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Journey Across Time


Title: Journey Across Time Author: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill Last modified by: User Created Date: 8/31/2004 2:13:47 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Journey Across Time

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The Ancient Greeks
The Early Greeks
The Geography of Greece
  • Mainland Greece is a mountainous peninsulaa body
    of land with water on three sides.
  • The Ionian Sea is to the west of Greece, the
    Aegean Sea is to the east, and the Mediterranean
    Sea is to the south.
  • Ancient Greeks were fishers, sailors, traders,
    and farmers.

(page 117)
The Early Greeks
The Geography of Greece
  • Although Greeces rocky soil made it difficult to
    farm, people could grow wheat, barley, olives,
    and grapes in the favorable climate.

(page 117)
The Early Greeks
The Minoans
  • The ruins of the Minoan civilization, the first
    civilization to arise in Greece, are on the
    island of Crete.
  • Artifacts at the palace at Knossos reveal the
    riches of the Minoan people, such as wine, oil,
    jewelry, and statues.
  • The Minoan people were traders, traveling by ship
    to trade with other countries.

(page 118)
The Early Greeks
The Minoans (cont.)
  • The Minoan civilizations collapsed around 1450
    B.C., although historians disagree on the cause
    of the Minoan destruction.

(page 118)
The Early Greeks
The First Greek Kingdoms
  • The first Greek kings were Mycenaean leaders,
    whose people invaded the Greek mainland around
    1900 B.C.
  • The center of the Mycenaean kingdom was a palace
    surrounded by large farms.
  • The Mycenaeans began trading with the Minoans and
    learned much about Minoan culture.

(pages 119120)
The Early Greeks
The First Greek Kingdoms (cont.)
  • Before collapsing around 1100 B.C., the Mycenaean
    civilization was the most powerful on the
  • The Dark Age occurred between 1100 B.C. and 150
    B.C. and was a time of less trade and poverty
    among people.
  • The Dorians invaded Greece, bringing new weapons
    and farming technology to the Greek people.

(pages 119120)
The Early Greeks
The First Greek Kingdoms (cont.)
  • The Greeks learned about an alphabet from the
    Phoenicians, one of their trading partners.
  • The Greek alphabet had 24 letters that stood for
    different sounds.

(pages 119120)
The Early Greeks
A Move to Colonize
  • After the Dark Age, Greek people began to set up
    colonies in other countries.
  • This colonization spread Greek culture.
  • Trade between colonists and the parent cities
    grew, and soon merchants were trading goods for
    money instead of more goods.

(page 121)
The Early Greeks
The Polis
  • A polis, or city-state, was like an independent
  • City-states varied in size and population.
  • An acropolis, located at the top of a hill, was
    the main gathering place of the city-state.
  • An agora, or open area, served as a market and as
    a place for people to meet and debate issues.

(pages 122123)
The Early Greeks
The Polis (cont.)
  • The Greeks were the first people to develop the
    idea of citizenship, in which citizens of a
    country are treated equally and have rights and
  • In Greek city-states, only free, native-born,
    land-owning men could be citizens.
  • Citizens could vote, hold office, own property,
    and defend themselves in court.

(pages 122123)
The Early Greeks
The Polis (cont.)
  • The military of the city-states was made of
    ordinary citizens, not nobles.
  • These citizens were called hoplites and fought
    each battle on foot instead of on horses.

(pages 122123)
The Early Greeks
Discuss the following statement The geography
of Greece influenced where people settled and
what they did.
Sparta and Athens
Tyranny in the City-States
  • Nobles, who owned large farms, seized power from
    the Greek kings.
  • Nobles, who owned large farms, seized power from
    the Greek kings.
  • Farmers had to borrow money from nobles and often
    could not pay back the debt.
  • The farmers lost their land and had to work for
    the nobles or were sold into slavery.

(pages 125126)
Sparta and Athens
Tyranny in the City-States (cont.)
  • Unhappy farmers demanded changes in the power
    structure of the city-states.
  • This unhappiness led to the rise of tyrants, or
    people who take power by force and rule with
    total authority.
  • Tyrants overthrew the nobles during the 600s B.C.

(pages 125126)
Sparta and Athens
Tyranny in the City-States (cont.)
  • Tyrants maintained their popularity by building
    marketplaces, temples, and walls.
  • The Greek people eventually tired of the tyrants
    and created oligarchies or democracies.
  • An oligarchy is a form of government in which a
    few people hold power.

(pages 125126)
Sparta and Athens
Tyranny in the City-States (cont.)
  • A democracy is a form of government in which all
    citizens share power.
  • Sparta was an oligarchy Athens was a democracy.

(pages 125126)
Sparta and Athens
  • To obtain more land, Spartans conquered and
    enslaved their neighbors, calling them helots.
  • To keep the helots from rebelling, the Spartans
    created a strong military of boys and men.
  • Boys entered the military at age seven.
  • At age 20, men entered the regular army and lived
    in the barracks for 10 years.

(pages 126127)
Sparta and Athens
Sparta (cont.)
  • They returned home at age 30 but served in the
    army until age 60.
  • Spartan girls were trained in sports to become
    healthy mothers and were freer than other Greek
  • The Spartan government was an oligarchy
    containing two branches, a council of elders, and
    an assembly.

(pages 126127)
Sparta and Athens
Sparta (cont.)
  • The Spartan government kept foreign travelers out
    and discouraged its own citizens from traveling
    in order to maintain control of the country.

(pages 126127)
Sparta and Athens
  • Boys in Athens attended school to learn reading,
    writing, and arithmetic.
  • Athenian girls learned household duties from
    their mothers.
  • Some wealthy girls learned reading, writing, and
    playing the lyre.
  • The government of early Athens was an oligarchy.

(pages 128130)
The Ancient Greeks
Section 1 The Early Greeks
Focusing on the Main Ideas
  • Colonies and trade spread Greek culture and
    spurred industry.
  • The idea of citizenship developed in Greek

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