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Journal: From Wedding Reception to Massacre

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... Huguenot policy Destroyed Huguenot churches & schools Wanted Bourbon dynasty to dominate Europe Waged four wars to show power ... A typical supper ... Lords ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Date added: 14 October 2019
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Title: Journal: From Wedding Reception to Massacre


1
Journal From Wedding Reception to Massacre
  • On August 24, 1572, the feast of St. Bartholomew,
    thousands of French Calvinists known as Huguenots
    were in Paris. They were celebrating the wedding
    of the Protestant Henry of Navarre to the sister
    of the king of France. This wedding was to unite
    the Protestant and Catholic parties in France and
    end the sectarian warfare that was tearing the
    country apart. The queen mother, Catherine de
    Medici, had other ideas. She persuaded the young
    king to order the elimination of all the Huguenot
    leaders. Mobs took over in a frenzy of killing.
    Between 2,000 and 3,000 Huguenots were killed in
    what has become known as the St. Bartholomews
    Day Massacre. Once more, civil war broke out in
    France.
  • What finally happened in the French wars of
    religion to establish peace and tranquility?

2
Journal The Spanish Armada
  • As the Great Armada Católica set sail from Spain
    in the spring of 1588, the commander, Medina
    Sidonia, was concerned. The water and other
    supplies stored in the wooden casks on board the
    ships were spoiling. Many of the casks were
    defective. The English privateer Sir Francis
    Drake had raided Spain the year before and had
    burned many barrels intended for the armada
    supplies. New casks were built, but the staves
    were not seasoned wood. This caused leaks and
    spoilage. The Armada seemed doomed from the
    beginning.
  • What was the result of the Spanish Armada, both
    immediately and in the long run?

3
Journal Glorious Revolution
  • In 1688, the English chased out King James II and
    offered the crown to a Dutchman known as William
    of Orange. King William III ruled jointly with
    his English wife, Mary the first time in
    English history that husband and wife ruled
    together as equals. This event was known as the
    Glorious Revolution.
  • Why exactly was it glorious?

4
TAKS Practice Question
Test-Taking Tip Remember the date of the
Glorious Revolution to help eliminate answers.
  • Directions Choose the best answer to the
    following question.
  • The controversy that led to the English Glorious
    Revolution was
  • A Tudor-Stuart struggle for the throne.
  • The restoration of a monarch in England.
  • Increased religious freedom for Catholics.
  • A power struggle between Parliament and the king.

5
TAKS Practice Question
Test-Taking Tip Try to eliminate answers when
comparing-contrasting items.
  • Directions Choose the best answer to the
    following question.
  • Which one of the following ideas is common to
    both the U.S. Bill of Rights and the English Bill
    of Rights?
  • Restriction on the housing of soldiers in
    citizens homes
  • Protection from involuntary search and seizure
  • Trial by jury for all citizens accused of a crime
  • Limitations of the power of the federal government

6
Journal Louis XIV
  • Louis XIV rarely talked at meals. He preferred
    to eat in huge quantities. A typical supper
    for Louis was four bowls of soup, an entire
    chicken, a pheasant, two slices of ham, a salad,
    some mutton, pastry, fruit, and hard-boiled eggs.
    Louiss dinner was often a ritual. It could be
    eaten au petit couvert (with family and
    friends) or au grand couvert (a state banquet
    with many attendants). Occasionally, Louis would
    dine au public. This meant tourists could go
    to Versailles to watch the king eat. The public
    would move in through one door and out another in
    a line while the king consumed his meal. Louis
    had many ways to keep the public enthralled with
    his role as the Sun King.
  • How did the building of his palace at Versailles
    reinforce the notion that Louis was the center of
    the French nation?

7
Chapter 14Crisis Absolutism in Europe
  • Section 1 - Europe in Crisis The Wars of
    Religion
  • Section 2 - Social Crises, War Revolution

8
The French Wars of Religion
9
French Wars of Religion
  • 1589 Henry IV (Huguenot) is crowned king of
    France
  • Has no support from Catholics decides to convert
    to Catholicism

10
  • 1598 Issued the Edict of Nantes
  • Recognized Catholicism as Frances official
    religion, but gave the Huguenots the right to
    worship

Edict of Nantes First state document to show
religious tolerance and the idea of religious
freedom.
11
The England of Elizabeth
  • 1558 Elizabeth Tudor ascended to the throne of
    England
  • Protestant Queen the only supreme governor
  • Tried to keep Spain France from becoming too
    powerful

12
Elizabeth IThe Virgin Queen never married
13
The England of Elizabeth
  • Philip II of Spain was married to Mary (Bloody
    Mary, sister to Elizabeth)
  • Philip II desperately wanted to conquer England
  • 1588, Spain sent an armada to invade England
  • Battered by storms in the English Channel and the
    British fleet

14
Military Tactics 101 Island nations almost
always have an excellent navy!
15
Portrait of Elizabeth commemorating the defeat of
the Spanish Armada (Symbols?)
16
Revolutions in England
  • English Revolution
  • Parliament vs. the King
  • Who has the power to govern?
  • James I
  • Divine Right of Kings that kings receive their
    power from God and are responsible only to God
  • Parliament wanted an equal role

17
Church State
  • Puritans wanted church to be more Protestant
    (went against the King)
  • Many Puritans served in the House of Commons,
    which gave them power

18
Charles I vs. Parliament
  • 1628 Parliament passed petition that prohibited
    passing taxes without Parliaments consent
  • King agrees to petition and then, later changes
    his mind
  • Charles imposes Catholic practices on the Church
    of England
  • Puritans move to America rather than adhere to
    religious policies

19
Civil War - 1642
Cavaliers/Royalists vs.
Roundheads Supporters of the King
Parliament
  • Parliament won led by military genius, Oliver
    Cromwell
  • Got rid of non-supporters and executed Charles I
    in 1649
  • Abolished the monarchy and the House of Lords
  • Declared England a commonwealth

20
Execution of Charles I
21
Oliver Cromwell
22
After Cromwell
  • Cromwell dismissed Parliament and set up military
    dictatorship
  • After his death, Parliament was restored, as well
    as, the monarchy
  • Improvement Parliament has more power than it
    has ever had before!
  • (True representative government)

In 1661, Oliver Cromwell's body was exhumed from
Westminster Abbey, and was subjected to the
ritual of a posthumous execution. Symbolically,
this took place on 30 January the same date that
Charles I had been executed. His body was hanged
in chains. Finally, his disinterred body was
thrown into a pit, while his severed head was
displayed on a pole outside Westminster Hall
until 1685.
23
Glorious Revolution
  • James II Catholic
  • Parliament doesnt want his son to be next king
    (Why?)
  • English Noblemen invite William Mary of Orange
    (Dutch) to invade England
  • Successful, almost no violence
  • Who would be monarch?

24
Glorious Revolution
  • 1689 William Mary accepted throne and a Bill
    of Rights
  • Set forth Parliaments right to make laws and
    levy taxes
  • No standing armies w/o Parliaments consent
  • Right to bear arms
  • Right to a jury trial

What country derived its Bill of Rights from the
English?
25
Glorious Revolution
  • Major consequence
  • By deposing one king and establishing another,
    Parliament had destroyed the Divine Right theory
    of kingship

English Bill of Rights
26
Chapter 14 Crisis Absolutism in Europe
  • Section 3 Response to Crisis - Absolutism
  • Section 4 The World of European Culture

27
Louis XIII Cardinal Richelieu
  • 13 was only a child when he took the throne
  • Royal minister held power until king reached a
    certain age
  • Cardinal Richelieu
  • Took political military rights from Huguenots
  • Thwarted plots by nobles through a system of
    spies, executing the conspirators

King Louis XIII
Cardinal Richelieu
28
Louis XIV Cardinal Mazarin
  • 14 took throne at the age of four and took
    power at the age of 23
  • During Mazarins rule French nobles tried to
    rebel against the throne (lost)
  • IMPORTANT French people realize that to have
    stability they needed a monarch

29
France under Louis XIV (14th)
  • Response to crisis
  • Seek stability by increasing the monarchys power
  • Absolutism a system in which the ruler has total
    power
  • Includes the idea of the Divine Right of Kings

Louis XIV true example of an absolute power
Spread power culture
30
France under Louis XIV
  • The Sun King a source of light for his people
  • Established court at Versailles held court,
    social events, and household
  • Controlled the central policy-making machinery of
    government
  • Ruled with absolute authority in foreign policy,
    the Church and taxes

31
Versailles
32
Versailles
33
Hall of Mirrors
34
Versailles
35
Louis XIV
36
France under Louis XIV
  • Established anti-Huguenot policy
  • Destroyed Huguenot churches schools
  • Wanted Bourbon dynasty to dominate Europe
  • Waged four wars to show power
  • By the end of his reign France was in debt and
    was surrounded by enemies
  • On his deathbed, he seemed remorseful for not
    caring for the people more

37
Ivan the Terrible (Russia)
  • 1st Russian czar (Russian for Caesar)
  • Ruthless
  • Time of Troubles
  • Michael Romanov new czar selected by national
    assembly ended Time of Troubles
  • Romanov dynasty lasted for over 300 years

38
Peter the Great
  • Absolutist believed in Divine right of Kings
  • Made trip to the West returned wanting to
    Europeanize Russia

39
Peter the Great
  • Drafted peasants for 25-year stints of military
    service
  • Established 1st Russian navy
  • Divided Russia into provinces
  • Introduced Western customs etiquette
  • No beards, no veils for women, and shortened
    coats
  • Needed to find water port to Europe
  • Established new city St. Petersburg
  • Russian capital until 1918

St. Petersburg New Western Capital
40
What were the advantages of moving the capital to
St. Petersburg?
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