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The American Revolution

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Title: The American Revolution Author: Ms. Susan M. Pojer Last modified by: Swartz Creek ITS Created Date: 10/4/2004 1:45:56 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The American Revolution


1
The American Revolution 1775-1783
Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua,
NY
2
On the Eve of the Revolution ?
Britain Americans
Advantages Worlds best army and navy Fighting on own land and pop. Spread out
Disadvantages Underes-timated the rebellion force Military lacked organization
3
Loyalist and Torie Strongholds
4
Washingtons Headaches
  • Only 1/3 of the colonists were in favor of a war
    for independence the other third were Loyalists,
    and the final third were neutral.
  • State/colony loyalties.
  • Congress couldnt tax to raise money for the
    Continental Army.
  • Poor training until the arrival of Baron von
    Steuben.

5
Patriot Army
  • 200,000 men saw battle
  • 100,000 served in Continental Army (Gen.
    Washington)
  • Rest served as militia

6
British Army
  • 12,000 British soldiers
  • 50,000 Loyalists
  • 40,000 German mercenaries (Hessians)

7
Exports Imports 1768-1783
8
Military Strategies
The Americans
The British
  • Attrition the Brits had a long supply line.
  • Guerilla tactics fight an insurgent war ? you
    dont have to win a battle, just wear the British
    down
  • Make an alliance with one of Britains enemies.
  • Break the colonies in half by getting between the
    No. the So.
  • Blockade the ports to prevent the flow of goods
    and supplies from an ally.
  • Divide and Conquer ? use the Loyalists.

9
Phase I The Northern Campaign 1775-1776
10
Bunker Hill aka. Breeds Hill (June, 1775)
Gen . Howe and British win the battle Over 40
casualties.
11
Phase II NY PA 1777-1778
12
New York City in Flames (1776)
  • British land 32,000 men (1/3 Hessians)
  • Patriots retreat as Cornwallis moves into city

13
Washington Crossing the Delaware
Painted by Emanuel Leutze, 1851
14
Saratoga Turning Point of the War?
A modern-day re-enactment
15
Phase III The Southern Strategy 1780-1781
16
Britains Southern Strategy
  • Britain thought that there were more Loyalists in
    the South.
  • Southern resources were more valuable/worth
    preserving.
  • The British win a number of small victories, but
    cannot pacify the countryside similar to U. S.
    failures in Vietnam!
  • Good US General Nathanial Greene

17
The Battle of Yorktown (1781)
Count de Rochambeau
Admiral De Grasse
18
Cornwallis Surrender at Yorktown
The World Turned Upside Down!
Painted by John Trumbull, 1797
19
Why did the British Lose???
20
North America After the Treaty of Paris, 1783
21
Articles of Confederation Government 1781-1789
22
Wholesale Price Index 1770-1789
23
Federalist vs. Anti-Federalist Strongholds at the
End of the War
24
Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation
  • A unicameral Congress 9 of 13 votes to pass a
    law.
  • 13 out of 13 to amend.
  • Representatives were frequently absent.
  • Could not tax or raise armies.
  • No executive or judicial branches.

25
State Constitutions
  • Republicanism.
  • Most had strong governors with veto power.
  • Most had bicameral legislatures.
  • Property required for voting.
  • Some had universal white male suffrage.
  • Most had bills of rights.
  • Many had a continuation of state-established
    religions while others disestablished religion.

26
Occupational Composition of Several State
Assemblies in the 1780s
27
Indian Land Cessions 1768-1799
28
Disputed Territorial Claims Between Spain the
U. S. 1783-1796
29
State Claims to Western Lands
30
Northwest Ordinance of 1785
31
The United States in 1787
32
American Exports, To From Britain 1783-1789
33
Annapolis Convention (1786)
  • 12 representatives from 5 states NY, NJ, PA, DE,
    VA
  • GOAL ? address barriers that limited trade and
    commerce between the states.
  • Not enough states were represented to make any
    real progress.
  • Sent a report to the Congress to call a meeting
    of all the states to meet in Philadelphia to
    examine areas broader than just trade and
    commerce.

34
Shays Rebellion 1786-7
  • Daniel Shays
  • Western MA
  • Small farmers angered by crushing debts and taxes.

35
Shays Rebellion 1786-7
36
Shays Rebellion 1786-7
There could be no stronger evidence of the want
of energy in our governments than these disorders.
-- George Washington
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