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Title: Unit 13 Stress and Therapy


1
Unit 13 Stress and Therapy
  • Class Presentations

2
Stress
  • Definition- A persons reaction to his or her
    inability to cope with a certain tense event or
    situation.
  • Example- If you have a lot of homework or
    projects and feel overwhelmed you are feeling
    stress.

3
Distress
  • Definition- Stress that stems from acute anxiety
    or pressure.
  • Example- If a person is driving slow in front of
    you and youre in a hurry to get somewhere that
    would be distress.

4
Eustress
  • Definition- Positive stress, which results from
    motivating strivings and challenges.
  • Example- knowing you have a project due and being
    stressed that you haven't done it and then that
    stress motivates you to get it done.

5
(No Transcript)
6
Unit 13 Stress and Therapy Conflicting
situations
  • By Madison Edwards and Ariana Watkins

7
Approach-Approach
  • Approach-Approach conflict is when an individual
    must choose between two attractive alternatives.
  • Approach-Approach Conflict is a psychological
    conflict that results when a choice must be made
    between two desirable alternatives.
  • Merriam Webster
  • Example Do I want to try-out for basketball or
    history academic team.

8
Avoidance-Avoidance
  • Avoidance-Avoidance conflict occurs when an
    individual confronts two unattractive
    alternatives.
  • Avoidance-Avoidance conflict is a psychological
    conflict that results when a choice must be made
    between two undesirable alternatives Medline Plus
  • Example Should I get a job at McDonalds or
    Burger King.

9
Approach-Avoidance
  • Definition A type of conflict situation in which
    the individual wants to do something but fears or
    dislikes it at the same time. (P.415)
  • Examples You are invited to a party but your
    stomach is pain. You really like parties but you
    are afraid your pain my get worse later on that
    night.

10
Double Approach-Avoidance
  • Definition Choose between two or more
    alternatives, each of which has attractive and
    unattractive aspects. (P.415)
  • Examples If a woman wants to work late but also
    wants to meet her friend for dinner. If she works
    late she will finish her project but might have
    to walk home late in the night. Same as the other
    way around.

11
Primary Appraisal
Bethany Cole Grayson Harper
  • Refers to our immediate evaluation of a
    situation.
  • Can we meet the expectations of this situation?
    Can we handle the challenges of this situation?
  • 3 ways to appraise a situation- irrelevant,
    positive, and negative.
  • Ex Teacher gives a pop quiz, you can evaluate it
    as good and think you can pass, but you can also
    evaluate it as negative because you havent
    looked at your notes.

12
Secondary Appraisal
  • Deciding how to deal with a stressful situation.
  • An individual evaluates the situation and decides
    on a way to cope.
  • Ex You evaluate the situation as positive
    because you have looked at your notes, so now you
    decide to just try your best on the quiz.

13
Hassles
  • Common stressors that are relatively minor and
    occur on a daily basis.
  • Ex Being late for class because people were
    standing around in the hallway so you couldnt
    get past.

14
Uplifts
  • Small positive event that can protect against
    stress.
  • Psychologist claim that uplifts have the opposite
    effect of hassles. They reduce stress and protect
    a persons health.

15
General Adaptation Syndrome
Rachel Yarbrough and Victoria Lartey
16
What is General Adaptation Syndrome?
  • General adaptation syndrome is a term used to
    describe the body's short-term and long-term
    reactions to stress.

17
Three stages of stress
  • Alarm
  • Resistance
  • Exhaustion

18
Alarm
  • The alarm stage of general adaptation syndrome
    prepares the for fight or flight. This causes
    increase in
  • heart rate
  • breathing quickly
  • muscle tension
  • pupil dilation
  • Person becomes very alert and sensitive to
    stimuli.

19
Example of Alarm
  • A hiker who confronts a rattlesnake on a
    mountain trail freezes in his tracks, is suddenly
    aware of every sound around him, and tries not to
    panic.

20
Resistance
  • In the resistance stage of general adaption
    syndrome a person finds means to cope with the
    stressor.

21
Example of Resistance
  • The mountain hiker caught in a bad storm can use
    his knowledge of the mountains to shelter himself
    from the storm to keep himself safe.

22
Exhaustion
  • If exposure to the stressor continues the
    individual reaches the stage of exhaustion. The
    adrenalin of the fight or flight instinct have
    reached their limit and can no longer function.

23
Example of Exhaustion
  • Man does hard labor all day in the factory
    where he works. He gets over heated and becomes
    delusional.

24
Psychologyphysical reactions to stress
  • By Caroline Clark and Hannah Hopper

25
Physical Reactions to Stress
  • The body is able to make many different physical
    reactions to stress. These happen because many
    times the immune system is weakened and makes it
    easier for the spread of infection or disease.
  • Example If it is almost exam week and a person
    develops a cold, that cold can be attributed to
    all the stress of preparing for the exams. Their
    body is most likely struggling to keep up their
    immune system.

26
What can cause physical reactions to stress?
  • Feelings and emotions are two of the main things
    that contribute to changes in your physiological
    body.
  • Psychosomatic symptoms are very commonly seen and
    occur because of stress.
  • Several psychosomatic symptoms may include
    headaches, stomachaches, muscle pains, or rapid
    heart beat

27
Symptoms of Emotional Stress
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Insomnia
  • Sweating
  • Dryness of mouth
  • Migraines
  • Arthritis
  • Asthma
  • Heart disease
  • Stressful situations have the ability to lower a
    persons immune system, making them prone to
    sickness
  • Immune system the bodies natural defense against
    infection

28
The Immune System
Pathogens attack the bodys cells. The pathogens
begin to grow and multiply causing a weaker
immune system gtgt
29
How to Handle Stress
  • Avoid caffeine
  • Practice deep breathing
  • Exercise
  • Eat healthy foods
  • Dont panic about your loss of sleep (it will
    only make it worse)

30
Sources
  • http//www.uhs.berkeley.edu/facstaff/pdf/care/Mana
    ging20Physical20Reactions20of20Stress.pdf
  • Understanding Psychology text book

31
Emotional and Cognitive Reactions to STRESS
32
Emotional Reactions
33
A child participating in a talent show may be
anxious when they are called to the stage to
perform.
Anxiety
  • Is the most common physical reaction to a sudden
    stressor.

34
An adult running late for work may become angry
when the driver in front of them is going 5 mph
below the speed limit.
Anger
  • Anger occurs often due to repeated frustration.

35
A women who is home alone may be frightened to
hear noise from her bathroom.
Fear
  • Fear is usually the result of a stimulus
    presenting real or imagined danger.

36
Cognitive Reactions To Stress
  • Usually difficulty concentrating, thinking
    clearly, and poor decision making.
  • Ex. Being so nervous and stressed about a test
    that you cant even settle down and study for it.
  • Or being so excited to tell someone something
    that you cant find your phone, or think of their
    number.

37
So
  • Emotional reactions to stress is how you feel
    when stressed and how your emotions react.
  • Cognitive reactions to stress is how your brain
    or you thinking react to good or bad stress.

38
Behavioral reactions to stress
Jordan Paige Diana Dominguez
39
Short Term Behavoral Changes
  • Many short-term behavioral changes that results
    from stress
  • Develop nervous habits such as trembling, pacing,
    or smoking
  • Shaky voice, tremors, strained expressions, or
    changing in posture

40
Cont'd
  • May loose interest in eating, grooming, or
    bathing
  • Some might tend to over eat
  • Some people show aggressions by beating on family
    members

41
Positive Behavioral Reactions
  • In dangerous situations people will risk their
    own life for others
  • Attitudes of cooperation that override individual
    differences and disagreements

42
Escape
  • Best way to deal with frustration
  • If a woman is on a bus that is stuck in traffic
    she might get off and walk to her destination
  • Listen to music
  • Do your favorite activity

43
Severe stress
  • Can lead too
  • Alcoholism
  • Drug Addiction
  • Chronic unemployment
  • Attempted suicide

44
Fight-or-Flight response
  • You appraise situation as physically threatening
  • Your thoughts activate the hypothalamus
  • The sympathetic nervous system stimulates a
    variety of physical responses to prepare the body
    for the stressful situation

45
Responses
  • Heart rate increases
  • Blood pressure increases
  • Digestive system shuts down
  • Pupils dilate
  • Hair stands up on end
  • Muscles tense

46
Type A B Personalities
  • By DeVonda Holmes
  • December 5, 2012
  • Mrs. Dorman
  • 2nd period

47
Type A
  • Very likely to have coronary artery disease,
    often followed by heart attacks.
  • Often affects people in their 30s or 40s.

48
Type A
  • Always prepared for fight or flight
  • Free-floating hostility
  • Extremely irritable
  • Impatient
  • Extremely competitive
  • Self-critical

49
Type A
  • Usually strive towards goals without feeling or
    sense of pride.
  • Overreact everything.
  • Tend to have high blood pressure
  • Constant sense of urgency
  • multi-task
  • Hard workers

50
Type A
NOTE
  • Psychologists disagree about the definition of
    Type A personality and its relation to heart
    disease.

51
Type B
  • People who do not have Type A pattern
  • Almost never have heart attacks before the age of
    70.

52
Type B
  • Relaxed
  • Patient
  • Do not easily become angry
  • Creative
  • Imaginative
  • Philosophical

53
Cited Sources
  • http//3.bp.blogspot.com/_YGm0POOKmgM/TRCAI1g1XeI/
    AAAAAAAAATg/cRzkP5npMZU/s1600/T2.gif
  • http//www.simplypsychology.org/personality-a.html
  • http//www.buzzle.com/articles/type-a-personality-
    description.html
  • http//www.psych.uncc.edu/pagoolka/typea-b-intro.h
    tml

54
Psychological coping strategies
  • Dakwan Hughes

55
Definition
  • The behavioral and cognitive efforts made be
    individuals in attempting to deal with stressful
    situations.

56
Summary
  • Life is stress stress is life.
  • People respond to stress in different ways. Know
    yourself and your signs of over-stress.
  • Learning and practicing healthy coping skills
    will help avoid/manage stress emergencies.

57

58
Types of coping
  • Positive appraisal reframing a situation to see
    it in a positive light
  • Problem-focused or approach coping when efforts
    are directed at solving or managing
  • the problem that is causing distress.
  • Emotion-focused or avoidant coping coping that
    is directed at managing or reducing emotional
    distress.
  • Meaning-focused coping involves searching for
    meaning in adversity and drawing on values,
    beliefs, and goals to modify the meaning given to
    and personal response to a stressful situation

59
Active coping strategies
  • Anthony Jessen Brandis Price

60
Hardiness
61
  • Def the personality traits of control,
    commitment, and challenge that help us reduce the
    stress we feel.
  • Control feeling that we have the ability to
    affect the outcome of the situation.
  • Commitment establishing and pursuing our goals
  • Challenge we actively confront and solve
    problems instead of feeling threatened and
    powerless because of them
  • Ex W61hen confronted with the assignment of
    giving a speech in public, you approach the
    assignment as a positive experience (challenge),
    believe that you can prepare and give a good
    speech (control), and prepare for and practice
    your speech (commitment).

62
Controlling Stressful Situations
63
There are several ways which we can control
exposure to stressful events and reduce stress
levels.
  • Escape or withdrawal, when possible , can be an
    effective coping strategy. When avoiding an event
    is not practical, control its timing
  • Having a study schedule to prepare for exams
  • Exiting an uncomfortable event
  • Hanging out with people who have the same
    interests as you instead of trying to fit-in

64
Problem Solving
65
  • Sometimes neither avoiding or spacing events is
    possible.
  • Problem solving involves a rational analysis of
    the situation that will lead to an appropriate
    decision (negative setback into positive
    challenge)
  • A senior has an exam on the same day as his
    college application is due, the student may plan
    out the remaining days and complete the
    application while studying for his exam.
  • When you have a family issue, instead of ignoring
    it you may go step-by-step to solve it so both of
    you are happy.

66
Explanatory Style
67
  • Martin Seligman (1991) describes two different
    styles of thinking.
  • Optimist sees the positive side of things.
  • Pessimist always sees the negative side.
  • Studies have shown that pessimists usually die
    younger than optimists
  • After a hard loss, the optimist will say, what
    happened, happened and look forward to the next
    week. The pessimist will keep dwelling on the
    loss.

68
Relaxation
69
  • Many techniques of relaxation have been developed
    especially to cope with stress.
  • Progressive relaxation lying down comfortably
    and tensing then releasing the tension in each
    major muscle group in turn
  • Meditation a focusing of attention with the goal
    of clearing ones mind and producing an inner
    peace.
  • Both were developed by Dr. Edmond Jacobson.

70
  • Many techniques of relaxation have been developed
    especially to cope with stress.
  • Progressive relaxation lying down comfortably
    and tensing then releasing the tension in each
    major muscle group in turn
  • Meditation a focusing of attention with the goal
    of clearing ones mind and producing an inner
    peace.
  • Both were developed by Dr. Edmond Jacobson.

71
Biofeedback
72
  • Biofeedback a technique for bringing specific
    body processes, such as blood pressure and muscle
    tension, under a persons conscious control.
  • While hooked up to an electronic device
    measurements are taken of specific processes he
    or she wants to regulate which are then played
    back in the form of sound or visual patterns.
  • If you want to regulate your blood pressure you
    would need to concentrate on what relaxes your
    body and lowers blood pressure. The visual
    patterns are what allow you to know that its
    working.

73
Humor
74
  • Laughing actually releases the tension of pent-up
    feeling and can help you keep a proper
    perspective of the situation.
  • It is common for people to result to laughing in
    very stressful situations.
  • A person may break out in hysterical laughter
    during the trying times following the death of a
    loved one. This laughter help to deal with the
    intense emotional pain of a loss.

75
Exercise
76
  • Physical exercise is another constructive way to
    reduce stress.
  • Exercise provides an outlet for physical arousal,
    and it may burn off stress hormones.
  • Running and swimming are the best ways to both
    lower stress levels and improve cardiovascular
    and respiratory fitness.

77
Support groups and professional help
78
  • Groups that operate beyond ordinary personal
    networks can help people with specific
    stress-related problems.
  • Examples
  • Alcoholics Anonymous
  • Weight Watchers
  • Crisis prevention centers

79
Training
80
  • New, unfamiliar, or dangerous situations can
    be stressful because we are unsure we can deal
    with it.
  • Training to prepare for such a situation can
    ease the stress.
  • Exposure to moderate stressors in a
    relatively safe but challenging environment
    allows a person to gain experience and confidence
    in coping.
  • Example
  • A person who I nervous about going to a friends
    country club because she does not want to play
    tennis might take a few tennis lessons.

81
Improving Interpersonal Skills
82
  • Developing skills in dealing with others is one
    of the best ways to manage stress.
  • Advantages
  • Increased self-confidence and self-esteem
  • Less chance of loneliness or interpersonal
    conflict
  • Development of social support system

83
Who Are Therapists?
  • Diorah Raimundi
  • 2nd Period

84
Kinds of Therapists
  • Therapist A person trained in methods of
    treatment (bodily, mental, behavioral)
  • Psychologists Treatment of psychological
    disorders in hospitals
  • Psychiatrists treatment of abnormal behavior,
    prescribes medicine
  • Counselors Gives advice

85
What Makes A Good Therapist?
  • One thats psychologically healthy
  • One thats anxious, defensive or withdrawn wont
    see the patients problems clearly
  • One that shows empathy
  • Needs to be able to give the patient confidence
    that hes caring and understanding
  • Empathy capacity for warmth and understanding
  • One thats experienced in dealing with people and
    their complexities

86
Group Therapies
  • Group Therapy patients work together with the
    aid of a leader to resolve interpersonal problems
  • Gives patients a chance to see how others are
    also struggling with similar problems
  • Helps a large number of people at a low cost
  • Therapist makes suggestions, clarifies points and
    keeps activities under control

87
Family Therapy
  • Family Therapy focuses on interactions between
    family members
  • Untangles a twisted web of relationships that led
    to emotional suffering
  • Therapist points out whats happening from an
    objective viewpoint and suggests ways of
    improving communication and fairness

88
Self-Help groups
  • Self-Help Groups voluntary groups of people who
    share a problem and are often without the
    involvement of a professional
  • Come together to discuss difficulties and
    provides each other with support and possible
    solutions
  • Alcoholism, overeating, drug addiction, child
    abuse, ect.
  • AA

89
Psychoanalysis
  • By Victoria Lartey and Rachel Yarbrough

90
What is it?
  • Psychoanalysis is therapy aimed at making
    patients aware of their unconscious motives so
    that they can gain control of their behavior.
  • It is based on the observations that individuals
    are most likely unaware of that influence their
    emotions, relationships and behavior.
  • Example Amys father left she and her mother
    soon after she was born. Through the years she
    developed major trust issues towards the opposite
    sex, so much so that every time she was about to
    get married, she would leave the man at the altar
    but couldnt come to terms as to why. The
    therapist would then help her realize that she is
    this way due to what her father did.


91
Where did it come from?
  • Based on the theories of Sigmund Freud. According
    to him, psychological disturbances are due to
    anxiety caused by hidden conflicts among the
    unconscious components of ones personality.
  • Example Freuds theory of
  • personality (previously learned)

92
The Purpose of this Therapy
  • To help patients aware of the unconscious
    impulses, desires, and fears that are causing the
    anxiety.
  • If the patients can understand their unconscious
    motives, they have taken the first step towards
    gaining control and freeing themselves of their
    problems (insight).
  • Example Going to a Psychoanalyst
  • to know the reason behind your severe
  • panic attacks

93
Humanistic Therapy
  • By Caroline Clark and Hannah Hopper

94
What is Humanistic Therapy?
  • Humanistic Therapy focuses on the value, dignity,
    and worth of each person healthy living is the
    result of realizing ones full potential.
  • This method of therapy works with present (rather
    than past) occurrences and attitudes with a goal
    of client growth and fulfillment.

95
Client-Centered Therapy
  • Client-Centered Therapy is a type of Humanistic
    Therapy.
  • Client-Centered therapists assume that their
    clients are basically good and that they are
    capable of handling their own lives.
  • One of the goals in this type of therapy is to
    help the person recognize their own strengths and
    confidence.

96
Techniques of Client-Centered Therapy include
  • Nondirective Therapy-
  • The free flow of images and ideas, with no
    particular direction
  • Therapist does not direct the session
  • The topic they discuss is entirely up to the
    client

97
Cont..
  • Active Listening
  • Empathetic listening a listener acknowledges,
    restates, and clarifies the speakers thoughts
  • Therapist picks out main points in the clients
    rambling explanations
  • Unconditional Positive Regard
  • A therapist's consistent expression of acceptance
    of the patient, no matter what the patient says
    or does.
  • No embarrassment, reservation, or anger
  • Example A patient is embarrassed about their
    issue with drug abuse and not being able to
    maintain a job but the therapist accepts them and
    give them only positive feedback.

98
Final thoughts
  • Client-Centered Therapy has helped make
    therapists aware of the importance of developing
    supportive relationships with their clients.

99
Cognitive Therapy
  • Lucas Wilson
  • Jaraun Brooks

100
What is Cognitive Therapy?
  • Cognitive Therapy is using thoughts to control
    emotions and behaviors.
  • It focuses on changing the way people think.

101
Why Use Cognitive Therapy?
  • Irrational or uninformed beliefs, expectations,
    ways of thinking can distort our behaviors,
    attitudes, and emotions.
  • By changing these patterns of thinking, a person
    can improve their way of life.

102
Different Types of Cognitive Therapy
  • Rational-Emotive Therapy ( RET)
  • Albert Ellis (1973)
  • Becks Cognitive Therapy

103
Rational-Emotive Therapy
  • Helps to change unrealistic assumptions about
    oneself and other people
  • For emotional problems involving an individuals
    assumptions being unrealistic
  • Goal is to correct these false and self-defeating
    beliefs
  • Example A man seeks therapy after a woman leaves
    him because he cant stand the fact that hes
    been rejected. He feels that his life is
    miserable and empty without her. He is demanding
    that the woman must love him and insists that
    things must go his way. In the therapists view,
    the man is causing himself depression by defining
    his feelings as need rather than desire. His
    faulty thinking is based on unreasonable
    attitudes, false premises, and rigid roles for
    behaviors.

Ellis liked to teach that behaviors are the
result of the ABCs. He claimed that it was not
the event that caused trouble, but the way the
person thinks about the event (beliefs).
104
RET Continued
  • Rejection is unpleasant but not unbearable.
    Since the goal is to correct these false and
    self-defeating beliefs, the therapist will use
    techniques to teach the man to think in realistic
    terms.
  • Techniques
  • Role Playing allows him to see how his beliefs
    affect his relationships
  • Modeling demonstrates other ways of thinking
    and acting
  • Humor underlines absurdity of his beliefs
  • Homework the man would need to ask woman out
    who are likely to reject him, so that he can cope
    with things not going his way

105
Becks Cognitive Therapy
  • Aaron T. Beck introduced this form of therapy. It
    is similar to the Rational-Emotive Therapy but
    the main difference is the focus on illogical
    thought processes. Beck has therapists encourage
    clients to engage in test of their own beliefs,
    by using persuasion and logic to change negative
    thinking patterns.

106
Becks Cognitive Therapy Continued
  • An example is, if a client believes that I never
    have a good time, the therapist might point out
    that this is a hypothesis, not a fact. Then the
    therapist might ask the client to test the
    hypothesis by looking at the evidence differently
    and the times in her life when she actually had a
    good time. The therapist goal is to demonstrate
    that her automatic thinking may be incorrect and
    that things are not as bad as they seem

107
Behavioral Therapy
  • Changing undesirable behavior through
    conditioning techniques.
  • Goal of the therapy is to change a behavior, not
    where the behavior came from.
  • There are different ways of behavioral therapy
    such as
  • Counterconditioning- pairs stimulus with a new
    desirable behavior. For example, snakes trigger
    the fear of snakes, so the therapists will pair a
    snake with something good to get a better
    behavior.

108
Behavioral Therapy
  • Modeling- the patient learns by watching another.
  • Aversive conditioning- make certain acts
    unpleasant so they will not be repeated.
  • Operant conditioning- behavior is either rewarded
    or punished, by adding rewards or taking them
    away, and adding punishment or taking away
    punishment.
  • Flooding- therapist exposes the client to feared
    object to the patient.

109
Biological Therapy
  • Grant Edwards
  • Psychology
  • Second Period

110
Biological Therapy
  • Definition uses methods such as medication,
    electric shock, and surgery to help people with
    psychological disorders.

111
  • Drug Therapy (which is the most widely used
    method) - There are four kinds of drugs that can
    be used
  • Antipsychotic drugs (reduces agitation, delusions
    and hallucinations)
  • Anti-depressant drugs (relieves depression)
  • Lithium (counteracts bipolar disorder) and
  • Anti-anxiety drugs (sedatives or mild
    tranquilizers).
  • Drugs only treat the symptoms however, they do
    not cure the disorder.

112
  • Doctors can decide which treatment is appropriate
    for each patient, such as
  • Drug Therapy
  • Electroconvulsive Therapy
  • Psychosurgery

113
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
  • --which is commonly known as shock treatment. It
    is used for severe depression, acute mania and
    some forms of schizophrenia.

114
Psychosurgery
  • --an operation that destroys part of the brain to
    make the patient calmer and lessens their
    symptoms. A common name for this type of
    operation is called a lobotomy.
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