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Journey Across Time

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Title: Journey Across Time Author: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill Last modified by: User Created Date: 8/31/2004 2:13:47 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Journey Across Time


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The Ancient Greeks
4
The Early Greeks
The Geography of Greece
  • Mainland Greece is a mountainous peninsulaa body
    of land with water on three sides.
  • The Ionian Sea is to the west of Greece, the
    Aegean Sea is to the east, and the Mediterranean
    Sea is to the south.
  • Ancient Greeks were fishers, sailors, traders,
    and farmers.

(page 117)
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The Early Greeks
The Geography of Greece
  • Although Greeces rocky soil made it difficult to
    farm, people could grow wheat, barley, olives,
    and grapes in the favorable climate.

(page 117)
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The Early Greeks
The Minoans
  • The ruins of the Minoan civilization, the first
    civilization to arise in Greece, are on the
    island of Crete.
  • Artifacts at the palace at Knossos reveal the
    riches of the Minoan people, such as wine, oil,
    jewelry, and statues.
  • The Minoan people were traders, traveling by ship
    to trade with other countries.

(page 118)
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The Early Greeks
The Minoans (cont.)
  • The Minoan civilizations collapsed around 1450
    B.C., although historians disagree on the cause
    of the Minoan destruction.

(page 118)
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The Early Greeks
The First Greek Kingdoms
  • The first Greek kings were Mycenaean leaders,
    whose people invaded the Greek mainland around
    1900 B.C.
  • The center of the Mycenaean kingdom was a palace
    surrounded by large farms.
  • The Mycenaeans began trading with the Minoans and
    learned much about Minoan culture.

(pages 119120)
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The Early Greeks
The First Greek Kingdoms (cont.)
  • Before collapsing around 1100 B.C., the Mycenaean
    civilization was the most powerful on the
    Mediterranean.
  • The Dark Age occurred between 1100 B.C. and 150
    B.C. and was a time of less trade and poverty
    among people.
  • The Dorians invaded Greece, bringing new weapons
    and farming technology to the Greek people.

(pages 119120)
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The Early Greeks
The First Greek Kingdoms (cont.)
  • The Greeks learned about an alphabet from the
    Phoenicians, one of their trading partners.
  • The Greek alphabet had 24 letters that stood for
    different sounds.

(pages 119120)
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The Early Greeks
A Move to Colonize
  • After the Dark Age, Greek people began to set up
    colonies in other countries.
  • This colonization spread Greek culture.
  • Trade between colonists and the parent cities
    grew, and soon merchants were trading goods for
    money instead of more goods.

(page 121)
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The Early Greeks
The Polis
  • A polis, or city-state, was like an independent
    country.
  • City-states varied in size and population.
  • An acropolis, located at the top of a hill, was
    the main gathering place of the city-state.
  • An agora, or open area, served as a market and as
    a place for people to meet and debate issues.

(pages 122123)
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The Early Greeks
The Polis (cont.)
  • The Greeks were the first people to develop the
    idea of citizenship, in which citizens of a
    country are treated equally and have rights and
    responsibilities.
  • In Greek city-states, only free, native-born,
    land-owning men could be citizens.
  • Citizens could vote, hold office, own property,
    and defend themselves in court.

(pages 122123)
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The Early Greeks
The Polis (cont.)
  • The military of the city-states was made of
    ordinary citizens, not nobles.
  • These citizens were called hoplites and fought
    each battle on foot instead of on horses.

(pages 122123)
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The Early Greeks
Discuss the following statement The geography
of Greece influenced where people settled and
what they did.
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Sparta and Athens
Tyranny in the City-States
  • Nobles, who owned large farms, seized power from
    the Greek kings.
  • Nobles, who owned large farms, seized power from
    the Greek kings.
  • Farmers had to borrow money from nobles and often
    could not pay back the debt.
  • The farmers lost their land and had to work for
    the nobles or were sold into slavery.

(pages 125126)
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Sparta and Athens
Tyranny in the City-States (cont.)
  • Unhappy farmers demanded changes in the power
    structure of the city-states.
  • This unhappiness led to the rise of tyrants, or
    people who take power by force and rule with
    total authority.
  • Tyrants overthrew the nobles during the 600s B.C.

(pages 125126)
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Sparta and Athens
Tyranny in the City-States (cont.)
  • Tyrants maintained their popularity by building
    marketplaces, temples, and walls.
  • The Greek people eventually tired of the tyrants
    and created oligarchies or democracies.
  • An oligarchy is a form of government in which a
    few people hold power.

(pages 125126)
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Sparta and Athens
Tyranny in the City-States (cont.)
  • A democracy is a form of government in which all
    citizens share power.
  • Sparta was an oligarchy Athens was a democracy.

(pages 125126)
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Sparta and Athens
Sparta
  • To obtain more land, Spartans conquered and
    enslaved their neighbors, calling them helots.
  • To keep the helots from rebelling, the Spartans
    created a strong military of boys and men.
  • Boys entered the military at age seven.
  • At age 20, men entered the regular army and lived
    in the barracks for 10 years.

(pages 126127)
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Sparta and Athens
Sparta (cont.)
  • They returned home at age 30 but served in the
    army until age 60.
  • Spartan girls were trained in sports to become
    healthy mothers and were freer than other Greek
    women.
  • The Spartan government was an oligarchy
    containing two branches, a council of elders, and
    an assembly.

(pages 126127)
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Sparta and Athens
Sparta (cont.)
  • The Spartan government kept foreign travelers out
    and discouraged its own citizens from traveling
    in order to maintain control of the country.

(pages 126127)
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Sparta and Athens
Athens
  • Boys in Athens attended school to learn reading,
    writing, and arithmetic.
  • Athenian girls learned household duties from
    their mothers.
  • Some wealthy girls learned reading, writing, and
    playing the lyre.
  • The government of early Athens was an oligarchy.

(pages 128130)
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The Ancient Greeks
Section 1 The Early Greeks
Focusing on the Main Ideas
  • Colonies and trade spread Greek culture and
    spurred industry.
  • The idea of citizenship developed in Greek
    city-states.

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