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The Renaissance and Reformation

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Title: The Renaissance and Reformation


1
The Renaissance and Reformation
  • Pages 558-575

2
Renaissance
3
Reformation
4
Vocabulary
  • Economy- The wealth and resources in a region or
    country.
  • (Jobs, making goods, buying, selling, money)

5
Vocabulary
  • Renaissance A period of rebirth and
    creativity that followed Europes Middle Ages.
    (Wanting to go back to the power and glory of the
    Greek and Roman civilization)

6
Vocabulary
  • Humanism The study of history, literature,
    public speaking, and art that led to a new way of
    thinking
  • Protestants A Christian who protested against
    the Catholic Church.

7
Vocabulary
  • Reformation A reform movement against the Roman
    Catholic Church that resulted in the Protestant
    Churches.
  • Catholic Reformation The effort to reform the
    Catholic Church from within. This was also known
    as the Counter Reformation.

8
The Causes of the Renaissance
  • The Black Death was horrible because it killed so
    many people, however
  • it wasnt all bad!

9
The Causes of the Renaissance
  • Farmland, buildings, ships, machines, and gold
    were just a few of the things that werent harmed
    by the Black Death.
  • People who were left needed to carry on with
    life.
  • How do you think life and medieval society
    changed?

10
The causes of Renaissance
  • With fewer workers, those who were left were paid
    more money.
  • Europes economy starts to grows and trade
    increases!

11
The causes of Renaissance
  • Due to the Crusades, an interest in trade
    increases.
  • Goods, Ideas and diseases are traded between
    Europe, Africa, and Asia
  • Food such as Rice, coffee, sherbet, and spices
  • Ideas such as algebra, irrigation, chemistry,
    water wheels
  • Writings and thoughts from the Greeks and Romans
    that were saved by the Muslims.

12
The Renaissance
  • Look at the map below and think about the
    geography of Europe and predict what part of
    Europe is going to be the center of trade and why?

13
The Italian Renaissance
  • As new goods were produced and more goods became
    available the prices went down and trade
    increased.
  • Four cities in Italy became major trade ports.
  • Florence
  • Genoa
  • Milan
  • Venice

14
The Italian Renaissance
  • The Italian cities played two roles in trade.
  • A port city, like Genoa or Venice, that would
    receive goods from Asia and then distribute them
    by ships and inland to the rest of Europe.
  • These towns were also manufacturing centers.
  • Venice Glass
  • Milan Weapons and Silk
  • Florence Weaving Wool into Cloth

15
The Italian Renaissance
  • A variety of goods would be available to those
    shopping in these Italian cities. Also many
    languages and ideas would be traded freely
    throughout the streets of these towns.

16
The Italian Renaissance
  • With so much trade it allowed the merchants to
    become richer and richer.
  • This wealth let them focus on culture because
    they no longer needed to focus on survival.

17
The Italian Renaissance
  • Florence, Italy
  • Wool trade started off as Florences primary
    industry.
  • Banking soon became a focus in Florences
    economy.
  • People from all over Europe kept their money in
    Florence banks.
  • Bankers would make money by giving out loans. If
    someone takes out a loan they must pay a
    percentage of the money they borrowed back to the
    bank in the form of interest.
  • Example Borrow 100/10 Interest/Pay back 110

18
The Italian Renaissance
  • During this time the richest family often ruled
    the government.
  • The Medici family was the richest banking family
    in Florence.
  • Cosimo deMedici was the head of the family and
    ruled the government.
  • He wanted Florence to be the best and most
    beautiful town.

19
The Italian Renaissance
  • Cosimo de Medici did the following to improve
    his town and make it the best in the world.
  • Hired artists to decorate the palace
  • Paid architects to redesign buildings in Florence
  • Built libraries
  • Collected books

20
The Italian Renaissance
  • Medici valued education. He would be in need of
    workers for his banks that could read, write, and
    do math. The libraries and books would allow
    people to become educated.
  • Florence became a center of art, literature, and
    culture.
  • Other Italian towns tried to outdo each other
    when it came to their support of culture.

21
The Italian Renaissance
  • This was the start of the Renaissance!
  • This Renaissance was a renewed interest in art
    and education
  • People started to look back at the ancient Greek
    and Roman cultures
  • Also people began to realize the importance of
    people as individuals.

22
The Italian Renaissance
  • During Medieval Times people focused their lives
    on religion.
  • The Renaissance brought about a time of change as
    people studied poetry, history, art, and the
    Greek and Latin languages. These are called the
    humanities because they study human activity
    rather than nature or religion.
  • Studying the humanities led to Humanism. Humanism
    was a way of thinking and learning that stresses
    the importance of human abilities and actions.

23
The Italian Renaissance
  • During this time ancient writings were
    rediscovered.
  • Many of them were found in monasteries, where
    monks had copied them and saved them, and from
    trade with the Middle East.
  • The renewed interest in ancient writings led new
    interests in art and architecture.

24
The Italian Renaissance
  • Dante Alighieri
  • Italian Politician and Poet
  • He wrote in Italian instead of Latin was the
    accepted language, usually used in writings.
  • Writing in Italian showed he believed Italian was
    as good as Latin.

25
The Italian Renaissance
  • Niccolo Machiavelli
  • Italian Writer and Politician
  • Wrote The Prince a book that gave advice to
    rulers on how to rule.
  • Wasnt interested in what should be but how
    things actually were. Also believed that rulers
    must sometimes be ruthless to keep order.
  • Great example of how people were interested in
    human behavior and society.

26
The Italian Renaissance
  • Compare and contrast the two works of arts

27
The Italian Renaissance
  • During the Renaissance new techniques in art were
    discovered.
  • Ideas about the value of human life helped change
    the style of art.
  • Artist studied people and the way the body moves

28
The Italian Renaissance
  • Renaissance artists showed people more
    realistically than artists of the medieval times.

29
The Italian Renaissance
  • Italian Renaissance Artists mimicked their work
    after statues of Greek Gods so their work often
    appeared perfect.
  • What do you think this is a picture of?

30
The Italian Renaissance
  • Italian Renaissance Artist also used Perspective.
  • Objects farther away are made smaller. Objects
    that are closer are larger.
  • Diagonal parallel lines are used to show things
    getting farther away.
  • Close objects are sharp, with brighter colors.
    Objects that are farther away appear hazy.

31
The Italian Renaissance
  • How does Leonardo Da Vincis painting of the Last
    Supper show renaissance art techniques?

32
The Italian Renaissance
  • Renaissance Man This is a term used to describe
    a person who can do practically anything well!

33
The Italian Renaissance
  • Michelangelo Italian Renaissance Man
  • Designed Buildings
  • Wrote Poetry
  • Carved Sculptures
  • Painted Fantastic Picture
  • Most famous work of art is the Sistine Chapel.

34
The Italian Renaissance
  • Leonardo da Vinci Italian Renaissance Man
  • Expert Painter
  • Sculptor
  • Architect
  • Inventor
  • Engineer
  • Town Planner
  • Mapmaker
  • Studied Anatomy
  • Most famous work of art is the Mona Lisa Painting

35
The Renaissance Throughout The World
  • Many people read the ancient and newer works of
    literature during the Renaissance. This allowed
    them to gain knowledge that would let them make
    their own discoveries.
  • Scientific and Mathematic Discoveries are made.

36
The Renaissance Throughout The World
  • Renaissance Scientist thought that math could
    help them to figure out the world. To do this
    they studied ancient math and then added their
    thoughts and discoveries to them.
  • This allowed them to create many math symbols
    that we use even today.
  • Square Root
  • Positive and Negative Numbers

37
The Renaissance Throughout The World
  • Math advancements led to other advancements.
  • Engineers and Architects used this to strengthen
    buildings.
  • Other scientist used math to help them study the
    sky and eventually learn that the Earth moves
    around the sun.

38
The Renaissance Throughout The World
  • Education during the Renaissance still taught
    religion but also the humanities.
  • Petrarch was a Renaissance scholar. He had ideas
    about how history was important. His ideas would
    influence education for many years.
  • Education and new ways to spread information
    would help the Renaissance spread from Italy to
    the rest of the world.

39
The Renaissance Throughout The World
  • Travelers, Traders, and Artist helped to spread
    the Renaissance. But there was one thing that was
    even more responsible for spreading the ideas of
    the Renaissance
  • The Printing Press!

40
The Renaissance Throughout The World
  • Paper started in China. It soon spread to the
    Middle East and then Europe. By the 1300s paper
    was cheaper to produce than using the prepared
    animal hides.

41
The Renaissance Throughout The World
  • In the 1400s German, Johann Gutenberg created
    the printing press with moveable type.
  • This means each letter was on a separate piece of
    metal. This allowed them to be arranged and
    rearranged in many different ways.
  • After being arranged, ink would then be spread
    over the letter and a piece of paper would be
    pressed against it. A whole page would print at
    one time.

42
The Renaissance Throughout The World
  • In 1456 Gutenberg printed the Bible. He first
    printed it in Latin, the language of the church.
  • Next he printed it in other languages. This made
    the Bible available to many people.
  • People began to read and then wanted to learn
    more.
  • His printing press spread religious, political,
    and artistic ideas.

43
The Renaissance Throughout The World
  • Students traveled to Italy to study the new
    humanist ideas. The students would take their new
    ideas back with them to their own countries.
  • Universities started to pop up all over Europe
    France, Germany, and Netherlands.
  • The universities were set up by humanists. This
    means they taught the value of the human as an
    individual.

44
The Renaissance Throughout The World
  • Only men were educated at these universities.
  • Many rich Italian families could afford however,
    to educate their daughters at home.
  • These educated women could not be influential on
    their own however, they could marry nobles and
    become influential in their lands.

45
The Renaissance Throughout The World
Italian Renaissance Both Northern Renaissance
Humanism Artists paint scenes and classical myths. Advances in science and art. Christian Humanism Artists painted scenes and people found in daily life.
46
Explain how each painting is an example of
paintings from the Northern Renaissance.
47
The Northern Renaissance
  • Important figures in the Renaissance beyond
    Italy
  • Desiderius Erasmus criticized the corrupt church
    and wanted to get rid of rituals. He believed
    devotion to God and Jesus teachings was far more
    important.
  • Albrecht Duer German who studied anatomy so that
    he could paint people more realistically. Painted
    in great detail. Famous for his prints
    (reproduced work)

48
The Renaissance Throughout The World
  • Miguel de Cervantes A writer from Spain who
    wrote a book called Don Quixote. This book and
    others written by him made fun of the Middle
    Ages.
  • William Shakespeare Greatest writer in the
    English language. Famous for his plays. He wrote
    more than 30 comedies, histories, and tragedies.
    Also, wrote poems.

49
The Renaissance Throughout The World
  • Before
  • books where written by hand slow
  • limited number of books
  • expensive
  • many people could not read
  • had to trust in those in those who could read
  • After
  • books printed by machine fast
  • more books available
  • Price of books became cheaper
  • people learned how to read
  • people started to think for themselves

50
The Reformation
  • Near the end of the Renaissance people were
    starting to really become upset with the church.
  • The people wanted to end corruption and focus
    again on the religion.
  • This started what is known as the Reformation.

51
The Reformation
  • The complaints of those calling for change from
    the church were as follows
  • Priest and Bishops werent religious anymore
  • Pope is too involved in politics
  • Pope neglects his religious duties
  • The church was too rich
  • The sale of indulgences (People could pay to be
    forgiven for their sins. People thought this
    meant you could buy your way into Heaven.)
  • Read and interpret the Bible for yourself

52
The Reformation
  • Martin Luther
  • A Priest from German state of Saxony
  • Nailed a list of complaints to the door of a
    church. This list was called the Ninety-Five
    Theses.
  • Many copies were made due in part to the printing
    press.
  • Luthers ideas made a lot of Catholics angry. The
    pope excommunicated him and the emperor ordered
    him to leave the Holy Roman Empire.
  • A noble who was on Luthers side helped him to
    stay in the empire and hide from the emperor.

53
The Reformation
  • Martin Luthers ideas caused the Catholic church
    to split yet again.
  • Those who protested against the corrupt church
    were known as Protestants.
  • Those who specifically followed Martin Luthers
    teachings were called Lutherans.

54
The Reformation
  • Luther taught that people could have their own
    direct relationship with God.
  • He told people to live as the Bible instructs not
    as the popes and priests said.
  • He also translated the Bible into German so many
    people could read it that never before had been
    able to do so on their own.
  • Luther wrote pamphlets, essays, and songs about
    his ideas on religion.

55
The Reformation
  • Many nobles liked Luthers ideas because they did
    not want the church clergy getting involved in
    politics.
  • These nobles let their people become Lutherans as
    a result.
  • The Lutheran religion became the dominant
    religion in Northern Germany.

56
The Reformation
  • Other examples of Reformation
  • John Tyndale Translated the Bible to English so
    everyone could read it. He was executed for this
    action.

57
The Reformation
  • John Calvin Taught predestination, the idea
    that God knows who will go to Heaven from the
    moment that you are born and that nothing you do
    matters. He also thought people should try and
    live good lives as well. He became the political
    and religious leader of the Calvinist of Geneva,
    Switzerland.

58
The Reformation
  • King Henry VIII The king of England wanted to
    get a divorce however the Pope would not approve
    it. Henry decided to quit listening to the pope
    and to make his own church. He called it the
    Church of England, or Anglican Church. He was the
    leader of the church but most other practices
    stayed the same as the Catholic Church.

59
The Counter Reformation
  • The efforts to stop the reformation were known as
    the Counter Reformation or Catholic Reformation.
  • The Catholic Church used methods like the Spanish
    Inquisition to fight back against the
    Reformation.
  • The Catholic Church also developed new religious
    groups such as the Jesuits. The Jesuits served
    the pope and church and worked to turn people
    against Protestant ideas.

60
The Counter Reformation
  • Finally they felt more change was necessary. They
    convened at the Council of Trent.
  • The results of this meeting are as follows
  • Popes were no longer allowed to sell indulgences
  • Bishops had to live in the areas they oversaw
  • Protestant ideas are rejected A list of
    dangerous books is created that Catholics are not
    to read. Heretics continue to be weeded out and
    punished.
  • Missionaries are sent around the world to help
    gain more people into the Catholic Religion.

61
The Reformation
  • There were political and social changes as a
    result of the Reformation.
  • Politically wars broke out as Protestants tried
    to gain freedoms to practice their religions.

62
The Reformation
  • Socially the protestant churches were set up
    differently than the Catholic Church.
  • Congregations make decision on how to run the
    church.
  • This means people start to realize they can
    think for themselves! They question the world
    around them and they dont just accept something
    as a fact because someone else told them it was
    so.

63
The Reformation
  • Results of the Reformation
  • Religious conflicts spread across Europe
  • Church leaders reform the Catholic Church
  • Missionaries spread Catholic ideas around the
    world
  • Protestant religions become dominant in Northern
    Europe
  • Protestant churches will rule themselves
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