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True to Their Word


True to Their Word Teaching American History in Miami-Dade County Miami-Dade, Florida Anthony Fitzpatrick The American Institute for History Education – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: True to Their Word

True to Their Word
Teaching American History in Miami-Dade
County Miami-Dade, Florida
  • Anthony Fitzpatrick
  • The American Institute for History Education

Using State of the Unions and Inaugural Addresses
in your classroom
  • These speeches are excellent ways of inserting
    artificial benchmarks in history to provide peeks
    into the goals and vision of the United States of
  • The American Presidency Project is available
    online through the University of California
    Santa Barbara.

Why Inaugurals and State of the Unions?
  • They happen (usually) regardless of history.
  • Other speeches have historical reasons for their
    occurrence. While they can be used, we want a
    birds eye view of history popping in the see
    how things are doing.
  • Its an EXCELLENT way for students to become less
    chronologically impaired without constantly
    memorizing dates. (more analytic than rote.)

  • This activity is not used to portray Presidents
    as liars or deceptive figures.
  • It is designed to allow their speeches to serve
    as windows into administrative aspirations the
    tone and mood of the American people and the
    various challenges that government faces in
    enacting their plans.

Heres how to start . . .
  • Begin with the broad topic that youd like to
    cover American prosperity, war, economic
    troubles, significant social movements.
  • Then pick the speeches during and around the
    events so that you get a sense of where the
    country was.
  • You can examine foreshadowing, or a lack of
    seeing what is coming.
  • Once you pinpoint a speech, take a look outward
    about 3 years to see how the world was before and

  • Before Woodrow Wilson the State of the Union
    Messages are basically procedural. They are not
    the same type of speeches that we hear today.

Lets take a look at some examples before we
delve into the specific content of this session.
Prosperity the hubris of prosperity
  • Silent Cal
  • Bill Clinton

American Prosperity
  • Calvin Coolidge
  • Sixth Annual Message December 4, 1928
  • Bill Clinton, Address Before a Joint Session of
    the Congress on the State of the Union January
    27, 2000
  •   The country is in the midst of an era of
    prosperity more extensive and of peace more
    permanent than it has ever before experienced.
    But, having reached this position, we should not
    fail to comprehend that it can easily be lost. It
    needs more effort for its support than the less
    exalted places of the world. We shall not be
    permitted to take our case, but shall continue to
    be required to spend our days in unremitting
    toil. The actions of the Government must command
    the confidence of the country. Without this, our
    prosperity would be lost. We must extend to other
    countries the largest measure of generosity,
    moderation, and patience. In addition to dealing
    justly, we can well afford to walk humbly. The
    end of government is to keep open the opportunity
    for a more abundant life.
  • We are fortunate to be alive at this moment in
    history. Never before has our Nation enjoyed, at
    once, so much prosperity and social progress with
    so little internal crisis and so few external
    threats. Never before have we had such a blessed

The Federalist Era
Boo to Partisanship
  • Thomas Jefferson
  • March 4, 1801
  • What are the historical roots for such a
  • What are the events we can have our students look
    for in order place context and causation into
    their historical thinking?
  • But every difference of opinion is not a
    difference of principle. We have called by
    different names brethren of the same principle.
    We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists.

Have things changed? Harry S. Truman 1/6/1947
  • I realize that on some matters the Congress and
    the President may have honest differences of
    opinions. Partisan differences, however, did not
    cause material disagreement as to the conduct of
    the war. Nor, in the conduct of our
    international relations, during and since the
    war, have such partisan differences been
  • On some domestic issues we may, and probably
    shall, disagree. That in itself is not to be
    feared. It is inherent to our form of
    government. But there are ways of disagreeing,
    men who differ can still work together sincerely
    for the common good. We shall be risking the
    Nations safety and destroying our opportunities
    for progress if we do not settle and
    disagreements in this spirit, without thought of
    partisan advantage.

What a difference 4 years makes!
  • James Madison March 4, 1809
  • James Madison March 4, 1813
  • On the issue of the war are staked our national
    sovereignty on the high seas and the security of
    an important class of citizens, whose occupations
    give the proper value to those of every other
    class. Not to contend for such a stake is to
    surrender our equality with other powers on the
    element common to all and to violate the sacred
    title which every member of the society has to
    its protection.
  • Under the benign influence of our republican
    institutions, and the maintenance of peace with
    all nations whilst so many of them were engaged
    in bloody and wasteful wars, the fruits of a just
    policy were enjoyed in an unrivaled growth of our
    faculties and resources. Proofs of this were seen
    in the improvements of agriculture, in the
    successful enterprises of commerce, in the
    progress of manufacturers and useful arts, in the
    increase of the public revenue and the use made
    of it in reducing the public debt, and in the
    valuable works and establishments everywhere
    multiplying over the face of our land.

So . . .
  • How about teaching the War of 1812 with a human
    voice instead of the typical introduction?
  • Look at causes and historical significance
    through the speech to give students a research

James Monroe Inaugural Address 3/4/1817 How
does he view the American people? Are we True to
his word?
  • The Government has been in the hands of the
    people. To the people, therefore, and to the
    faithful and able depositaries of their trust is
    the credit due. Had the people of the United
    States been educated in different principles, had
    they been less intelligent, less independent, or
    less virtuous, can it be believed that we should
    have maintained the same steady and consistent
    career or been blessed with the same success?
    While, then, the constituent body retains its
    present sound and healthful state everything will
    be safe. They will choose competent and faithful
    representatives for every department. It is only
    when the people become ignorant and corrupt, when
    they degenerate into a populace, that they are
    incapable of exercising the sovereignty.
    Usurpation is then an easy attainment, and an
    usurper soon found. The people themselves become
    the willing instruments of their own debasement
    and ruin. Let us, then, look to the great cause,
    and endeavor to preserve it in full force. Let us
    by all wise and constitutional measures promote
    intelligence among the people as the best means
    of preserving our liberties.

Andrew Jackson 3/4/1829
  • It will be my sincere and constant desire to
    observe toward the Indian tribes within our
    limits a just and liberal policy, and to give
    that humane and considerate attention to their
    rights and their wants which is consistent with
    the habits of our Government and the feelings of
    our people.

Now for some fun . . .
  • Hoping Im true to my word???

The Great Depression/ New Deal (Which I guess
isnt that new anymore)
Calvin Coolidge Sixth Annual Message December
4, 1928
  • No Congress of the United States ever assembled,
    on surveying the state of the Union, has met with
    a more pleasing prospect than that which appears
    at the present time. In the domestic field there
    is tranquility and contentment, harmonious
    relations between management and wage earner,
    freedom from industrial strife, and the highest
    record of years of prosperity. In the foreign
    field there is peace, the good will which comes
    from mutual understanding, and the knowledge that
    the problems which a short time ago appeared so
    ominous are yielding to the touch of manifest
    friendship. The great wealth created by our
    enterprise and industry, and saved by our
    economy, has had the widest distribution among
    our own people, and has gone out in a steady
    stream to serve the charity and the business of
    the world. The requirements of existence have
    passed beyond the standard of necessity into the
    region of luxury. Enlarging production is
    consumed by an increasing demand at hom6 and ail
    expanding commerce abroad. The country can regard
    the present with satisfaction and anticipate the
    future with optimism.

Anchor this speech to a large event
  • What comes next?
  • Examine the events during the Coolidge
    Administration that caused the Great Depression?
  • It is a human gateway into history.

The Stock Market Crash
  • October, 1929
  • What do we know?
  • What were the causes?
  • What were the immediate effects of the crash?
  • I would ask my students some basic leading
  • Around when did it occur?
  • Were there significant events before and after
    that we can easily identify?
  • Who was the President OR are there any Presidents
    that you associate with this event?

Herbert Hoover State of the Union December 3, 1929
  • Fortunately, the Federal reserve system had
    taken measures to strengthen the position against
    the day when speculation would break, which
    together with the strong position of the banks
    has carried the whole credit system through the
    crisis without impairment. The capital which has
    been hitherto absorbed in stock-market loans for
    speculative purposes is now returning to the
    normal channels of business. There has been no
    inflation in the prices of commodities there has
    been no undue accumulation of goods, and foreign
    trade has expanded to a magnitude which exerts a
    steadying influence upon activity in industry and

He said what?
  • Was he true to his word?

Well If my students did some digging . . .
  • In fact the Dow Jones Industrial Average did
    see partial improvement in November and December
    possibly accounting for a rosier outlook than we
    would have imagined with the gift of knowing what
    comes next!

A little more . . .
  • I have, therefore, instituted systematic,
    voluntary measures of cooperation with the
    business institutions and with State and
    municipal authorities to make certain that
    fundamental businesses of the country shall
    continue as usual, that wages and therefore
    consuming power shall not be reduced, and that a
    special effort shall be made to expand
    construction work in order to assist in
    equalizing other deficits in employment. Due to
    the enlarged sense of cooperation and
    responsibility which has grown in the business
    world during the past few years the response has
    been remarkable and satisfactory. We have
    canvassed the Federal Government and instituted
    measures of prudent expansion in such work that
    should be helpful, and upon which the different
    departments will make some early recommendations
    to Congress.

Wed like to thank you Herbert Hoover! Was he
true to his word?
  • What did Emergency Relief and Construction Act
  • Use the excerpt from the speech to examine policy.

A New Deal for Christmas?
Give FDR Goalpoasts
  • Franklin Delano Roosevelt
  • 1st Inaugural Address 3/4/33
  • Franklin Delano Roosevelt
  • 2nd Inaugural Address 1/20/37
  • Finally, in our progress, toward a resumption of
    work we require two safeguards against a return
    of the evils of the old order there must be a
    strict supervision of all banking and credits and
    investments there must be an end to speculation
    with other peoples money, and there must be a
    provision for an adequate but sound currency.
  • To hold to progress today, however, is more
    difficult. Dulled conscience, irresponsibility,
    and ruthless self-interest already reappear.
    Such symptoms of prosperity may become portents
    of disaster! Prosperity already rests the
    persistence of our progressive purpose. Let us
    ask again Have we reached the goal of our
    vision of that fourth day of March 1933? Have we
    found our happy valley?

The New Deal
  • Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
  • Helped unemployed young men 18 to 25 years old
  • Agriculture Adjustment Act (AAA)
  • Helped farmers by paying them not to grow crops
  • National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA)
  • Helped business by requiring that businesses in
    the same industry cooperate with each other to
    set prices and output
  • Started Public Works Administration (PWA)
  • Labor received federal protection for the right
    to organize.
  • Federal Securities Act
  • Helped investors, restored confidence in the
  • Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
  • Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
  • Helped build dams and other projects along the
    Tennessee River and its tributaries

Roosevelt launched the Second New Deal in the
spring of 1935.
  • Emergency Relief Appropriations Act stopped
    direct payments to Americans in need
  • Works Progress Administration (WPA) largest
    peacetime jobs program in U.S. history
  • Social Security - Provided guaranteed, regular
    payments for many people 65 and older Included a
    system of unemployment insurance

Just a quick note about his first administration
  • The State of the Union in 1935 is very short and
    concentrates almost solely on domestic issues.
  • 1936 begins with a rather lengthy assessment of
    international affairs and then delves into
    domestic economic and employment policy.
  • Even without knowing the specifics students can
    figure out shifting priorities.

Instead of the alphabet soup
  • Give the myriad of acts and letters some
    grounding in the words of President Roosevelt.
  • What path is he laying out?
  • Is he following the path?
  • We can play it safe and have them memorize the
    chart OR . . .

A Game if you will . . .
  • Step 1 Give the kids the text or summarized
    version of the speech.
  • Step 2 Call out the alphabet soup and a quick
  • Step 3 If the act is in line with his message
    the kids give a physical or verbal indication.
    Red light green light.
  • THIS will get them considering the acts and
    proposals as more than just a chart to memorize.
    They will consider the intent and implications.

The Spiral of Uncertain Times
  • Franklin D. Roosevelt 3 - Annual Message to
    Congress on the State of the Union January 6, 1941
  • George Bush, Address Before a Joint Session of
    the Congress on Administration Goals February 27,
  • The first phase of the invasion of this
    Hemisphere would not be the landing of regular
    troops. The necessary strategic points would be
    occupied by secret agents and their dupes- and
    great numbers of them are already here, and in
    Latin America.
  • As long as the aggressor nations maintain the
    offensive, they-not wewill choose the time and
    the place and the method of their attack.
  • That is why the future of all the American
    Republics is today in serious danger.
  • That is why this Annual Message to the Congress
    is unique in our history.
  • Our Nation also needs a clear strategy to
    confront the threats of the 21st century, threats
    that are more widespread and less certain. They
    range from terrorists who threaten with bombs to
    tyrants in rogue nations intent upon developing
    weapons of mass destruction. To protect our own
    people, our allies, and friends, we must develop
    and we must deploy effective missile defenses.
  • A strong America is the world's best hope for
    peace and freedom.

You can even compare a president within the term
of office.
  • Franklin D. Roosevelt, State of the Union
    Address. January 6, 1942
  • Exactly one year ago today I said to this
    Congress "When the dictators. . . are ready to
    make war upon us, they will not wait for an act
    of war on our part. . . . Theynot wewill choose
    the time and the place and the method of their
  • We now know their choice of the time a peaceful
    Sunday morning December 7, 1941.
  • We know their choice of the place an American
    outpost in the Pacific.
  • We know their choice of the method the method of
    Hitler himself.

Or use the documents to answer and essential
question . . .
  • What were the causes and effects of the U.S.s
    increased and assumed responsibility of defending
    democracy around the world?

The Cold War
Harry S. Truman State of the Union January 21,1946
  • In his last Message on the State of the Union,
    delivered one year ago, President Roosevelt said
  • This new year of 1945 can be the greatest year
    of achievement in human history.
  • 1945 can see the final ending of the Nazi-Fascist
    reign of terror in Europe.
  • 1945 can see the closing in of the forces of
    retribution about the center of the malignant
    power of imperialist Japan.
  • Most important of all 1945 can and must see the
    substantial beginning of the organization of
    world peace.

Harry S. Truman State of the Union January 21,
  • I believe it possible that effective means can be
    developed through the United Nations Organization
    to prohibit, outlaw, and prevent the use of
    atomic energy for destructive purposes.
  • The power which the United States demonstrated
    during the war is the fact that underlies every
    phase of our relations with other countries. We
    cannot escape the responsibility which it thrusts
    What we think, plan, say, and do is of profound
    significance to the future of every corner of the

  • Our Nation has always been a land of great
    opportunities for those people of the world who
    sought to become part of us. Now we have become
    a land of great responsibilities to all the
    people of all the world. We must squarely
    recognize and face the fact of those
    responsibilities. Advances in science, in
    communication, in transportation, have compressed
    the world into a community. The economic and
    political health of each member of the world
    community bears directly on the economic and
    political health of each other member.

  • How can we explain the causes of our increased
    and assumed responsibility from this excerpt?
    Will my students be able to easily find the
    content to link to these words? ABSOLUTELY!

A Few years later . . .
  • Harry S. Truman State of the Union 1/4/1950
  • We have taken important steps in securing the
    North Atlantic community against aggression. We
    have continued our successful support of European
    recovery. We have returned to our established
    policy of expanding international trade through
    reciprocal agreement. We have strengthened our
    support of the United Nations
  • In foreign policy, they mean that we can never be
    tolerant of oppression or tyranny. They mean
    that we must throw our weight on the side of
    greater freedom and a better life for all
    peoples. These principles confirm us in carrying
    out the specific programs for peace which we have
    already begun.

Whats up with Truman?
  • He begins to take a great deal of flack for
    losing China to the Communists.
  • Where will the next front of the Cold War be for
    his administration???
  • What event starts on June 25,1950?

State of the Union January 8, 1951
  • As we meet here today, American soldiers are
    fighting a bitter campaign in Korea. We pay
    tribute to their courage, devotion and gallantry.
  • My students will probably never remember the
    starting date for the Korean War but I can use
    these words to give them a hint to start looking
    without announcing it in class.

What about the Vietnam War?
  • The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
  • August 7, 1964
  • Allows President Johnson to deploy combat troops
    to South Vietnam
  • What should my students start to look for in the

  • Lyndon Johnson State of the Union 1/17/68
  • The enemy has been defeated in battle after
  • The number of South Vietnamese living in areas of
    Government protection tonight has grown by more
    than a million since January of last year.
  • The enemy continues to pour men and materials
    across frontiers and into battle despite his
    continuous heavy losses.
  • He continues to hope that Americas will to
    persevere can be broken. Well he is wrong.
    American will persevere. Our patience and out
    perseverance will match our power. Aggression
    will never prevail.
  • But our goal is peace and peace at the earliest
    possible moment.

One year later (1/14/1969)
  • What we do, we do in the interest of peace in the
    world. We earnestly hope that time will bring a
    Russia that is less afraid of diversity and
    individual freedom. The quest for peace tonight
    continues in Vietnam, and in the Paris talks. I
    regret more than any of you know that it has not
    been possible to restore peace to South Vietnam.
  • What was a turning point in between these two

The Tet Offensive Which was a turning point in
American popular opinion towards the Vietnam War.
And insight into the present and future
  • Finally, the quest for stable peace in the Middle
    East goes on in many capitals tonight. America
    fully supports the unanimous resolution of the UN
    Security Council which points the way. There
    must be a settlement of the armed hostility that
    exists in that region of the world today. It is
    a threat not only to Israel and to all the Arab
    States, but is a threat to every one of us and to
    the entire world as well.

  • the easing of strained relations, especially in a
    political situation.
  • Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
  • Think we can find proof in the speeches?

Richard Nixon Inaugural Address 1/20/73
  • We shall continue, in this era of negotiation, to
    work for the limitation of nuclear arms, and to
    reduce the danger of confrontation between the
    great powers.

Maybe the best way to defend democracy is with a
strong economy?
  • Think about how our economy and its strength
    impact the world
  • Current events
  • Past events Lets explore Reaganomics.
  • (a plan heavily debated Conservatives hail its
    creation of new jobs and an era of prosperity.
    Liberals claim that it focused wealth at the top
    and widened the gap between rich and poor.

Ronald Reagan State of the Union 2/18/1981
  • This plan is aimed at reducing the growth in
    government spending and taxing, reforming and
    eliminating regulations which are unnecessary and
    unproductive or counterproductive, and
    encouraging a consistent monetary policy aimed at
    maintaining the value of the currency. If enacted
    in full, this program can help America create 13
    million new jobs, nearly 3 million more than we
    would have without these measures. It will also
    help us to gain control of inflation.
  • It's important to note that we're only reducing
    the rate of increase in taxing and spending.
    We're not attempting to cut either spending or
    taxing levels below that which we presently have.
    This plan will get our economy moving again,
    create productivity growth, and thus create the
    jobs that our people must have.
  • And I'm asking that you join me in reducing
    direct Federal spending by 41.4 billion in
    fiscal year 1982, and this goes along with
    another 7.7 billion in user fees and off-budget
    savings for a total of 49.1 billion. And this
    will still allow an increase of 40.8 billion
    over 1981 spending.

Ronald Reagan State of the Union 2/4/1986
  • Tonight the American people deserve our thanks
    for 37 straight months of economic growth, for
    sunrise firms and modernized industries creating
    9 million new jobs in 3 years, interest rates cut
    in half, inflation falling over from 12 percent
    in 1980 to under 4 today, and a mighty river of
    good works-a record 74 billion in voluntary
    giving just last year alone. And despite the
    pressures of our modern world, family and
    community remain the moral core of our society,
    guardians of our values and hopes for the future.
    Family and community are the costars of this
    great American comeback. They are why we say
    tonight Private values must be at the heart of
    public policies.

Civil Rights
  • John F. Kennedy
  • Annual Message to the Congress on the State of
    the Union. January 11, 1962
  • But America stands for progress in human rights
    as well as economic affairs, and a strong America
    requires the assurance of full and equal rights
    to all its citizens, of any race or of any color.
    This administration has shown as never before how
    much could be done through the full use of
    Executive powers--through the enforcement of laws
    already passed by the Congress-through
    persuasion, negotiation, and litigation, to
    secure the constitutional rights.

Lets dig . . .
  • What is happening in American History with regard
    to Civil Rights when Kennedy is giving this
  • What is Kennedy saying about the relationship
    between the Executive and Legislative Branches?

Dont find yourself in a Ford
  • Lincoln
  • Kennedy

Abraham Lincoln Fourth Annual Message December 6,
  • At the last session of Congress a proposed
    amendment of the Constitution abolishing slavery
    throughout the United States passed the Senate,
    but failed for lack of the requisite two-thirds
    vote in the House of Representatives. Although
    the present is the same Congress and nearly the
    same members, and without questioning the wisdom
    or patriotism of those who stood in opposition, I
    venture to recommend the reconsideration and
    passage of the measure at the present session. Of
    course the abstract question is not changed but
    in intervening election shows almost certainly
    that the next Congress will pass the measure if
    this does not. Hence there is only a question of
    time as to when the proposed amendment will go to
    the States for their action. And as it is to so
    go at all events, may we not agree that the
    sooner the better? It is not claimed that the
    election has imposed a duty on members to change
    their views or their votes any further than, as
    an additional element to be considered, their
    judgment may be affected by it. It is the voice
    of the people now for the first time heard upon
    the question.

Lets ask the same questions.
  • What is happening in American History with regard
    to Civil Rights when Lincoln is giving this
  • What is Lincoln saying about the relationship
    between the Executive and Legislative Branches?

What is similar and/or different?
No More Tears?
  • Andrew Johnson
  • First Annual Message December 4, 1865
  • Lyndon B. Johnson
  • Annual Message to the Congress on the State of
    the Union. January 8, 1964
  • It is one of the greatest acts on record to have
    brought 4,000,000 people into freedom. The career
    of free industry must be fairly opened to them,
    and then their future prosperity and condition
    must, after all, rest mainly on themselves. If
    they fail, and so perish away, let us be careful
    that the failure shall not be attributable to any
    denial of justice. In all that relates to the
    destiny of the freedmen we need not be too
    anxious to read the future many incidents which,
    from a speculative point of view, might raise
    alarm will quietly settle themselves. Now that
    slavery is at an end, or near its end, the
    greatness of its evil in the point of view of
    public economy becomes more and more apparent.
    Slavery was essentially a monopoly of labor, and
    as such locked the States where it prevailed
    against the incoming of free industry.
  • Let me make one principle of this administration
    abundantly clear All of these increased
    opportunities--in employment, in education, in
    housing, and in every field-must be open to
    Americans of every color. As far as the writ of
    Federal law will run, we must abolish not some,
    but all racial discrimination. For this is not
    merely an economic issue, or a social, political,
    or international issue. It is a moral issue, and
    it must be met by the passage this session of the
    bill now pending in the House.

What about tracing Civil Rights chronologically?
  • Truman
  • Eisenhower
  • Kennedy
  • Johnson
  • Use the Inaugurals and State of the Unions around
    the passing of key legislation or events to get a
    sense of how things play out.

You can chronologically hook your students in!
What about a non-textual way?
Cartoon from December 19, 1929
Find a cartoon just before or after these
speeches are given
  • How are people reacting to the President and his
  • What are the pitfalls of using the cartoons?
  • (not to say dont use them but make sure the
    students get the bias and all that good rich
    information fit for a top-notch discussion)

Yes Virginia, there are videos!
  • The Miller Center for Public Affairs (located at
    the University of Virginia) has amassed a TON of
    video and audio files of these speeches. Some
    with that neat bouncing ball technology
  • Inaugurals, State of the Unions, White House
    Tapes, policy speeches, etc.
  • http//
  • Credit to Dr. Marc Selverstone for this
    incredible resource.

What about Extension activites?
  • The American Presidency Project also contains the
    Party Platforms
  • Has the President remained true to the Party
  • What is the position of the opposite party? Is
    there compromise in the actual politics? Who,
    What, When, Where, Why? (How)

How can we alter this strategy to fit our
  • Modifications are where its at!!!
  • A Textbook Scavenger Hunt
  • Elementary teachers?
  • Handing your students a lengthy speech probably
    isnt something that youre going to do . . .
  • Based on the Presidents you teach
  • stick to the inaugurals.
  • Use excerpts and link them to the big-ticket
    events of the presidency
  • What type of activities can we develop????

John Quincy Adams - 1825
  • Treaties of peace, amity, and commerce have been
    concluded with the principal dominions of the
    earth. The people of other nations, inhabitants
    of regions acquired not by conquest, but by
    compact, have been united with us in the
    participation of our rights and duties, of our
    burdens and blessings. The forest has fallen by
    the ax of our woodsmen the soil has been made to
    teem by the tillage of our farmers our commerce
    has whitened every ocean. The dominion of man
    over physical nature has been extended by the
    invention of our artists. Liberty and law have
    marched hand in hand. All the purposes of human
    association have been accomplished as effectively
    as under any other government on the globe, and
    at a cost little exceeding in a whole generation
    the expenditure of other nations in a single

Doesnt it sound a little like . . .
  • In each generation, with toil and tears, we have
    had to earn our heritage again. If we fail now
    then we will have forgotten in abundance what we
    learned in hardship that democracy rests on
    faith, that freedom asks more than it gives, and
    the judgment of God is harshest on those who are
    most favored.
  • If we succeed it will not be because of what we
    have, but it will be because of what we are not
    because of what we own, but rather because of
    what we believe.
  • For we are a nation of believers. Underneath the
    clamor of building and the rush of our day's
    pursuits, we are believers in justice and liberty
    and in our own union. We believe that every man
    must some day be free. And we believe in
  • And that is the mistake that our enemies have
    always made. In my lifetime, in depression and in
    war they have awaited our defeat. Each time, from
    the secret places of the American heart, came
    forth the faith that they could not see or that
    they could not even imagine. And it brought us
    victory. And it will again.
  • For this is what America is all about. It is the
    uncrossed desert and the unclimbed ridge. It is
    the star that is not reached and the harvest that
    is sleeping in the unplowed ground. Is our world
    gone? We say farewell. Is a new world coming? We
    welcome it, and we will bend it to the hopes Of

Inaugural Address (January 20, 1965) Lyndon
Baines Johnson
Thank You!!!!
  • Questions?
  • Comments?