introduction to children - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – introduction to children PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 6c80f9-ZGVkN



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

introduction to children

Description:

Cumbria County Council – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:7
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 42
Provided by: DavidG275
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: introduction to children


1
introduction to children young peoples mental
health wellbeing
  • Cumbria County Council

2
youngminds
  • Parents Helpline 0808 802 5544
  • Tel 020 7089 5050
  • Website http//www.youngminds.org.uk and
  • Publications
  • Training Development marcella.verdi_at_youngminds.
    org.uk

3
Learning objectives
  • You will be able to
  • Describe conceptual models for thinking about
    mental health, mental health problems and
    disorders in CYP
  • Briefly describe theories and research relating
    to attachment and brain development and explore
    their relevance to your area of practice
  • Explore your own perspectives on children and
    young peoples mental health and emotional
    wellbeing and establish a foundation for further
    learning

4
THE MENTAL HEALTH SPECTRUM
From Huppert Ch.12 in Huppert et al. (Eds) The
Science of Well-being
Moderate mental health
Mental disorder
Flourishing
Languishing
Number of symptoms or risk factors
5
EFFECT OF SHIFTING THE MEAN OF THE MH SPECTRUM
From Huppert Ch.12 in Huppert et al. (Eds) The
Science of Well-being
Flourishing
Moderate mental health
Mental disorder
Languishing
Number of symptoms or risk factors
6
Mental health A definition
  • the strength and capacity of our minds to grow
    and develop, to be able to overcome difficulties
    and challenges and to make the most of our
    abilities and opportunities
  • YoungMinds 2006

7
Child Mental Health
  • A capacity to enter into, and sustain, mutually
    satisfying and sustaining personal relationships
  • Continuing progression of psychological
    development
  • An ability to play and to learn so that
    attainments are appropriate for age and
    intellectual level
  • A developing moral sense of right and wrong
  • A degree of psychological distress and
    maladaptive behaviour within normal limits for
    the childs age and context

8
An Integrative Approach
9
Prevalence among children aged 5 15 in the UK
Mental or psychiatric disorder
Risk factors but no obvious problems now
Mental health problems
1.5 million or 10
30,000 or 0.2
3 million or 20
Severe disorder or mental illness
10
Most common problems
  • Emotional and conduct disorders are by far the
    most common
  • Co-morbidity is the norm not the exception
  • Children who face 3 or more stressful life events
    (eg bereavement, divorce, serious illness) are 3
    times more likely than other children to develop
    emotional and behavioural disorders

11
Problems Disorders
  • Mental health problem
  • A disturbance of function in one area of
    relationships, mood, behaviour or development, of
    sufficient severity to require professional
    intervention.
  • Mental disorder
  • A severe problem (commonly persistent) or the
    co-occurrence of a number of problems, usually in
    the presence of several risk factors

12
A bio-psycho- social model
13
Risk and protective factors
  • Risk Factors
  • Protective
  • Factors

14
What are risk factors?
  • Conditions, events or circumstances that are
    known to be associated with emotional or
    behavioural disorders and may increase the
    likelihood of such difficulties
  • Risk is cumulative
  • Risk is not causal but can predispose children
    to mental health problems

15
Predisposing factors - child
  • Genetic influences
  • Low IQ and learning disability
  • Specific developmental delay
  • Communication difficulty
  • Difficult temperament
  • Physical illness, especially if chronic and/or
    neurological
  • Academic failure
  • Low self-esteem

16
Predisposing factors - family
  • Overt parental conflict
  • Family breakdown
  • Inconsistent or unclear discipline
  • Hostile and rejecting relationships
  • Failure to adapt to child's changing
    developmental needs
  • Abuse - physical, sexual and/or emotional
  • Parental criminality, alcoholism personality
    disorder
  • Parental psychiatric illness
  • Death loss - including loss of friendships

17
Predisposing factors - environment
  • Socio-economic disadvantage
  • Homelessness
  • Disaster
  • Discrimination
  • Other significant life events

18
Resilient Children
  • can resist adversity, cope with uncertainty and
    recover more successfully from traumatic events
    or episodes
  • Newman, T (2002)

19
resilience
  • Normal development under difficult circumstances.
    Relative good result despite experiences with
    situations that have been shown to carry
    substantial risk for the development of
    psychopathology (Rutter)
  • The human capacity to face, overcome and
    ultimately be strengthened and even transformed
    by lifes adversities and challenges .. a complex
    relationship of psychological inner strengths and
    environmental social supports (Masten)
  • Ordinary magic .. In the minds, brains and bodies
    of children, in their families and relationships
    and in their communities (Masten)

20
Finding Resilience in Me
  • Think of a time in your life when you have
    struggled to cope with emotional difficulties
  • What did you think?
  • How did you feel?
  • What actions did you take?

21
Finding Resilience in me
  • Talk to family or friends
  • Sleep
  • Eat
  • Walk away, take time out
  • Counselling
  • Educate self about situation
  • Laugh
  • Throw self into new stuff
  • Seek company or solitude
  • Realise you have choices
  • Use own skills positively
  • Relate to past experience
  • Break into manageable bits
  • Peer support
  • Positive feedback
  • Retail therapy
  • Chocolate
  • Self expression
  • Diary writing
  • Spend time with animals
  • Take time for yourself
  • Spirituality
  • Exercise
  • Focus on work
  • Meditation
  • Medication

22
Resilience in the child
  • being female
  • secure attachment experience
  • an outgoing temperament as an infant
  • good communication skills, sociability
  • planner, belief in control
  • humour
  • problem solving skills, positive attitude
  • experience of success and achievement
  • religious faith
  • capacity to reflect

23
Resilience in families
  • At least one good parent-child relationship
  • Affection
  • Clear, firm consistent discipline
  • Support for education
  • Supportive long term relationship/absence of
    severe discord

24
Resilience in communities
  • Wide supportive network
  • Good housing
  • High standard of living
  • High morale school with positive policies for
    behaviour, attitudes and anti-bullying
  • Schools with strong academic and non-academic
    opportunities
  • Range of sport/leisure activities
  • Anti-discriminatory practice

25
Way attachment develops
26
Secure attachment
  • Is associated with
  • Emotional regulation and containment of anxiety
  • Capacity to tolerate uncertainty
  • Trust, adaptability, hope and belonging
  • The childs internal working model
  • The childs capacity to mentalize
  • A securely attached child is likely when faced
    with potentially alarming situations .... To
    tackle them effectively or seek help in doing so
  • J Bowlby (1980) Attachment and loss Vol 3

27
Insecure attachment
  • Children whose needs have not been adequately
    met see the world as
  • comfortless and unpredictable and they respond
    by either shrinking from it or doing battle with
    it.
  • John Bowlby (1973) Attachment and loss Vol 2

28
Avoidant attachment
  • Caregiver subtly or overtly reject childs
    attachment needs at time of stress
  • Bids for comfort will be rebuffed
  • Child keeps his/her attention directed away from
    their caregivers in an effort not to arouse
    anxiety and frustration
  • Child is in control because of the need for self
    reliance
  • Comfort self rather than accept it from others

29
Ambivalent (or anxious) attachment
  • Caregiver will be inadequate at meeting child
    attachment needs (caregiver is passive,
    unresponsive and ineffective)
  • Childs strategy is to amplify attachment needs
    and signals in an effort to arouse a response
    (verbal and behavioural bubbly affection to
    rage, anger, panic and despair. All experienced
    as controlling)
  • Unlovable and helpless selves unpredictable and
    withholding others.

30
Disorganised attachment
  • Child experiences the carer giver as the source
    of alarm and its only solution.
  • Child in these circumstances is unable to be
    guided by their mental model of the world because
    it offers few directions.
  • Frightened, helpless, fragile and sad
  • At risk of mental health problems or anti-social
    behaviour

31
Positive brain development
  • The way a child is stimulated shapes the brains
    neurobiological structure. Experience has a
    direct impact on a childs capacity for learning,
    developing and relating as a social being.

32
Early Brain Development
  • At birth the brain is 25 of its adult weight -
    by the age of 2 this has increased to 75 and by
    age 3 it is 90 of adult weight but this is not
    about new neurons
  • This growth is largely the result of the
    formation and hard wiring of synapses (700 new
    neural connections every second for the first few
    years)
  • Babies brains are both experience expectant
    and experience dependent

33
Feeling and Thinking
  • Circuits involved in the regulation of emotion
    are highly interactive with those associated with
    executive functions which are intimately
    involved in the development of problem solving
    skills
  • Well regulated emotions support executive
    functions
  • Poorly regulated emotions interfere with
    attention and decision making

34
(No Transcript)
35
The Learning Years 5-10
  • Synaptic pathways that are regularly used are
    reinforced. This is the basis of learning.
    Reinforcement leads to increasingly permanent
    neurological pathways.
  • Neural connections needed for abstract reasoning
    are developed
  • Motor skills are refined
  • A child learns through interacting with the world
    and making meaning out of it

36
ADOLESCENT BRAIN DEVELOPMENT
  • Brain development continues up to at least the
    age of 20
  • There is a significant remodelling of the brain
    in adolescence, particularly the frontal lobes
    and connections between these and the limbic
    system
  • The frequency and intensity of experiences shapes
    this remodelling as the brain adapts to the
    environment in which it is functioning and
    becomes more efficient

37
emotionaL FUNCTIONING IN ADOLESCENCE
  • There is a mismatch between emotional and
    cognitive regulatory modes in adolescence
  • Brain structures mediating emotional experiences
    change rapidly at the onset of puberty
  • Maturation of the frontal brain structures
    underpinning cognitive control lag behind by
    several years
  • Adolescents are left with powerful emotional
    responses to social stimuli that they cannot
    easily regulate, contextualise, create plans
    about or inhibit

38
The triune brain
  • The Neo-cortex associated with executive
    function - is the last to mature

39
TRAUMATIC STRESS
  • The automatic response to trauma, involving the
    production of toxic amounts of stress hormones
    which affect
  • Brain function
  • All major body systems
  • Social functioning
  • A bio-psycho-social injury

40
Impact of trauma
  • In the face of interpersonal trauma, all the
    systems of the social brain become shaped for
    offensive and defensive purposes. A child growing
    up surrounded by trauma and unpredictability will
    only be able to develop neural systems and
    functional capabilities that reflect this
    disorganisation.
  • Source National CAMHS Support Service,
    Everybodys Business

41
EFFECTS ON BRAIN DEVELOPMENT AND FUNCTION
  • These functions may be diminished or lost
  • Language, especially spoken language
  • Words for feelings
  • Sense of meaning and connection
  • Empathy
  • Impulse control
  • Mood regulation
  • Short term memory
  • Capacity for joy
About PowerShow.com