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POETRY NOTES

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It sits looking over the harbor and city on silent haunches and then, moves on. ... Across the years he could recall His father one way best of all. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: POETRY NOTES


1
POETRY NOTES
2
POETRY is
  • a type of literature that expresses ideas and
    feelings, or tells a story in a specific form
  • (usually using lines and stanzas)

3
  • Poetry usually . . .
  • is arranged in lines.
  • uses compressed (shrunken) language to
    make a point.
  • has a regular pattern of rhythm.
  • uses literary devices to appeal to our emotions
    and imagination.

4
Poetry sometimes . . . has a regular rhyme
scheme
5
POETIC FORM
  • FORM - the appearance of the words on the page
  • LINE - a group of words together on one line of
    the poem
  • STANZA - a group of lines arranged together
  • A word is dead
  • When it is said,
  • Some say.
  • I say it just
  • Begins to live
  • That day.
  • - Emily Dickinson

6
POETRY TERMS
  • 3. Stanza the division of lines in a poem a
    poem paragraph.
  • Do not go gentle into that good night, Old age
    should burn and rave at close of day Rage, rage
    against the dying of the light.   Though wise men
    at their end know dark is right, Because their
    words had forked no lightning they Do not go
    gentle into that good night.

Stanza one Stanza two
7
RHYTHM
  • The beat created
  • by the sounds of the words in a poem. Rhythm can
    be created by using, meter, rhymes, alliteration,
    and refrain.

8
METER
  • A pattern of stressed (strong) and unstressed
    (weak) syllables
  • Each unit or part of the pattern is called a
    foot
  • Types of Feet
  • Iambic - unstressed, stressed
  • Trochaic - stressed, unstressed
  • Anapestic - unstressed, unstressed, stressed
  • Dactylic - stressed, unstressed, unstressed

9
  • 4. Meter the pattern and number of stressed and
    unstressed syllables in a line of poetry.
  • That time of year thou mayst in me behold
  • Tell me not in mournful numbers
    https//www.youtube.com/watch?featureplayer_embed
    dedvdxSU3HYhBSs

10
TONE
  • Used in poetry to convey feeling and emotion, and
    set the mood for the work. This can be done
    through word choice, the grammatical arrangement
    of words (syntax), imagery, or details that are
    included or omitted.
  • I met a traveler from an antique land.
  • -from "Ozymandias by Shelley
  • This line immediately generates a story-telling
    atmosphere, just as it is with the phrase, "Once
    upon a time."  An audience is clearly implied.

11
  • 5. Tone what the author projects or his
    attitude is what the author projects or the
    authors attitude.
  • There's a patch of old snow in a corner,
  • That I should have guessed
  • Was a blow-away paper the rain
  • Had brought to rest.  
  • It is specked with grime as if
  • Small print overspread it.
  • The news of a day I've forgotten
  • If I ever read it.

12
  • 6. Mood-how you feel after reading the poem.
    (excited, joyous, somber, sad, etc..)
  • For the moon never beams without bringing me
    dreams Of the beautiful Annabel Lee And the
    stars never rise but I feel the bright eyes Of
    the beautiful Annabel Lee And so, all the
    night-tide, I lie down by the side Of my darling,
    my darling, my life and my bride, In the
    sepulchre there by the sea, In her tomb by the
    sounding sea.
  • https//www.youtube.com/watch?featureplayer_embed
    dedv1tkzL8_BxOU

13
  • 7. Refrain the repeating of words and/or
    phrases throughout a poem.
  • For the moon never beams without bringing me
    dreams Of the beautiful Annabel Lee And the
    stars never rise but I feel the bright eyes Of
    the beautiful Annabel Lee And so, all the
    night-tide, I lie down by the side Of my darling,
    my darling, my life and my bride, In the
    sepulcher there by the sea, In her tomb by the
    sounding sea.

14
REFRAIN
  • A sound, word, phrase or line repeated regularly
    in a poem, usually at the end of each stanza or
    verse, such as the chorus in a song.
  • There lived a lady by the North Sea shore,
  • Lay the bent to the bonny broom
  • Two daughters were the babes she bore.
  • Fa la la la la la la la.
  • As one grew bright as is the sun,
  • Lay the bent to the bonny broom
  • So coal black grew the other one.
  • Fa la la la la la la la.
  • -The Cruel Sister by Francis J. Child

15
RHYMES
  • Words sound alike because they share the same
    ending vowel and consonant sounds. A word always
    rhymes with itself.
  • LAMP
  • STAMP
  • Share the short a vowel sound
  • Share the combined mp consonant sound

16
RHYME SCHEME
  • a pattern of rhyming words or sounds (usually end
    rhyme, but not always).
  • Use the letters of the alphabet to represent
    sounds to be able to visually see the pattern.
  • (See next slide for an example.)

17
  • Across the years he could recall
  • His father one way best of all.
  • In the stillest hour night
  • The boy awakened to a light.
  • Half in dreams, he saw his sire
  • With his great hands full of fire.

A A
B B
C C
18
SAMPLE RHYME SCHEME
  • A mighty creature is the germ,
  • Though smaller than the pachyderm.
  • His customary dwelling place
  • Is deep within the human race.
  • His childish pride he often pleases
  • By giving people strange diseases.
  • Do you, my poppet, feel infirm?
  • You probably contain a germ.
  • -The Germ by Ogden Nash

A A B B C C A A
19
END RHYME
  • A word at the end of one line rhymes with a word
    at the end of another line
  • Hector the Collector
  • Collected bits of string.
  • Collected dolls with broken heads
  • And rusty bells that would not ring.
  • -Hector the Collector by Shel Silverstein

A B C B
20
INTERNAL RHYME
  • A word inside a line rhymes with another word on
    the same line.
  • Ah, distinctly I remember, it was in the bleak
    December
  • - The Raven by Edgar Allan Poe

21
FREE VERSE
  • Poetry that has a certain flowing rhythm, but no
    regular pattern of rhyme.
  • Fruit Float
  • Pineapples in the sky
  • Cherries jubilee riding high
  • Bananas Flambe in sunset colors
  • Whipped cream mountains
  • With marmalade peaks
  • And a strawberry breeze . . .

22
CONNOTATION vs DENOTATION
  • Connotation an emotional or social association
    with a word, giving meaning beyond the literal
    definition
  • Denotation the specific, literal image, idea,
    concept, or object that a word or phrase refers
    to
  • Word Denotation Connotation
  • a star ball of light/gas in the sky a wish
  • a family group of related individuals love,
    trust, closeness
  • a dog four legged mammal friend, protector,
    pet

23
FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE
24
FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE
  • A figure of speech is a word or phrase that
    describes one thing in terms of another and is
    not meant to be understood as literally true.

25
2. Sound devices are poetic devices that relate
to sound, including consonance assonance alliter
ation onomatopoeia
26
CONSONANCE
  • Similar to alliteration EXCEPT
  • repeated consonant sounds can be anywhere in the
    words, not just at the beginning!
  • And frightful a nightfall folded rueful a day
  • How a lush-kept plush-capped sloe
  • Will, mouthed to flesh-burst,
  • Gush!
  • - From The Wreck of the Deutschland by Gerald
    Manley Hopkins

27
ASSONANCE
  • Repeated VOWEL sounds in a line (or lines) of a
    poem
  • Often creates Near Rhyme
  • A leal sailor even
  • In a stormy sea
  • Drinks deep Gods Name
  • In ecstasy
  • -Peaceful Assonance by Sri Chinmoy

28
ASSONANCE cont.
  • Slow the low gradual moan came in the snowing.
  • - From Dauber a poem by John Masefield
  • Shall ever medicine thee to that sweet sleep.
  • - From Othello by William Shakespeare

29
ALLITERATION
  • Consonant sounds repeated at the beginnings of
    words
  • If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers,
  • how many pickled peppers did Peter Piper pick?

30
Onomatopoeia- the use of a word whose sound
imitates its meaning.
hiss
splash
buzz
roar
31
ONOMATOPOEIA
  • Words that imitate the sound that they are
    naming
  • Tlot-tlot tlot-tlot! Had they heard it?
  • The horse-hoofs ringing clear
  • Tlot-tlot, tlot-tlot, in the distance?
  • Were they deaf that they did not hear?
  • - from The Highwayman by Alfred Noyes

32
Allusion a reference to a well-known person,
place, thing or event with which the writer
assumes the reader will be familiar 1. George
rushed in like Superman to save the man from the
burning building. 2. Were not in Kansas
anymore. 3. She pulled a Miley.
33
ALLUSION
  • From the verb allude which means to refer to
  • A reference to someone or something famous.
  • A tunnel walled and overlaid
  • With dazzling crystal we had read
  • Of rare Aladdins wondrous cave,
  • And to our own his name we gave.
  • -from Snowbound by John Greenleaf Whittier

34
SIMILE
  • Comparison of two unlike things using like or
    as
  • Friends are like chocolate cake,
  • you can never have too many. Chocolate cake is
    like heaven - always amazing you with each taste
    or feeling. Chocolate cake is like life
  • with so many different pieces. Chocolate cake is
    like happiness, you can never get enough of it.
  • - Chocolate Cake by Anonymous

35
  • Simile
  • a comparison between two things using like or
    as.
  • She swims like a fish.
  • He's as hairy as a gorilla.
  • Peter laughs like a hyena.
  • Mr. John is as wise as an owl.
  • Allow me, it's as easy as ABC.
  • Because I was embarrassed my face was as red as a
    ripe tomato.
  • My love is like a red, red rose.
  • The world is like a stage.
  • As dry as a bone
  • As easy as shooting fish in a barrel
  • They fought like cats and dogs
  • Stand out like a sore thumb

36
  • 5. Metaphor
  • a comparison between 2
  • things without using like or as. These can be
    implicit or explicit!
  • He was a tornado, blasting his way through the
    opposing team.
  • He was a lion in the fight.
  • The moon was a ghostly galleon tossed upon cloudy
    seas.
  • Education is your passport to satisfying
    employment.
  • My love is a red, red rose.

37
METAPHOR
  • Comparison of two unlike things where one word is
    used to designate the other (one is the other)
  • A spider is a black dark midnight sky.
  • Its web is a Ferris wheel.
  • It has a fat moon body and legs of dangling
    string.
  • Its eyes are like little match ends.
  • - Spider by Anonymous

38
EXTENDED METAPHOR
  • Continues for several lines or possibly the
    entire length of a work
  • The fog comes on little cat feet.
  • It sits looking over the harbor and city on
    silent haunches and then, moves on.
  • - Fog by Carl Sandburg

39
PERSONIFICATION
  • A nonliving thing given human of life-like
    qualities
  • Hey diddle, Diddle, The cat and the fiddle, The
    cow jumped over the moon The little dog laughed
    To see such sport, And the dish ran away with
    the spoon.
  • -from The Cat the Fiddle by Mother Goose

40
OXYMORON
  • Combines two usually contradictory terms in a
    compressed paradox, as in the word bittersweet or
    the phrase living death
  • And faith unfaithful kept him falsely true
  • -from Idylls of the King by Alfred, Lord Tennyson
  • I do here make humbly bold to present them with a
    short account of themselves...
  • -from A Tale of a Tub by the poet and author
    Jonathan Swift
  • Work entitled "She's All My Fancy Painted Him" by
    the poet and author Lewis Carroll

41
Oxymoronic Poems
  • A blind man looks back
  • Into the future with the
  • Ear-splitting whispers of
  • Unconcealed ghosts
  • Thundering silently.

A wealthy peasant marches Weakly across a
blazing glacier As the stars in the cloudy sky
Glisten grimly.
42
IMAGERY
  • Language that provides a sensory experience using
    sight, sound, smell, touch, taste

Soft upon my eyelashes Turning my cheeks to
pink Softly falling, falling Not a sound in the
air Delicately designed in snow Fading away at
my touch Leaving only a glistening drop And its
memory - Crystal Cascades by Mary Fumento
43
SYMBOLISM
  • The use of a word or object which represents a
    deeper meaning than the words themselves
  • It can be a material object or a written sign
    used to represent something invisible.

I shall be telling this with a sigh Somewhere
ages and ages hence Two roads diverged in a
wood, and I I took the one less traveled by, And
that has made all the difference. -from The
Road Not Taken by Robert Frost
44
  • Symbol
  • a concrete or real object used to represent an
    idea
  • A bird, because it can fly, has often been used
    as a symbol of freedom.

45
Some symbol examples
  • a dove for peace
  • the rose for purity
  • the stars and stripes for America
  • the lion for strength and courage
  • Red rose or red color stands for love or romance.
  • Black is a symbol that represents evil or death.
  • A ladder may stand as a symbol for a connection
    between the heaven and the earth.
  • A broken mirror may symbolize separation

46
HYPERBOLE
  • An intentional exaggeration or overstatement,
    often used for emphasis
  • Here once the embattled farmers stood And fired
    the shot heard round the world
  • -from "The Concord Hymn" by Ralph Waldo Emerson

LITOTE
  • Intentional understatement, used for humor or
    irony (Example- naming a slow moving person
    Speedy)

47
  • Irony
  • a technique that uses a word or phrase to mean
    the exact opposite of its normal meaning.
  • (verbal, dramatic, situational)
  • Verbal Danielle laughs all the time, so we call
    her Grumpy.
  • Dramatic The audience watching the movie knows
    that the girls boyfriend is going to ask her to
    marry her, but she doesnt know.
  • Situational A fire station is on fire.

48
IDIOM
  • the literal meaning of the words is not the
    meaning of the expression. It means something
    other than what it actually says.
  • Feeling under the weather
  • you could have knocked me down with a feather.
  • It was like a bolt out of the blue, when I met
    you.
  • an English rose, in the flower of youth
  • -from My Sweet Idiom by Paul Williams

49
SOME TYPES OF POETRY THAT WE WILL BE STUDYING
50
NARRATIVE POEMS
  • Longer and tells a story, with a beginning,
    middle, and end
  • Generally longer than the lyric styles of poetry
    because the poet needs to establish characters
    and a plot

Example The Highwayman by Alfred Noyes
51
LYRICAL POEMS
  • Short poem (only a few lines, 1-2 stanzas)
  • Usually written in first person point of view
  • Expresses an emotion or an idea, or describes a
    scene
  • Does not tell a story and are often musical
  • Many of the poems we read will be lyrical

52
CONCRETE POEMS
  • Words are arranged to create a picture that
    relates to the content of the poem
  • Example See Shoes by Morghan Barnes

53
ACROSTIC POEMS
  • The first letter of each line forms a word or
    phrase (vertically). An acrostic poem can
    describe the subject or even tell a brief story
    about it.
  • After an extensive winter
  • Pretty tulips
  • Rise from the once
  • Icy ground bringing fresh signs of
  • Life.
  • -April by Anonymous

54
FREE VERSE POEMS
  • Does NOT have any repeating patterns of stressed
    and unstressed syllables
  • Does NOT have rhyme
  • Very conversational - sounds like someone talking
    with you
  • Example See Fog by Carl Sandburg

55
BLANK VERSE POEMS
  • Does have a regular meter, usually iambic
    pentameter (five sets of stressed/unstressed)
  • Does NOT have rhyme
  • Used by classical playwrights, like Shakespeare
  • ? / ? / ? /
    ? / ? /
  • To swell the gourd, and plump the ha-zel shells
  • -from Ode to Autumn by John Keats

56
OTHER FORMS OF POETRY
57
COUPLET
  • A poem of only two lines
  • Both lines have an end rhyme and the same meter
  • Often found at the end of a sonnet
  • Whether or not we find what we are seeking
  • is idle, biologically speaking.
  • -at the end of a sonnet by Edna St. Vincent Millay

58
HAIKU
  • Japanese style poem written in three lines
  • Focuses traditionally on nature
  • Lines respectively are 5 syllables, 7 syllables,
    and 5 syllables
  • Whitecaps on the bay
  • A broken signboard banging
  • In the April wind.
  • -untitled haiku by Richard Wright

59
QUATRAIN
  • Stanza or short poem containing four lines
  • Lines 2 and 4 must rhyme, while lines 1 and 3 may
    or may not rhyme
  • Variations in rhyming patterns (abab, abcb)

A B C B
O, my luve's like a red, red rose, That's newly
sprung in June O, my luve's like the
melodie That's sweetly played in tune. -from A
Red, Red Rose by Robert Burns
60
CINQUAIN
  • Stanza or short poem containing five lines
  • 1 word, 2 words, 3 words, 4 words, 1 word
  • Patterns and syllables are changing!

61
CINQUAIN cont
  • Cinquain Pattern 1
  • Line1 One word
  • Line2 Two words
  • Line 3 Three words
  • Line 4 Four words
  • Line 5 One word

Dinosaurs Lived once, Long ago, but Only dust and
dreams Remain -by Cindy Barden
62
CINQUAIN cont
  • Cinquain Pattern 2
  • Line1 A noun
  • Line2 Two adjectives
  • Line 3 Three -ing words
  • Line 4 A phrase
  • Line 5 Another word for the noun
  • Mules
  • Stubborn, unmoving
  • Braying, kicking, resisting
  • Not wanting to listen
  • People
  • -by Cindy Barden

63
CINQUAIN cont
  • Cinquain Pattern 3
  • Line1 Two syllables
  • Line2 Four syllables
  • Line 3 Six syllables
  • Line 4 Eight syllables
  • Line 5 Two syllables

Baseball Bat cracks against The pitch, sending it
out Over the back fence, I did it! Homerun -by
Cindy Barden
64
LIMERICK
  • A five line poem with rhymes in line 1, 2, and 5,
    and then another rhyme in lines 3 and 4
  • What is a limerick, Mother?
  • It's a form of verse, said Brother
  • In which lines one and two
  • Rhyme with five when it's through
  • And three and four rhyme with each other.
  • - untitled and author unknown

A A B B A
65
BALLAD
  • Tells a story, similar to a folk tale or legend
  • Usually set to music
  • simple repeating rhymes, often with a refrain
  • Oh the ocean waves may roll, And the stormy
    winds may blow, While we poor sailors go
    skipping aloft And the land lubbers lay down
    below, below, below And the land lubbers lay
    down below.
  • -from The Mermaid by Anonymous

66
SHAKESPEAREAN SONNET
  • Fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme
  • Written in 3 quatrains and ends with a couplet
  • Rhyme scheme is abab cdcd efef gg

Example See sonnet in notes
67
PERSONA POEMS
  • a poem written in the 1st person point of view
  • writer imagines s/he is an animal, an object, a
    famous person - anything s/he is not

I still remember the sun on my bones. I ate
pomegranates and barley cakes. I wore a necklace
of purple stones. And sometimes I saw a
crocodile Slither silently into the Nile. -from
The Mummys Smile by Shelby K. Irons
68
POINT OF VIEW
  • POET
  • the author of the poem, the person who actually
    wrote it
  • VS
  • SPEAKER
  • the narrator of the poem, the voice telling us
    the thoughts/feelings/story
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