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AP US HISTORY REVIEW

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Title: AP US HISTORY REVIEW


1
AP US HISTORY REVIEW
  • IT IS NOT THE ELITE IT IS THE
  • PREPARED

2
DISCOVERY AND SETTLEMENT
3
EUROPE IN 16th CENTURY
  • Renaissance
  • Reformation
  • Age of Exploration
  • England, Spain, France
  • Trade and Wars

4
SPANISH EXPLORATION
  • Gold, Glory and the Gospel
  • Columbus
  • Conquistadors
  • Young, Restless, Adventure
  • Encomienda System
  • 90 of Native Population decimated
  • Slavery
  • 1st Indians
  • 2nd Africans
  • Cortez Tenochtitland/Aztecs

5
  • Mestizos
  • Mulattos
  • Horses, Cattle, Pigs
  • Catholic Jesuits (Missions)
  • Columbian Exchange
  • CBS
  • Potato
  • Improved Life
  • STDs
  • Repatimento
  • Bartholmew de la Casas
  • Black LegendSpain Kills for Christ
  • Cabeza da Vaca

6
FRENCH EXPLORATION
  • Fur, Forts and
  • Rivers important
  • Mississippi River Valley
  • Louisiana
  • Catholic
  • Only 20K
  • Intermarriage with Indians
  • Trading Rights

7
  • Courers de Boers
  • Alliances with Natives
  • Algonquin
  • Guns and Alcohol
  • Ohio River Valley

8
ENGLISH EXPLORATION
  • St. Augustine (Spanish)
  • 1st North American Settlement
  • Richard Hakluyt
  • Land of Milk and Honey
  • Joint Stock Companies
  • Make
  • Roanoke

9
JAMESTOWN
  • Single men
  • No experience in Farming or Fishing
  • Starving Time
  • Searching for Riches
  • John Smith
  • No Work, No Eat
  • Pocahontas
  • Military Dictator
  • Lord de la Warr
  • Replaces John Smith

10
  • John Rolfe
  • Pocahontas
  • Tobacco
  • Headright System
  • Indentured Servants
  • 50 acres for each servant
  • Given land in the east
  • Indentured Servants
  • Work for 7 years
  • What did they get when freed?
  • Went west to live (Indians)
  • Land
  • Political Prestige and Status
  • Needed workers
  • Tobacco

11
  • Plantation Owners
  • Dominated Society
  • Social, Political and Economic
  • Anglican Church
  • Tax Supported, Royalists
  • 1619
  • WOMEN
  • Tobacco
  • House of Burgesses
  • 1st Colonial Legislature
  • 1st Africans

12
PLYMOUTH
  • RELIGIOUS
  • Pilgrims Separatists
  • Break from Church England
  • Children were Dutchified
  • Mayflower Compact
  • Majority Rule
  • Thanksgiving Indians
  • Squanto Saved them

13
  • Governor William Bradford
  • Theocracy
  • Communistic
  • Community Work together/Sharing
  • Utopia
  • Absorbed into MBC

14
AMERICAN INDIAN
  • 50 100 M prior to 1500
  • Canada to South America
  • Tribes
  • Different languages, Religious and Cultures
  • Developed Civilizations
  • Incas Peru
  • Aztecs Mesoamerica
  • Agricultural CBS
  • Studied Math and Astronomy

15
  • North America less Developed
  • Agriculture Women
  • Little property owned
  • Communal Living
  • Pueblos Terraced Dwellings
  • Mound Builders
  • Egyptian like tombs
  • Trade
  • 5 Civilized Tribes

16
  • Iroquois New York
  • Hiawatha
  • Military Confederacy
  • Longhouse
  • Polytheistic
  • European Contact
  • 90 Died (Disease)
  • Warfare Changed
  • Trade
  • Horse
  • Religion

17
AMERICA, 1607 - 1700
18
CHESAPEAKE
  • Virginia and Maryland
  • Tobacco
  • Death Valley
  • Men outnumbered Women 6-1
  • Women
  • Marriages 2
  • Property Owners
  • Multiple Families
  • Plantation Owners East

19
  • Free Indentured Servants West
  • Headright System
  • Bacons Rebellion
  • Expansion Westward Indians
  • Free Indentured Servants vs. Indians and
    Plantation Owners
  • African Slaves
  • Lord Baltimore
  • Catholic Haven (Maryland)
  • Quit Rents
  • Puritans
  • Maryland Act of Toleration
  • Christians

20
  • GEOGRAPHY
  • Southern Climate Good for Crops
  • Malaria wiped out Indians
  • Africans immune to Malaria
  • One crop economy (Tobacco)
  • Plantations
  • SOCIAL
  • Racism
  • Slave Codes
  • Miscegnation
  • Bacons Rebellion
  • Mortality Rate

21
  • Social Structure
  • Based on the number of slaves/servants
  • Plantation Owners
  • Yeoman Farmers
  • Free Indentured Servants
  • Indentured Servants
  • Slaves

22
NEW ENGLAND
  • Massachusetts Bay Colony
  • Puritan Dominated
  • Non-Separatists
  • Purified The Church of England
  • John Calvin
  • Predestination
  • The Elect
  • Visible Saints
  • Great Migration
  • Puritans Come from England
  • Caribbean
  • John Winthrop
  • City Upon A Hill

23
  • Congregation Church
  • Cambridge Agreement
  • Community Tax Supported
  • Town Hall Politics
  • Each Church was Independent of others
  • Halfway Covenant
  • Grandparent
  • Harvard
  • 1st University
  • Ministers
  • Family Father Dominated

24
  • Grandparents
  • Merchant Class
  • Political Influence
  • Towns/Villages
  • Property and Church Requirements to Vote
  • Women
  • Longer Marriages
  • No Property Rights
  • No Political Rights
  • Kids
  • Education Bible

25
  • Non-Puritans
  • Anne Hutchinson Antinomianism
  • Roger Williams Indians
  • Quakers Pacifists
  • Great Awakening
  • Salem
  • Witch Trials
  • Destroyed the Puritans power
  • Mercantilism

26
  • Triangular Trade
  • Rum, Molasses, Slaves
  • Economy
  • Fishing Cod instead of God
  • Shipbuilding
  • Lumber
  • Fur
  • Small Farms
  • Short growing season
  • Rocky Soil

27
RESTORATION COLONIES
  • Middle Atlantic
  • Bread Basket
  • Cosmopolitan
  • New York and Pennsylvania
  • South
  • Slavery
  • Rice, Indigo and Tobacco
  • South Carolina, North Carolina and Georgia
  • South Carolina Plantation and Slave Codes
  • North Carolina Tobacco, Yeoman Farmers
  • Georgia Buffer, James Oglethorp

28
DOMINION OF NEW ENGLAND
  • NE Town Hall Meetings
  • Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
  • First Written Constitution
  • New England Confederation
  • Puritan Colonies Unify for Defense
  • Indians and French
  • Glorious Revolution
  • Sir Edmund Andros creates Dominion of New England

29
  • Dominion of New England
  • Enforcement of Navigation Laws
  • Town Hall Meetings Forbidden
  • Restrictions on Church and Schools (Anti-Puritan)
  • Taxes without Colonial Legislature approval
  • Smuggling
  • Andros Removed
  • Leislers Rebellion
  • Land given to the rich supporters of Catholic
    King
  • Poor vs. Rich
  • Failed

30
  • Salutary Neglect
  • Reduces British intervention in Colonial Affairs
  • 13 Colonial Governments
  • Peter Zenger Case (1735)
  • Freedom of Expression and Press
  • Corrupt Royal Governor Exposed

31
ORIGINS OF SLAVERY
  • 1619 the 1st Africans arrive
  • Bacons Rebellion
  • Life
  • Stono Rebellion

32
AMERICAN SOCIETY, 1700s
33
THE ECONOMY
  • Navigation Acts
  • Enforce Mercantilism
  • Restrcited colonies to and from Colonies
  • Brits did not want competition
  • Hat, Iron, Wool
  • American Smuggling
  • Mercantilism
  • Britain became richer
  • Colonies had the rights of Englishment
  • Colonies had self-government
  • Colonies had military protection
  • Colonies developed trade and industry

34
  • Salutary Neglect
  • Colonial Self-Government
  • Colonies gave little interference
  • Britain provided peace, protection and commerce
  • British immigrants more consumers for British
    goods

35
GREAT AWAKENING
  • Maryland
  • Catholics
  • Act of Toleration
  • Church of England
  • Anglican Church
  • Royal Authority
  • Separatists
  • Pilgrims
  • Dutchification
  • Break from Church of England

36
  • John Calvin
  • Predestination
  • Elect
  • Puritans
  • Purify the Church of England of its Catholicism
  • Persecuted by England
  • Great Migration
  • Cambridge Agreement
  • John Winthrop

37
  • What did the Puritans give us?
  • Democracy
  • Town Hall Meetings
  • Concern for Civic Issues
  • Schools
  • Reform
  • Protestant Work Ethic

38
  • Congregation Church
  • Puritans
  • Each church independent
  • Enforce Gods Law
  • Religious dissent persecuted
  • Clergy could NOT hold office
  • Only church members could vote
  • Anne Hutchinson
  • Antinomianism
  • Elect does not have to obey Gods Law or Civil
    Law
  • Direct Revelations from God Heresy
  • John Cotton Favorite
  • Banished

39
  • Roger Williams
  • Land belongs to the Indians
  • Indians deserve fair compensation
  • Civil Government does NOT regulate religion
  • Separation of Church and State
  • Jeremiad
  • Parishioners need to be committed
  • Halfway Covenant
  • Partial membership
  • For the grandparents

40
  • Salem Witch Trials
  • East vs. West
  • Rich vs. Poor
  • Farmers vs. Merchants
  • Full Puritans vs. Half-Way Puritans
  • Cotton Mather
  • Religious leaders declines
  • Universities
  • Harvard (1st)
  • William and Mary (1st in South)
  • Train Ministers
  • Rhode Island Freedom of Religion

41
  • Pennsylvania
  • William Penns Holy Experiment
  • Haven for Quakers
  • No Oaths
  • No authority figures
  • Pacifists
  • Abolitionists
  • Liberal Government (Philly)
  • University of Penn (Secular)
  • Presbyterians
  • All Churches are unified

42
  • First Great Awakening
  • Theological Doctrine Disputes
  • Emotional Stagnation
  • Anti-Calvinism
  • Jonathan Edwards
  • Emphasized eternal Damnation
  • Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God
  • Old Lights vs. New Lights
  • Old Lights Anti- Emotion Theatrics
  • New Lights Emotionalism (Baptists)
  • Split Denominations
  • Congregational and Presbyterians
  • Undermined clergy

43
  • Old Lights vs. New Lights
  • Missionary work among Indians and Slaves
  • New Colleges
  • Dartmouth, Princeton, Brown
  • Baptists benefited

44
NEW IMMIGRANTS
  • 17th Century
  • Indentured Servants
  • African Slaves (Chattel)
  • 18th Century
  • England 66
  • Africans 20
  • Scots-Irish 5.6
  • German 4.5

45
  • Regions
  • South 90 of the Slaves
  • New England Puritan
  • Middle Atlantic Ethnically Mixed
  • Scots-Irish
  • Presbyterian
  • Anti-British
  • Frontiersmen
  • Fought the Indians
  • Germans
  • Religious and Economic Oppression
  • Lutheran
  • No Loyalty to British Crown

46
ROAD TO REVOLUTION
  • 1754 - 1775

47
FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR
  • Albany Plan of Union (1754)
  • Called to plan defense against French and Indian
    attacks
  • Home Rule for the Colonies
  • Benjamin Franklins idea (Join or Die)
  • John Locke
  • Life, Liberty and Property
  • Consent of the Governed
  • Protection of Natural Rights
  • Baron de Montesquieu
  • Checks and Balances
  • Separation of Powers

48
  • Adam Smith
  • Economist
  • Laissez Faire
  • Private Enterprise
  • Bible of Capitalism
  • Ohio River Valley
  • Trade
  • Fur and Fish
  • England vs. France World War

49
  • George Washington
  • Iroquois
  • Pro-British
  • French allied with most of the Indians
  • Canada The Prize
  • Treaty of Paris
  • Ended the war
  • France kicked out of North America
  • Cajuns moved to Louisiana

50
IMPERIAL REORGANIZATION
  • End of Salutary Neglect
  • Britain was in debt
  • Pontiacs Rebellion
  • Proclamation Line of 1763
  • Prohibited Americans from entering Ohio River
    Valley
  • British wanted to keep Indians happy (Pontiacs
    Rebellion)
  • Trade with Indians more important than keeping
    the colonials happy

51
  • The Americans wanted into the Ohio Valley
  • Americans had fought in the war to defeat the
    Indians
  • Americans had seen the weakness of British
    soldiers
  • King George III
  • Micromanager
  • Manic depressant
  • Taxes
  • To pay off British war debt
  • Pay for protection (Soldiers)
  • Molasses Act
  • Tax on molasses, rum and sugar
  • New England traded rum for slaves
  • New England dependent on slave trade

52
  • Writs of Assistance
  • British search warrants
  • Harass colonial shipping
  • Stop colonial smuggling
  • Currency Act
  • Colonials ordered to stop printing money (Rhode
    Island)
  • Colonial debts to be paid in hard currency
    (Gold/Silver)

53
STAMP ACT
  • Sugar Act (1764)
  • 1st tax to raise revenue
  • Molasses Tax reduced
  • Designed to control the illegal triangular trade
  • Stamp Act (1765)
  • Raise revenue for British troops
  • Stamps to be on all paper products
  • Accused Guilty until proven innocent
  • Admiralty Courts
  • Brits wanted Americans to pay their fair share

54
  • Stamp Act Congress
  • Colonials adopted Virginia Resolves
  • Taxation by Colonial legislatures only
  • Non-Importation Agreements
  • Quartering Act (1765)
  • Provide food and shelter to British troops
  • Warehouses
  • Sons of Liberty
  • Samuel Adams
  • Vandals
  • Tar and Feather
  • Britain forced to repeal the Stamp Act

55
DECLARATORY ACT
  • Declaratory Act
  • Issued same day Stamp Act repealed
  • Laws passed by Parliament are official
  • Quebec Act
  • French in Canada given access to Ohio River
    Valley
  • Catholicism allowed in Ohio Valley
  • Americans feared rights were in danger
  • James Otis
  • No Taxation Without Representation

56
  • Patrick Henry
  • Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death
  • Taxes
  • External Taxes Imports (Sugar)
  • Internal Taxes Stamp
  • Colonials believed only they could tax themselves
    (Salutary Neglect)
  • Virtual Representation
  • Brits believed all were represented in Parliament
  • Colonials did not vote for members of Parliament

57
TOWNSHEND ACTS
  • Townshend Acts
  • Small tax on lead, glass, silk and tea
  • Revenue to pay governor judges salaries
  • Reduce influence on colonies on government
    officials
  • John Dickinson
  • Letter from a Farmer in Pennsylvania
  • No taxes for revenue

58
  • Massachusetts Circular Letter
  • Ordered Parliament to repeal Townshend Acts
  • Other colonies joined
  • British troops sent to Boston
  • Non-Importation agreement re-instituted
  • British imports drop 40
  • Boston Massacre
  • Crispus Attucks
  • Propaganda (Paul Revere)
  • Townshend Act repealed

59
  • Committees of Correspondence
  • Propaganda
  • Spying on British officials
  • Inter-colonial unity developes

60
BOSTON TEA PARTY
  • Tea Act
  • British East India Company given tea monopoly
  • Tax on tea lower prices
  • Sons of Liberty Boston Tea Party
  • Intolerable Acts
  • Punish Boston
  • Boston Harbor closed
  • Massachusetts legislature shutdown
  • British murder of a colonial to be tried in
    Britain
  • Town Hall meetings forbidden

61
  • First Continental Congress
  • Ordered a repeal of Intolerable Acts
  • Organized militias
  • Suspended trade with England
  • Refusal to pay taxes
  • Re-stated loyalty to King
  • The Association
  • Non-Importation
  • Non-Exportation
  • Non-Consumption

62
THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
  • 1775 - 1783

63
CONTINENTAL CONGRESS
  • Lexington and Concord
  • Shot heard around the world
  • April 19
  • Second Continental Congress
  • George Washington named Commander of Colonial
    Army
  • Olive Branch Petition Last Ditch
  • Pre-1763
  • Thomas Jefferson writes DOI

64
DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE
  • Thomas Paines Common Sense
  • Called King George III a royal brute
  • America has a sacred mission
  • Establish an independent, democratic republic
  • Needs to be untainted by association with the
    corrupt Brits

65
  • Declaration of Independence
  • Most Americans were loyal to British until
  • Hiring of Hessians
  • Burning of Colonial towns
  • Promising slaves freedom in Brits win
  • If Natural rights are not protected revolt
  • All Men are Created Equal
  • Charged the King, not Parliament
  • Declared War Break up letter
  • Ending of slavery removed

66
FRENCH ALLIANCE
  • Battle of Saratoga
  • Franco-American Alliance
  • Military aid to fight
  • US promised no treaty without France

67
WAR AND SOCIETY
  • 1/3 Patriots
  • 1/3 Loyalists
  • 1/3 Unconcerned
  • Loyalists property confiscated
  • War bonds and Loyalists property
  • Aid from France

68
ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION
  • The Critical Period
  • The time period in the 1780sd
  • 1st Constitution of the US
  • Congress had the power
  • Each state had one vote
  • Bills required 2/3 vote for ratification
  • Amendments required unanimous vote
  • Congress conducts the war
  • Congress makes treaties
  • Weak central government
  • States had the power
  • No executive branch
  • Treaty of Paris

69
  • Economy
  • Huge national and state debts
  • No currency
  • Runaway inflation
  • British flooded US with cheap products after the
    war
  • Loyalists holdings divided up
  • America lost British markets
  • Asia and Baltic markets opened up

70
  • The Good (Articles of Confederation)
  • Treaty of Paris
  • Land Ordinance of 1785
  • Land in the Old Northwest sold to pay debt
  • Region was divided into townships
  • Education was to be provide for
  • Ohio region settlement Organized
  • South No
  • Northwest Ordinance of 1787
  • 3-step plan for territories to become states
  • New states have equal status with Original 13
  • Forbade slavery north of the Ohio River
  • Southerners could reclaim fugitive slaves

71
  • The Bad (The Articles of Confederation)
  • Land issue in the west delayed ratification
  • No power to regulate commerce
  • No power to tax
  • Newburgh Conspiracy
  • Military revolt over pay
  • George Washington stopped it
  • The Ugly (The Articles of Confederation)
  • Interests on debt increasing
  • States fought over boundaries (Va/Md)
  • States had their own tariffs
  • States printed their own worthless currency (RI)

72
PEACE OF PARIS
  • Treaty of Paris, 1783
  • France wanted repayment of loans
  • British
  • Remained in Northwest Forts
  • Encouraged Indian attacks
  • Angry over debt owed them
  • Angry over loyalist lands
  • Spanish
  • Closed Mississippi River
  • Encouraged Indian attacks in SE
  • James Wilkinson attempted to separate Kentucky

73
STATE GOVERNMENTS
  • State Constitutions
  • Weak Governors
  • Strong legislatures
  • States Rights
  • Each had Bill of Rights

74
WOMEN AND SLAVERY
  • Women
  • Managed farms and businesses during the war
  • Traveled as cooks and nurses during the war
  • Abigail Adams Remember the Ladies
  • Republican Motherhood
  • Raise the children to be good citizens
  • Feme covert Women cannot own property

75
  • Slavery
  • Slaves fought in the war
  • Anti-slavery societies in the North Quakers
  • Slavery outlawed in the North by 1800
  • Slavery not allowed north of the Ohio River
  • Slave Trade abolished in 1808
  • Free Blacks in the North face discrimination
  • Slavery stronger in the South
  • Cotton Gin (1793)

76
NEW REPUBLIC
  • 1789 - 1801

77
U.S. CONSTITUTION
  • Philadelphia
  • A bundle of compromises
  • Great Compromise
  • Large States vs. Small States
  • US Senate Equal representation
  • House of Representatives
  • Representation based on population
  • 3/5 Compromise Slaves
  • Commerce Compromise
  • Congress regulates Commerce
  • George Washington

78
FEDERALISTS VS. ANTI-FEDERALTISTS
  • The fight was over the lack of a Bill of Rights
    in the US Constitution
  • Federalists
  • Anti-Federalists
  • The Federalists Papers
  • Ratification

79
BILL OF RIGHTS
  • 1st Amendment
  • 2nd Amendment
  • 4th Amendment
  • 5th Amendment
  • 10th Amendment

80
HAMILTONS FINANCIAL PLAN
  • Funding at Par
  • Government purchases war bonds at face value
  • Original bondholders (Vets) had sold at lesser
    value
  • Eastern investors benefited
  • Assumption Plan
  • Federal government assume states debts
  • National debt would cement the union
  • Northern states happy they had debt
  • Southern states not happy paid their debts
  • District of Columbia created in the South

81
  • Tariffs
  • Imports at 8
  • Protection of industries was secondary
  • Excise Taxes
  • Tax on Whiskey
  • Western farmers used whiskey to barter
  • Frontier America were Anti-Federalists
  • National Bank
  • Federal Government deposits revenues into Bank
  • Banks used Federal funds to stimulate the economy
    (loans)
  • Loose Interpretation of the US Constitution
  • Federal Power
  • Elastic Clause
  • Encourages Business

82
Hamiltonians
  • Rule by the best people
  • Distrust of the Common Man (Democracy)
  • Strong Military (Whiskey Rebellion)
  • Strong Central Government
  • Pro-British

83
Jeffersonian Republicans
  • Government for the people
  • Yeoman farmer/laborer
  • Best government, governs the least
  • National debt was curse for future generations
  • Freedom of Speech (Alien and Sedition Acts)
  • Pro-French
  • Nullification (Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions)
  • Pro-Immigrants
  • Reduce the size of the military

84
WASHINGTON FOREIGN
  • Neutrality Proclamation
  • Stay out of European wars
  • Protection of trade
  • Citizen Genet
  • Jays Treaty
  • Brits maintain forts in Old NW
  • Brits armed Indians
  • Brits captured ships and impressments
  • Brits refused to stop

85
  • Brits to re-paid pre-revolutionary debts
  • Jeffersonians outraged New Party
  • War with Britain averted
  • Pinckneys Treaty
  • Spain grants access to Mississippi
  • Land in Florida given to US
  • Fear of US-Anglo alliance (Jays Treaty)

86
WASHINGTON DOMESTIC
  • Cabinet divided between Hamilton and Jefferson
  • Hamilton favored the wealthy
  • Hamilton favored manufacturing
  • Whiskey Rebellion
  • Ensured domestic tranquility
  • No Shays Rebellion
  • Federalist and Democratic Republican Parties form
  • Indian problem solved

87
  • Washingtons Farewell Address
  • Opposed political parties
  • Warned against permanent treaties

88
JOHN ADAMS
  • Election of 1796
  • Adams vs. Jefferson
  • Jefferson Vice President
  • Alien and Sedition Acts
  • Reduce the power of TJ and anti-war protests
  • Alien Act
  • Naturalization process increased to 14 years
  • Deport dangerous aliens
  • Anti-Immigrants that was pro-Jefferson
  • Sedition Act
  • Criticism of president No No
  • Editors for Jefferson went to prison

89
  • Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
  • Said Alien and Sedition Acts unconstitutional
  • States can nullify Congressional laws
  • Jefferson/Madison wrote them in secret
  • The Compact Theory (John Locke)
  • 13 states created national government
  • States are the final judges of laws
  • Not accepted by other states
  • War with France
  • Anti-Jay treaty
  • XYZ Affair creates war hysteria
  • Quasi Naval War Undeclared Naval War

90
  • Convention of 1800
  • Ends the Franco-American Alliance
  • Judiciary Act of 1801
  • Midnight Judges
  • Federalists judges appointed by Adams
  • John Marshall becomes Chief Justice of the
    Supreme Court
  • Marbury v. Madison

91
AGE OF JEFFERSON
  • 1801 - 1824

92
Election of 1800
  • The Revolution
  • Jefferson defeats Adams
  • Hamilton helps TJ become president over Burr
  • Peaceful change of power
  • We are all Republicans, We are all Federalists
  • Albert Gallatin (Treasury) Reduce the debt
  • Encouraged an Agrarian nation
  • Yeoman Farmer
  • Repealed the Judiciary Act of 1801

93
  • Slashed the military budget
  • Retained most of Hamiltons plans
  • Assumption Plan
  • Funding at Par
  • National Bank
  • Tariff
  • Repealed the Whiskey Excise Tax
  • National Road
  • Embargo Act
  • States Rights

94
LOUISIANA PURCHASE
  • TJ wanted New Orleans and Florida
  • Napoleon sold Louisiana (15M)
  • Strict vs. Loose Interpretation
  • Federalist opposed
  • Mississippi River
  • Westward expansion for Farmer
  • Relocation of Indians
  • Ended European expansion in US
  • Avoided war with France
  • Lewis and Clark

95
AARON BURR
  • Essex Junto
  • Radical Federalist plot secession
  • Louisiana Purchase will weaken NE power
  • Plotters wanted Hamilton, then Burr
  • Hamilton beats Burr in NY Governors race
  • Burr kills Hamilton
  • Burr conspires to separate US

96
JOHN MARSHALL
  • Federalist Chief Justice
  • Wanted a strong National Government
  • Marbury v. Madison
  • McCulloch v. Maryland
  • Dartmouth College v. Woodward
  • Gibbons v. Ogden

97
OGRABME
  • Impressments
  • Americans sailors forced into British navy
  • 6K sailors, many died
  • Continental System (Napoleonic War)
  • Napoleon closed all European ports to Britain
  • Napoleon outlawed all trade with Britain
  • US Ships would be confiscated
  • Orders in Council
  • Brits order US Ships to stop in England first
  • US Ships will be confiscated

98
  • Chesapeake-Leopard Affair
  • Brits fired on US Ship (Chesapeake)
  • Brits looking for deserters
  • TJ readied for war (Military???)
  • Embargo Act (1807)
  • TJ forbids all US exports
  • TJ wanted France and England to respect US
    trading rights as a neutral
  • TJ was regulating the economy
  • It almost destroys the US economy
  • It starts the 1st Industrial Revolution
  • Hamiltons Dream

99
  • Non-Intercourse Act (1809)
  • Replaced Embargo Act
  • Opened trade to all except Britain and France
  • Macons Bill 2 (1810)
  • Replaced Non-Intercourse Act
  • First to respect US trading rights gets US trade
  • Napoleon jumps at it
  • War with Britain is non inevitable

100
WAR OF 1812
  • War Hawks
  • Young congressmen from the South and West
  • Remembered the Glory of their fathers
  • Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun
  • Madisons War Message
  • Remove the Indian threat
  • End Impressments
  • Acquire Canada and Florida
  • Respect US trading rights
  • Tecumseh and the Prophet
  • Battle of Tippecanoe

101
  • Washington D.C. Brits burned the White House
  • Francis Scott Key Star Spangled Banner

102
HARTFORD CONVENTION
  • New England Federalists Hartford Convention
  • NE hinders war effort
  • Federalist party losing influence
  • Urged secession
  • Wanted financial help from government from the
    loss of trade
  • End the 3/5 Compromise
  • Change the voting rules
  • 2/3 vote required
  • Embargo, War, etc.

103
  • Limit the President to one term
  • Federalists demands delivered after the war is
    over
  • Federalist Party becomes a regional party that is
    dying

104
TREATY OF GHENT
  • Restoration of conquered territory
  • No mention of American grievances
  • US allowed to fish off of Cape Cod

105
NEW ORLEANS
  • General Jackson defeats Brits in 30 minutes
  • Nationalism and Pride
  • Jackson is a War Hero
  • War was already over when battle occurs

106
NATIONALISM AND ECONOMIC EXPANSION
  • The American System (Henry Clay)
  • Tariff of 1816
  • Protect Infant Industries
  • Internal Improvements
  • Canals and Roads
  • 2nd National Bank
  • Clay wanted to connect the regions
  • Eastern trade/industry will flourish
  • Roads will connect South and West
  • Foodstuffs would travel to South and East

107
  • Election of 1820
  • Near unanimous election of James Monroe
  • No Federalist party candidate
  • Elimination of property qualifications for voting
  • John C. Calhoun
  • Nationalists in 1816
  • Favored States Rights in 1820s
  • Monroe Doctrine
  • Told Europe to keep hands off of Latin American
    democracies
  • No new colonies

108
ERA OF GOOD FEELINGS
  • Post war Euphoria
  • July 4th celebrated
  • Uncle Sam
  • Star Spangled Banner
  • Flag
  • Eagle
  • Dictionary
  • July 4th, 1826

109
  • Era of Good Feelings was a misnomer
  • Sectionalism
  • East Industry/Trade
  • West Breadbasket
  • South Cotton
  • Tariff Hurt the South
  • Internal Improvements
  • Favored the West
  • National Bank
  • Eastern Bankers vs. Farmers
  • Sale of Public Lands
  • Favored West over New England

110
  • Panic of 1819
  • Slavery North vs. South
  • One Party Politics in 1820
  • Clay, Calhoun, John Quincy Adams and Jackson
  • Two party system on its way back

111
PANIC OF 1819
  • Hostility between West and East
  • Over-speculation on Western lands
  • Inflation and Economic drop off after war
  • BUS forced state banks to repay loans in specie
  • State banks forced farmers to repay loans in
    specie
  • Farmers lost their farms no specie

112
SECTIONALISM
113
MISSOURI COMPROMISE1820
  • Henry Clay the Great Compromiser
  • No slavery north of 36-30
  • Maine enters as Free State
  • Missouri enters as Slave State
  • Firebell in the night
  • Talmadge Amendment
  • Slavery becomes a national issue

114
CANADA AND FLORIDA
  • Adams-Otis Treaty
  • 1st Seminole War
  • General Jackson
  • Florida
  • Texas
  • fad

115
ELECTION OF 1824
  • Corrupt Bargain
  • Tariff of Abominations (1828)
  • South Carolinas Exposition

116
ROADS AND CANALS
  • Raw materials to the East
  • Products transported to the West and South
  • Each area was regionalized
  • Turnpikes
  • National Road (Federally funded)
  • Canals
  • Erie Canal (DeWitt Clintons Big Ditch)
  • Rivers
  • Steamboats (Clermont)

117
FACTORY SYSTEM
  • Samuel Slater
  • Eli Whitney
  • Sewing Machine
  • Telegraph
  • Lowell System
  • Why in New England

118
LABOR MOVEMENT
  • Northern workers immigrants
  • Wage slaves
  • Conditions
  • Worker desires
  • Higher wages
  • Better working conditions
  • Shorter hours
  • Free education for their children

119
COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
  • Western Farmers
  • West becomes breadbasket
  • John Deere Plow
  • Cyrus McCormick Reaper
  • Cash-crops

120
ANTEBELLUM SOUTH
121
KING COTTON
  • 1793 Eli Whitneys Cotton Gin
  • Land explosion
  • Slaves needed
  • 50X more effective
  • Panic of 1857

122
TRADE AND INDUSTRY
  • England 80 of Southern Cotton
  • North Textile Mills
  • 57 of US Exports Cotton

123
SOCIETY
  • Plantation Owners ruled the South
  • 1 owned 100 slaves
  • 67 of slave owners owned less than 10
  • Social status determined by ownership of slaves
  • 75 did not own slaves, but most hoped to
  • The poorest whites White trash
  • Mountain Whites Unionists
  • Immigrants not welcomed

124
Southern Free Blacks
  • Purchased their freedom
  • Mulattoes
  • New Orleans
  • Some owned businesses and slaves
  • Fear of a return to slavery
  • Fewer released after Nat Turner

125
Northern Free Blacks
  • Discrimination
  • Limited education and sufferage
  • Segregation
  • Irish

126
PECULIAR INSTITUTION
  • Slavery
  • Risk Injuries, Death Runaways
  • One crop economy
  • Natural reproduction Increase 600
  • Miscegnation
  • Slave Auction Horrific

127
BURDENS OF SLAVERY
  • Loss of dignity
  • Punishment
  • Denied education
  • Sabotage/Slow down
  • Runaways
  • Florida, North, Canada
  • Stono Revolts Slave Codes
  • Denmark VEsey
  • Nat Turner Harsh Laws post 1830

128
THE NORTH
129
LABOR AND IMMIGRATION
130
URBAN SLUMS
131
NORTHWEST AGRICULTURE
132
AGRICULTURAL FRONTIER
133
LIFE ON THE FRONTIER
134
AGE OF JACKSON
135
DEMOCRACY AND THE COMMON MAN
  • Government by the people
  • Property qualifications removed
  • Universal white manhood sufferage
  • Panic of 1819 hurt the farmers
  • Voter turnout high in the West
  • 2-party system emerged (1832)
  • Campaigning and Nominating Conventions
    (Anti-Masons)
  • Political Power shift from East to West
  • Anti-American System

136
  • Andrew Jackson uses the Veto (King Andrew I)
  • Spoils System
  • Rotation in Office
  • Kitchen Cabinet

137
SECOND PARTY SYSTEM
  • Texas
  • Stephen Austin
  • Alamo
  • San Jacinto
  • Slavery
  • Election of 1836
  • Whigs
  • Democrats

138
STATES RIGHTS
  • Webster-Hayne Debate
  • States Rights Debate
  • Tariff
  • Nullification
  • Liberty and Union, now and Forever
  • Daniel Webster
  • End of John C. Calhoun
  • Jefferson Day Toast (States Rights)
  • Peggy Eaton Affair
  • Tariff of 1832
  • Maysville Road Veto

139
NULLIFICATION CRISIS1832-33
  • Jackson lowers the tariff of abominations (1828)
  • South Carolina wanted to nullify this new tariff
  • Talk of secession
  • Jackson vs. Calhoun
  • Henry Clays Tariff of 1833
  • Force Bill of 1833

140
THE BANK WAR
  • Jackson is anti-monopolies
  • Jackson favors laissez faire
  • Jackson distrusts the BUS
  • Clay wants to re-charter the BUS
  • Jackson vetoes the Bank
  • Nicholas Biddle
  • Pet Banks
  • Loans recalled
  • Election of 1832 issue

141
MARTIN VAN BUREN
  • Jacksons Specie Circular
  • Panic of 1837
  • Over-speculation
  • Bank War
  • Specie Circular
  • Treasury Bill (Divorce Bill)
  • Independent Treasury System

142
AMERICAN CULTUREANTEBELLUM PERIOD
  • Age of Jackson

143
EDUCATION
  • Tax supported Education North
  • Urban workers
  • Horace Mann
  • Normal Schools
  • Slaves Forbidden
  • Noah Webster Dictionary
  • McGuffey Readers
  • Grade School
  • Morality, Patriotism and Idealism
  • 2nd Great Awakening New Colleges
  • Lyceum Movement Adult education
  • Oberlin college Men, Women Blacks

144
RELIGION
  • 2nd Great Awakening starts the reform movements
  • Burned over District
  • Hellfire and Damnation sermons
  • Western New York

145
UTOPIA
  • New Harmony
  • Robert Owen
  • Kindergarten
  • Free Public School and Library
  • Communistic
  • Brook Farm
  • Transcendentalists

146
  • Oneida Colony
  • Free love, birth control and eugenics
  • Equality of the genders
  • Communal marriages
  • Silverware
  • Shakers
  • Communistic
  • Anti-Marriage
  • Anti-sex
  • Adopted Orphans
  • Equality of the sexes

147
  • Mormons
  • Joseph Smith
  • Brigham Young
  • Utah
  • Polygamy

148
TRANSCENDENTALISTS
  • Truth transcends the senses
  • Inner light illuminates the truth
  • Direct touch with God
  • Taught Self-reliance, Self-improvement and
    Self-Culture
  • Ralph Waldo Emerson
  • Henry David Thoreau

149
CULTURE
  • Hudson River Valley Landscapes
  • Architecture Neo-Classical
  • Thomas Jefferson Monticello

150
WOMEN
  • Republican Motherhood
  • Cult of Domesticity
  • Glorified Homemaker
  • Industrial Revolution
  • Separated the sexes
  • Fought for Prohibition and Abolition
  • Leaders
  • Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton
  • Susan B. Anthony
  • Grimke Sisters

151
  • Lucy Stone
  • Amelia Bloomer
  • Margaret Fuller
  • Seneca Falls Convention
  • Declaration of Sentiments
  • Womens Right Movement
  • Catherine Beecher
  • Request Inventors help the homemaker
  • Result More work

152
  • Social
  • College
  • Emma Willard Troy Seminary
  • Oberlin College
  • Property
  • Marriage and Children
  • 10 avoided marriage
  • Child centered family
  • Average of kids drop from 6 to 4.6

153
ABOLITIONISM
  • Quakers
  • American Colonization Society
  • Re-colonization to Africa
  • Liberia American born free blacks
  • Why support for return to Africa?
  • could not co-exist with whites ()
  • Fear of mongrelization of the races
  • William Lloyd Garrison editor of the Liberator
  • Demanded the uncompensated release of the slaves
  • Demanded North secede from the Union

154
  • American Anti-Slavery Society
  • Wendell Phillips pushed for the Emancipation
    Proclamation
  • Grimke Sisters Southern Abolitionists
  • Sojourner Truth Abolitionist and Womens Rights
    advocate
  • Frederick Douglass
  • Editor of the North Star
  • Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass
  • Escaped slave
  • Hoped politics would end slavery
  • Pushed for colored troops

155
TEMPERANCE
  • Alcohol abuse Hurt Work/Family
  • American Temperance Society
  • Temperance Moderation
  • Prohibition No Alcohol
  • Neal S. Dow
  • Father of Prohibition
  • Maine Laws

156
DOROTHEA DIX
  • She proved that the mentally ill were clinically
    insane and not perverse
  • Prison Reform
  • Auburn System
  • Rehabilitation not punishment

157
LABOR AND IMMIGRATION
  • Old Immigrants
  • Northern and Western Europeans
  • Germans
  • Largest group in the 19th century
  • Farmers Midwest
  • Education
  • Abolitionists
  • Protestants
  • High assimilation
  • Beer

158
  • Irish
  • Potato famine
  • Largest immigrant group in antebellum
  • Large cities (NYC and Boston)
  • Catholic and poor faced discrimination
  • Took jobs at lower pay
  • Competed with Blacks for jobs
  • Race riot during Civil War (Draft)
  • Democrat
  • Police
  • Anti-British

159
NATIVISM
  • Feared overpopulation and political control by
    foreigners
  • Anti-Catholic (Largest church in US)
  • Order of the Star Spangled Banner
  • Know-Nothing Party
  • Wanted restrictions on Immigration

160
MANIFEST DESTINY
161
THE MISSION
  • God chose Americans to control the Western
    hemisphere
  • TOM
  • James K. Polk Jacksonian expansionist Democrat
  • COIL

162
TRAIL OF TEARS
  • Thomas Jefferson
  • Andrew Jackson
  • Indian Removal Act
  • 5 Civilized Tribes
  • Indian Territory (Oklahoma)
  • Cherokees
  • Seminoles

163
WESTWARD EXPANSION
  • Fur Trappers
  • Farmers
  • Oregon
  • Gold
  • 49ers
  • Trails
  • Oregon
  • Sante Fe
  • Mormon
  • California

164
TEXAS
  • Stephen Austin
  • Catholic, No slaves, follow laws of Mexico
  • Yeah that didnt happen
  • Alamo
  • San Jacinto
  • Election of 1836
  • Jackson fears anti-slave vote
  • Statehood Mexico threatens war
  • Europe Alliances

165
  • 1844 election
  • Key issue is Texas and slavery
  • Polk wins because Clay waffles in NY
  • John Tyler
  • Joint Resolution
  • Mandate from 1844 election of Polk

166
OREGON
  • Fur Trade
  • Spain, Russia, Britain and US
  • Oregon Trail
  • Polk 54 40
  • 49th parallel averted war

167
MEXICAN WAR
  • Slidell Mission to buy California
  • Trade with the Orient
  • Bear Flag Revolt
  • Spot Resolutions
  • Henry David Thoreau
  • Civil Disobedience
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
  • Mexican Cession

168
  • Wilmot Proviso
  • No slavery in territory acquired from Mexico
  • Defeated in the Senate
  • Zachary Taylor
  • Training ground for military officers

169
1850s FOREIGN POLICY
  • Commodore Matthew Perry Japan
  • Ostend Manifest Cuba
  • Clayton-Bulwer Treaty Canal

170
THE CRISIS OF THE UNION
  • 1850s

171
Pro-Slavery Arguments
  • 1820s Southern anti-slavery societies were
    abundant
  • 1830s anti-slavery societies were gone (Nat
    Turner Rebellion)
  • Nullification Crisis 1832 (States Rights)
  • Abolitionists literature banned

172
  • LEGAL
  • Northwest Ordinance (1787)
  • Banned slavery only in the North
  • Constitution No mention of slavery
  • Three-Fifths Compromise
  • Slaves were only part of the census
  • Missouri Compromise
  • Slavery allowed South of 36-30
  • Gag Resolution (1836) Congress
  • Prigg v. Pennsylvania
  • Compromise of 1850 Fugitive Slave Act

173
  • Popular Sovereignty
  • Territories vote on slavery
  • Dred Scott
  • Supreme Court ruled slaves were property
  • Supreme Court ruled slavery allowed in ALL
    territories
  • RELIGIOUS/HISTORY
  • Bible
  • Slavery was in the Bible (Genesis)
  • Jesus did not oppose slavery
  • Obey Your Masters

174
  • Southern Preachers
  • In Africa they were heathens and cannibals
  • Slavery civilized them and gave them Christianity
  • Greeks and Romans
  • Aristotle approved of slavery
  • Had Slaves
  • ECONOMIC
  • Property Dred Scott
  • Textile Mills New England dependent of cotton
    from the slavery

175
  • Banks
  • Loans given for land and slaves
  • 57 of exports
  • Panic of 1857
  • SOCIAL
  • Slaves were considered family
  • Slaves were said to be happy compared to the
    northern wage slaves
  • Work in fresh air vs. stuffy factories
  • Full employment for Blacks
  • Cradle to Grave care given (Chattel)

176
Compromise of 1850
  • California
  • Henry Clay
  • John C. Calhoun
  • Wanted two presidents
  • secessionist
  • Daniel Webster
  • 7th of March Speech
  • Climate

177
  • POPFACT
  • Popular Sovereignty in the territories
  • Fugitive Slave Act
  • Abolition of slave trade in D.C.
  • California enters as free state
  • Texas gets 10M for NM territory
  • Fugitive Slave Act Most Hated
  • Personal Liberty Laws North
  • Harriet Beecher Stowes Uncle Toms Cabin
  • Horrors of slavery
  • Slave trade broken families
  • Written in response to Fugitive Slave Act

178
Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854)
  • Stephen Douglas Northern Pacific RR
  • Popular Soveignty
  • Lecompton Constitution
  • Bleeding Kansas
  • Burning of Lawrence
  • Pottawtomie Creek Massacre John Brown
  • Sumner-Brooks Caning
  • Crime Against Kansas Speech in Congress

179
  • Repealed the Missouri Compromise
  • Birth of Republican Party

180
Republican Party
  • Non-extension of slavery into the territories
  • Free-Soil Party, Northern Whigs and Democrats
  • Homestead for western farmers
  • Immigrants
  • Northern Pacific RR

181
DRED SCOTT
  • Missouri Compromise line unconstitutional
  • All blacks denied citizenship
  • Free Soil does not make a black a free man
  • Slaves are considered property

182
Abraham Lincoln
  • Lincoln-Douglas Debates (1858)
  • Freeport Doctrine
  • Douglas wants popular Sovereignty
  • Douglas opposes Lecompton constitution and Dred
    Scott decision
  • Douglas wins election for Illinois Senate race,
    but Lincoln will win the Presidency
  • Election of 1860

183
Election of 1860 Secession
  • Northern Democrats Stephen Douglas
  • Southern Democrats John Breckinridge
  • Constitutional Union John Bell
  • Republicans
  • Lincoln not on ballot in South
  • Lincoln wins and South Carolina secedes a month
    later
  • James Buchanan
  • Crittenden Compromise
  • Extend 36-30 to California
  • Lincoln rejects compromise

184
THE CIVIL WAR
  • 1861 - 1865

185
Mobilization and Resources
  • Lincoln promises not to abolish slavery
  • In 1861 Lincoln wants to preserve the union
  • In 1863 Free the Slaves
  • Union Forces
  • 90 volunteers
  • Substitutions
  • Conscription Laws
  • Southern Forces
  • Volunteers
  • Poor man fighting a rich mans war
  • Pride, Honor, protect the way of life

186
  • Finances
  • 1st Income Tax
  • Ended after war
  • Morrill Tariff
  • Republicans loved high tariffs
  • Greenbacks replaced gold
  • National Banking System
  • In place until 1913
  • Confederacy
  • Runaway inflation

187
Internal Dissent
  • Copperheads
  • NYC Draft Riots

188
Military Strategies
  • Anaconda Plan Blockade of the South
  • Fort Sumter
  • Antietam Emancipation Proclamation
  • Gettysburg Turning Point
  • Vicksburg Control of the Mississippi
  • Shermans March to the Sea
  • Appomattox Court House

189
Foreign Policy
  • The Trent Affair
  • C.S.S. Alabama
  • Charles Francis Adams
  • Emancipation Proclamation Uncle Toms Cabin
  • France in Mexico

190
Emancipation Proclamation
  • Antietam
  • Freed slaves in areas under control
  • No slaves freed in Confederacy
  • Contraband
  • African Americans (54th Massachusetts)
  • 10 of Union Army
  • Less Pay
  • White officers
  • 13th Amendment

191
Social, Political and Economic
  • Exodusters
  • Industry
  • Northern Wartime to peace time
  • Homestead Act Farmers
  • Morrill Land Grant Education
  • Pacific Railway Act Northern RR
  • Republicans dominate party

192
RECONSTRUCTION
  • 1865 - 1877

193
Presidential Radical Reconstruction Plans
  • 13th Amendment Abolishment of slavery
  • 14th Amendment Civil Rights and Citizenship for
    African-Americans
  • 15th Amendment Voting Rights for Black males
  • Black Codes Old Slave Codes
  • Grandfather clause
  • Literacy Test
  • Poll Tax

194
  • Lincolns 10 Plan
  • Andrew Johnson
  • Continued Lincolns plan
  • Disenfranchised Leading Confederates
  • Pardoned Planter Aristocrats
  • Racist president
  • Wade Davis Bill
  • Radical Republicans
  • Required 50 of voters
  • State Suicide Theory
  • Wanted South as a conquered territories
  • Vetoed by Lincoln

195
  • Radical Republicans wanted to punish the South
    and control the government
  • Military Reconstruction Acts
  • Military Districts
  • Disenfranchisement
  • Required ratification of 14th Amendment
  • Full suffrage for Blacks
  • Opposed by Johnson

196
  • Impeachment of Andrew Johnson
  • President battles with Congress
  • Office of Tenure Act
  • Secretary of War Edwin Stanton
  • House and Senate votes
  • Supreme Court
  • Slaughterhouse Cases
  • Civil Rights Cases
  • Plessy v. Ferguson

197
Southern State Governments
  • Freedmans Bureau
  • Northern whites wanted to help the freedmen
    survive
  • Food, clothing and Education
  • 200K taught to read (Bible)
  • 40 acres and a mule
  • Negotiated labor contracts in favor of white
    landowner
  • Carpetbaggers
  • Northern whites

198
  • Scalawags
  • Southern Republicans
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