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Eastern Himalayas


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Title: Eastern Himalayas

Eastern Himalayas
  • The Eastern Himalayas comprise the tracts of the
    Darjeeling Hills or North Bengal, Sikkim,
    Arunachal Pradesh, and eastern Bhutan.
  • The region is drained by the Brahmaputra river
    and its tributaries the Teesta drains Sikkim and
    the Darjeeling areas, and the Manas drains part
    of Bhutan and Arunachal Pradesh.
  • The Kamang and the Subansiri are the other
    important rivers that drain the eastern

  • The Eastern Himalayas can be divided into the
    following climatic regions arctic, sub-arctic,
    temperate, subtropical, and warm tropical.
  • The forests are moist, dense, evergreen,
    semi-evergreen, or temperate.
  • Precipitation is very high and the forest region
    is very humid.
  • Sal forests and evergreen trees are found
    extensively all along the foothills of the
    Eastern Himalayas.
  • Subtropical forests cover the hills up to an
    elevation of about 2000 m.

The temperate mixed forests
  • The temperate mixed forests are found up to a
    height of about 3000 m followed by the alpine
    forests, which consist mainly of fir, juniper,
    and rhododendron .
  • This region is the home of a large variety of
    animals and birds including slow loris,
    rhinoceros, the golden languar, tiger, the Indian
    civet, clouded leopard, the golden cat.
  • The birds include heron, the white-winged wood
    duck, and the snow cock.

  • A number of wildlife sanctuaries and biosphere
    reserves have been set up in this region to
    protect the species from poachers and human
  • Jaldapara, in the Bhutan foothills of Bengal, is
    famous for the one-horned rhinoceros, hog deer,
    and tiger floricans.
  • Buxa Sanctuary at the junction of Assam, northern
    West Bengal, and Bhutan is a tiger reserve under
    the Project Tiger and serves as a vital corridor
    for the elephants migrating between the forests
    of Assam and Bhutan.
  • It has dense deciduous forest and is the home of
    the swamp deer, and leopard and many species of

The Kangchendzonga national park
  • The Kangchendzonga national park in Sikkim is the
    home of many high-altitude mammals and birds such
    as the clouded leopard, red panda, musk deer,
    snow cock, and pheasants.
  • The principal forest types found here are the
    coniferous and Alpine scrub.

The Manas sanctuary
  • The Manas sanctuary, which lies on either side of
    the Manas river in Bhutan and Assam has very
    dense semi-evergreen and deciduous forests and
    swamps and marshes.
  • It is famous for the golden languar which is
    found only in this area.
  • Other animals found here include the barking
    deer, sambar, and golden cat. It is also a tiger
    reserve under the Project Tiger.

The Namdapa national reserve
  • The Namdapa national reserve in Arunachal Pradesh
    is perhaps the only protected area where all the
    four major predators of the Himalayas, namely the
    tiger, leopard, clouded leopard, and the snow
    leopard are found.
  • It has a wide variety of flora and fauna as the
    altitude ranges from 200 m to 4500 m.
  • There are evergreen, sal, deciduous, oak,
    coniferous and sub-alpine forests.
  • It is the home of the slow loris, leopard, red
    panda, hoolock, musk deer, and hornbilled duck.

  • The Namdapa biosphere reserve, located in the
    Lohit and Tirap districts in south-eastern
    Arunachal Pradesh, is considered one of the
    richest biotic areas in India.
  • It is partly drained by the Brahmaputra river
    system and has a typical tropical to subtropical
    monsoon climate receiving very heavy rainfall.
  • The vegetation consists of moist mixed deciduous
    forests, subtropical wet hill forests, wet
    temperate forests, and alpine forests.
  • There are a very large variety of animals and
    birds such as the tiger, leopard, civet, red
    panda, heron, hornbill, and thrush.
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