WHOSE vs. WHOS
  • Whose is a possessive pronoun.
  • Whos is a contraction for who is.
  • Example Whos going to let us know whose turn it
    is to pick up donuts.

85
Practice Activity
  • You are to write either a poem or a short story
    that incorporates at least 10 items from the
    list. You are to use BOTH of the words from each
    of the 10 numbers you select (so 20 words from
    the list). Use them both correctly in context.
  • Please underline or bold each of the words and
    write the error it matches in parenthesis after
    it. Your words do not have to appear in the same
    sentence as they do in the example. They may
    appear anywhere throughout the piece. It is
    written this way merely as a sample.
  • Example
  • Its (5) not too (3) late to (3) give the dog
    its (3) bath is it?
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