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The American Revolution

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Chapter 4 The American Revolution iRespond Question Master A.) Response A B.) Response B C.) Response C D.) Response D E.) Response E Percent Complete 100% 00:30 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The American Revolution


1
Chapter 4
  • The American Revolution

2
1. Causes
  • Burden of French Indian War (7 Years War)
  • Series of new taxes George Grenville
  • Sugar Act prosecute smugglers hoped colonists
    would pay (cost was lower)
  • Quartering Act had to house British soldiers
  • Stamp Act Tax on all printed materials
    (newspapers, books, deeds, contracts, etc.) a
    direct tax
  • http//www.history.com/videos/colonists-protest-br
    itish-policies
  • Angry protest threatened prosperity and liberty
  • No taxation without representation in Parliament

3
Causes cont.
  • Parliament dismissed argument reaffirmed their
    right to tax, didnt understand the fuss
  • Enlightenment ideas growing govt. exists to
    serve the people protect rights
  • Sons of Liberty patriot group (Samuel Adams)
    began to work to fight taxes
  • Attacked stamp collectors wrote defiant
    pamphlets
  • Stamp Act Congress - Organized boycotts
    (non-importation) of British products very
    effective!
  • Parliament repeals Stamp Act

4
Causes cont.
  • Townshend Acts new taxes (duties) on glass,
    lead, paint, paper, tea
  • Used to pay colonial governors
  • New protests, boycotts, violence
  • Many troops stationed in Boston to control riots
    presence angered colonists
  • Boston Massacre 5 colonists killed by British
  • http//www.history.com/shows/america-the-story-of-
    us/videos/boston-massacre
  • Committees of Correspondence organized urging
    cooperation between colonists

5
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6
Causes cont.
  • Parliament withdrew troops and taxes except on
    tea (smuggled from Dutch)
  • Declaratory Act Parliament CAN tax
  • New boycotts British East India Company would
    sell directly to colonists (lower )
  • Colonists resented the monopoly
  • Boston Tea Party colonists dumped tea into
    harbor, burned 3 ships
  • http//www.history.com/videos/the-sons-of-liberty-
    and-the-boston-tea-party
  • Parliament outraged passed Coercive Acts

7
Boston Tea Party
8
Causes cont.
  • Closed harbor until tea was paid for, increased
    power of governor, sent ships and troops to
    Boston, forced colonists to house British troops,
    officials were tried in British courts (so what?)
  • Colonists called these the Intolerable Acts
  • Outrage and more violence (tar feather)
  • 1774 First Continental Congress meets

9
Causes cont.
  • Patrick Henry, Give me liberty or give me death
  • Colonies finally begin to come together as
    Americans

10
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11
2. Declaring Independence
  • Thomas Gage (military commander) became governor
    of Massachusetts
  • Colonial leaders stockpiled weapons (led by John
    Hancock and Samuel Adams)
  • British went to seize the men
  • Alerted by Paul Revere militia summoned
    (minutemen)
  • 1775 - Battles of Lexington and Concord British
    stunned by colonial will to fight
  • http//www.history.com/videos/first-revolutionary-
    battle-at-lexington--concord
  • Shot heard around the world

12
2. cont.
  • Loyalists (Tories) fled or hid
  • Second Continental Congress
  • Continental Army created
  • George Washington named commander
  • Olive Branch Petition allegiance to king but
    not Parliament King George III rejected it
  • Loyalists feared chaos war some saw patriots
    as brutal uncontrollable

13
2. cont.
  • Thomas Paines Common Sense pamphlet sways public
    opinion radical
  • Proposed independence
  • Republican government
  • Union of new states
  • Hoped to inspire people everywhere to reject
    aristocrats, kings, privilege

14
2. cont.
  • Thomas Jefferson drafts the Declaration of
    Independence
  • Preamble reason for writing it
  • Unalienable (natural rights)
  • Born with natural rights
  • Governments exist by consent of the governed
  • Governments job is to protect our rights
  • If they fail, they can be replaced
  • Grievances against the king
  • Declaration of their independence
  • http//www.history.com/videos/jefferson-writes-dec
    laration-of-independence

15
2. cont.
  • Signed July 4, 1776
  • 3 Georgians Gwinnet, Walton, Hall
  • Now that they have declared independence they
    have to fight for it

16
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17
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18
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19
3. Turning Points of War
  • British advantages
  • Established govt.
  • More ships, weapons, well trained army
  • Colonists had militia, economic problems, no
    strong government
  • Underestimated colonists fought a traditional
    war capture seaports, defeat army and colonies
    would surrender
  • But they kept fighting
  • British hired Hessians (German mercenaries)

20
3. cont.
  • Patriot advantages
  • Persistence
  • Fighting at home
  • Leadership of Washington despite losing many
    battles inspiration to his men
  • Guerilla tactics
  • Help from civilian population, especially women
  • Fighting for their way of life (rabbit fox)
  • Persistence and tenacity!
  • Later French aid

21
3. cont.
  • Battle of Bunker Hill moral victory for
    colonists killed many British
  • http//www.history.com/videos/britain-wins-a-costl
    y-victory-at-bunker-hill
  • Gen. Howe attacks New York City to cut off New
    England from rest of colonies Washington forced
    to retreat across NJ
  • Christmas night (1776) Washington crosses
    Delaware River, surprises Hessians at Battle of
    Trenton
  • Great boost to morale
  • Saratoga (on Hudson River) turning point showed
    that the colonists just might win (video clip
    next slide)
  • French Alliance

22
http//www.history.com/videos/george-washington-ma
kes-surprise-attack-on-trenton
23
3. cont.
  • Foreign aid helps colonists (Ben Franklin)
  • French hoped to weaken their old enemy
  • Marquis de Lafayette military skill
  • G.W. loses Philadelphia spent horrible winter at
    Valley Forge frozen starving
  • Baron von Steuben - German leader drilled
    disciplined the soldiers

24
3. cont.
  • War spreads to frontier settlers had moved west
  • George Rogers Clark captures Ohio Valley
  • Indians sided with GB in most cases attacked
    patriots consistently
  • Final battle Yorktown (w/ French help)
  • Cornwallis surrenders to Washington end of war

25
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26
Treaty of Paris (Franklin, Adams, Jay)
  • GB recognizes American independence
  • Great Lakes northern boundary
  • Mississippi River western boundary
  • Spain kept Florida (had helped colonists)
  • British have Canada
  • US agrees to end persecution of Loyalists
  • All POWs released

27
4. Wars End
  • Most loyalists thought patriots were too radical
  • Some loyalists joined patriot side (blamed
    British for chaos)
  • Cornwallis abandons south heads for VA
  • Defeated at Yorktown by Washington aided by
    French
  • Treaty of Paris 1783 independence and new
    boundaries

28
4. cont.
  • British
  • Lost war and colonies
  • Patriots
  • Independence, new territory, some gained more
    political rights economic benefits of western
    expansion
  • French
  • Unhappy that they didnt have a part in the
    negotiations
  • Revolution in 1789
  • Loyalists
  • Retaliation and vengeance became refugees,
    resettled in British northern territory (Canada)
  • African Americans
  • Seen as hypocrisy (equal) North passed
    anti-slave laws
  • Some re-enslaved in W. Indies or sold to south
  • Some released voluntarily manumission
  • Inspired many to demand freedom but slavery grows
    in the South

29
4. cont.
  • Women
  • Few legal rights but gained respect encouraged
    them to speak out on issues and seek further
    voice in public affairs
  • Native Americans
  • Abandoned by British treaty ignored them
  • Left vulnerable to American attacks gave up much
    land
  • Other Countries
  • Inspired by Am. Rev to overthrow kings and
    aristocrats
  • France
  • 19th C Latin America
  • 20th C Asia and Africa
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