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The Church

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Title: The Church


1
The Church
  • Sacrament of Salvation

2
The Church
  • Chapter 6

3
Chapter 6
  • The Church in the Lives of the Faithful

4
Chapter Objectives
The student will be able to understand
  • Our proper response to the gift of faith
  • The People of God
  • The common and ministerial priesthood
  • The vocation of the laity
  • The universal call to holiness
  • The liturgy
  • The liturgical year
  • Sacraments and human nature
  • Baptism
  • Confirmation
  • The Eucharist
  • Penance
  • continued

5
Chapter Objectives
The student will be able to understand
  • Anointing of the Sick
  • Holy Orders
  • Matrimony
  • Prayer
  • Types of prayer
  • Mortifications
  • Evangelization
  • Vocations in the Church
  • The Christian family
  • Sanctification and work
  • The apostolate of the laity
  • The responsibility of the laity in public life
  • The main forms of consecrated life today.

6
Keys to Chapter 6
  • Every Christian is called to holiness.
  • In the liturgy, we participate in the mysteries
    of Christs life
  • The Sacraments are Gods way of giving us his
    divine life in a very human way.
  • Holiness is to be lived in all the ordinary
    details of our everyday lives.
  • Some Christians are called to live as if they
    were not in this world, by means of the
    evangelical counsels.

7
For Discussion
  • What is the common priesthood of the faithful?
  • What is the role of the laity in the Church?
  • How do we respond to the call of Christ?
  • What is the universal call to holiness?
  • What is our basis for stating that Christ
    instituted the Seven Sacraments?
  • What is the meaning of the Latin term ex opere
    operato?

8
For Discussion
  • What is the role of prayer in the Christian life?
  • What is the liturgical year?
  • What does it mean to be an apostle?
  • How can we participate in the missionary activity
    of the Church?
  • What is the consecrated life?

9
The Priesthood of the People of God
  • Lesson Objectives
  • Our proper response to the gift of faith
  • The People of God
  • The common and ministerial priesthood
  • The vocation of the laity

10
The Priesthood of the People of God
Basic Questions
What is the proper response to the gift of faith?
Our proper response to Gods gift of faith is to
trust in him and believe in the truths he has
revealed, because God can neither deceive nor be
deceived.
11
The Priesthood of the People of God
Basic Questions
Who are the People of God?
The Church is the People of God, the communion of
all the faithful in Christ, composed of men of
every race and nation, on a pilgrimage of
holiness and redemption.
12
The Priesthood of the People of God
Basic Questions
What is the difference between the common and the
ministerial priesthood?
All members of the Church share in the common
priesthood of the faithful and are called by
virtue of their Baptism to offer their lives to
God. Some members of the Faithful are ordained to
the ministerial priesthood for the service of the
rest.
13
The Priesthood of the People of God
Basic Questions
What is the vocation of the laity?
The vocation of the laity is to seek the Kingdom
of God by engaging in temporal affairs and by
ordering them according to the plan of God.
14
Focus Question
Are the relationships among the members of the
Church essentially equal or unequal?
The Christian faithful are truly equal in regard
to dignity and activity, according to each ones
condition and function.
15
Focus Question
What is the reason that Christians fall short of
their calling?
Concupiscence, the human inclination to sin that
results from Original Sin, often clouds our
discernment, distorts our intellect, and weakens
our will. Thus, all people sin and fall short of
our call to holiness.
16
Focus Question
How do we live our faith faithfully?
By conscientiously devoting ourselves to personal
holiness in service to God and neighbor.
17
Focus Question
What was the source of St. Peters faith in Jesus
Christ?
It was a gift from God, coming not from flesh
and blood but from Christs Father, who art in
heaven.
18
Focus Question
What is the response that the gift of faith
requires of us?
Gods gift of faith requires from us the human
act of trust in God and believing in the truths
he reveals.
19
Focus Question
On what authority should we believe what God
reveals?
We believe not because revealed truths appear as
true and intelligible in the light of our natural
reason. Rather, we believe because of the
authority of God himself who reveals them, who
can neither deceive nor be deceived. Extension
This is not to say that revealed truths are in
any way opposed to human reason.
20
Focus Question
What does St. Peter mean when he says that the
new People of God would be born not from flesh,
but from water and the Holy Spirit?
He means that they would not be Gods people
because they are natural descendants of Abraham
but because they would receive the Sacrament of
Baptism.
21
Focus Question
Why are the People of God a pilgrim Church?
The Church is a group of believers on a journey
toward God, seeking holiness and redemption.
22
Graphic Organizer
Complete the following table to clearly
articulate the three distinct vocations.
Vocation Description
Laity
Religious
Holy Orders
23
Guided Exercise
Conduct a think/pair/share using the following
question What is the relationship between the
Church as the People of God and the Church as a
hierarchical body?
24
Focus Question
What is the Magisterium?
The Magisterium is the teaching authority given
by Christ to his Apostles and now vested in their
successors, the Pope and the bishops in union
with him, who teach the truths of the Faith on
the basis of Sacred Scripture and Sacred
Tradition.
25
Focus Question
What is the simplest meaning of the Church as the
People of God?
The Church as the People of God means the
communion of all the faithful in Christ.
26
Focus Question
What is the Old Testament counterpart to the
Church as the People of God?
In the Old Testament, the Israelites were Gods
Chosen People.
27
Focus Question
Where is the New Testament teaching of the Church
as the People of God found?
It is taught in the First Epistle of St. Peter.
28
Focus Question
Ethnically, who makes up the New Covenant People
of God?
It is a race of Jews and Gentiles unified by the
Holy Spirit in Jesus Christ. Extension In other
words, any human being can be a member.
29
Guided Exercise
Free write on how the following quote of Christ
(quoting Isaiah) can apply to you. The Spirit
of the Lord is upon me, because he has anointed
me to preach the good news to the poor. He has
sent me to proclaim release to captives and
recovery of sight to the blind, to set at liberty
those who are oppressed to proclaim the
acceptable year of the Lord (Lk 418-24)
30
Focus Question
What were the two priesthoods found in the Old
Testament?
In the Old Testament, God said that all of Israel
would be a kingdom of priests. He also
established elders and an order of priests, the
Levites, to offer sacrifices on behalf of this
people.
31
Focus Question
According to Hebrews, what is the job of a
priest?
Priests are called by God to act on behalf of
men in relation to God, to offer gifts and
sacrifices for sins.
32
Focus Question
What are the two levels of the priesthood in the
Church?
There is a common priesthood shared by all the
faithful and a ministerial priesthood of ordained
leaders at the service of the faithful.
33
Focus Question
What is the basis of the priesthood in the
Church?
Both the common priesthood of all the faithful
and the ministerial priesthood participate in the
one priesthood of Christ.
34
Focus Question
How do we live out the common priesthood of the
faithful?
We live as priests by offering our lives as a
living sacrifice to God for the salvation of
others and ourselves.
35
Focus Question
According to the Catechism, what is the
relationship between the common priesthood and
the ministerial priesthood?
The common priesthood is the unfolding of ones
own baptismal grace. The ministerial priesthood
is the unfolding of the baptismal grace of all
Christians by which Christ builds up and leads
his Church.
36
The Universal Call to Holiness and the Liturgy
  • Lesson Objectives
  • The universal call to holiness
  • The liturgy
  • The liturgical year

37
The Universal Call to Holiness and the Liturgy
Basic Questions
What is the universal call to holiness?
All Christians in every state of life are called
to holiness, which is the fullness of the
Christian life and the perfection of charity.
38
The Universal Call to Holiness and the Liturgy
Basic Questions
What is the liturgy?
The Liturgy is the Churchs official public
worshipthe worship of God by the People of God.
39
The Universal Call to Holiness and the Liturgy
Basic Questions
What is the liturgical year?
The liturgical year is the calendar of
observances that celebrates the entire life of
Christ, beginning in Advent and ending the last
Sunday before Advent.
40
Focus Question
What is the universal call to holiness?
It is Gods call to each member of the Church,
regardless of the circumstances of his or her
life, to become a saint.
41
Focus Question
When Jesus said, Be perfect, as your heavenly
Father is perfect, what did he mean?
He meant that we are to aspire to greater and
greater holiness. All Christians in any state or
walk of life are called to the fullness of
Christian life and to the perfection of charity.
42
Focus Question
Does the universal call to holiness mean lay
people should do more Church-related activities?
To seek holiness as a member of the laity
includes Church-related activities but also
refers to our everyday, secular activities.
43
Graphic Organizer
Brainstorm reasons why some people might say that
St. Gianna should have had an abortion.
Reasons to abort her child How Gianna might have responded





44
Focus Question
What was Giannas vocation?
It was to be a wife, mother, and doctor,
especially one serving mothers with young
children.
45
Focus Question
What dilemma did Gianna face in 1961?
She was pregnant and discovered she had cancer.
Her doctors recommended she have an abortion so
she could have surgery to save her own life.
46
Focus Question
What was Giannas response to this problem?
She opted to try to save the life of her unborn
baby rather than her own if it was really going
to be either one or the other.
47
Focus Question
What was the result of Giannas decision?
She died soon after giving birth to her healthy
daughter.
48
Focus Question
How was St. Giannas life a martyrdom?
She laid down her life for another, just as
Christ did.
49
Guided Exercise
Conduct a think/pair/share using the following
question According to Avery Cardinal Dulles,
how does Christ exercise his threefold office as
prophet, priest, and king in the liturgy of the
Mass?
50
Focus Question
What are two basic types of prayer practiced in
the Christian life?
  • Christians gather for communal, liturgical prayer
    and worship and
  • They participate in personal, individual prayer.

51
Focus Question
What is the etymology and original meaning of the
word liturgy?
It is derived from the Greek words ergos (work)
and leiton (of the people), meaning
essentially, public work, or any work performed
for the common good.
52
Focus Question
What was the meaning of leitourgia in the Old
Testament Septuagint?
It designated the worship led by the Levite
priests of the Temple on behalf of the people.
53
Focus Question
What does liturgy mean in the Church?
Since the days of the early Church, liturgy has
come to mean the Churchs public and official
worship of God, including the Mass and all its
official rites and ceremoniesthe worship of God
by the People of God.
54
Focus Question
Why did Adam and Eve need a mediator after they
had sinned?
They were no longer in communion with God and
needed someone to restore that relationship.
55
Focus Question
What in the nature of Jesus Christ makes him a
perfect mediator between God and humanity?
The fact that Christ is perfect man and perfect
God makes him the perfect mediator.
56
Focus Question
What aspect of Christs life was mediatory?
Christs entire lifein particular, his Passion,
Death, and Resurrectionreflected one
uninterrupted, priestly action.
57
Focus Question
How does Christs priestly work continue today?
It continues in the liturgy of the Church,
particularly in the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass,
or Divine Liturgy, where Christ brings about the
effects of salvation and accomplishes the perfect
worship of God.
58
Graphic Organizer
Complete the following table on the liturgical
year in the ordinary form of the Latin Rite of
the Catholic Church.
Season When it occurs Its significance
Advent
Christmas Time
Lent
The Triduum
Easter Time
Ordinary Time
The Proper of Saints
59
The Sacraments in General and Baptism in
Particular
  • Lesson Objectives
  • Sacraments
  • Sacraments and human nature
  • Baptism

60
The Sacraments in General and Baptism in
Particular
Basic Questions
What is a Sacrament?
A Sacrament is an efficacious sign of grace,
instituted by Christ and entrusted to the Church,
by which divine life is dispensed to us through
the work of the Holy Spirit.
61
The Sacraments in General and Baptism in
Particular
Basic Questions
How do Sacraments correspond to human nature?
One reason God uses Sacraments to confer grace to
humanity is because they use visible signs to
confer invisible graces and thus correspond to
human nature, which is a composite of a visible,
material body and an invisible, immaterial soul.
62
The Sacraments in General and Baptism in
Particular
Basic Questions
What is Baptism?
Baptism is the first Sacrament received by a
Christian, involving immersion or the pouring of
water on the recipients head while pronouncing
the invocation of the Blessed Trinity. It
forgives sins, including Original Sin, begins a
new life in Christ, and incorporates the new
Christian into the life of the Church, the Body
of Christ. It is the first of the three
Sacraments of Initiation.
63
Guided Exercise
Conduct a focused reading of the paragraph
beginning, As Latin increasingly (p.
191). How does the Roman soldiers sacramentum
correspond to the idea of a Christian
Sacrament?
64
Focus Question
What is a Sacrament?
The sacraments are efficacious signs of grace,
instituted by Christ and entrusted to the Church,
by which divine life is dispensed to us (CCC
1131).
65
Focus Question
What did the early Church and what do Christians
in the East still call the Sacraments?
They call each Sacrament Mysterion (Greek for
mystery), which is a sign of something sacred
or hidden.
66
Focus Question
What is the origin of the English word
sacrament?
The Latin sacramentum means oath.
67
Graphic Organizer
Complete the following table to clearly
articulate the meaning of Sacrament.
Term Explanation
Sign
Sign of grace
Efficacious sign of grace
Instituted by Christ and entrusted to the Church
68
Focus Question
Define ex opere operato.
It means, from the work performed, or
automatically.
69
Focus Question
Under what circumstances does a Sacrament give
grace ex opere operato?
The minister has to intend to convey the
Sacrament and the participant must intend to
receive it. According to the teachings of the
Council Fathers at the Ecumenical Council of
Trent, the Sacraments confer grace on those who
do not place an obstacle thereunto.
70
Focus Question
What do the Sacraments dispense?
They dispense sanctifying grace, which is a share
in divine life.
71
Focus Question
When did the Church begin celebrating the
Sacraments?
All seven Sacraments were part of the practice of
the Church from the very beginning and were
understood as having been instituted by Christ.
72
Guided Exercise
Write a paragraph about how the Sacraments
correspond to human nature.
73
Focus Question
How was the baptism of Christ a theophany?
When Christ came up out of the water after St.
Johns baptism, there was a divine manifestation
of all three Persons of the Blessed Trinity. The
voice of the Father spoke, God the Son was
visible in the Person of Christ, and God the Holy
Spirit descended upon Christ like a dove.
74
Focus Question
How was St. Johns baptism different from the one
Christ instituted?
St. Johns baptism signified repentance from sin
but did not forgive sin. The Sacrament of Baptism
is sacramental and efficacious.
75
Focus Question
When during his public ministry did Christ speak
of his Sacrament of Baptism?
He told Nicodemus that one must be born of water
and the Spirit to enter the kingdom of God.
76
Focus Question
When did Christ institute his Sacrament of
Baptism?
At his Ascension, Christ commanded his Apostles,
Make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in
the name of the Father and of the Son and of the
Holy Spirit (Mt 2819).
77
Focus Question
What is one example of Baptism after Pentecost?
St. Peter baptized the centurion Cornelius.
78
Focus Question
What are the effects of Baptism?
It removes all sin, Original and actual unites
the recipient to the Death, Burial, and
Resurrection of Christ and incorporates the
recipient into the Mystical Body of Christ, the
Church.
79
Focus Question
What is the catechumenate?
It is a process by which people who wish to
become members of the Church are instructed in
the Faith and prepared for the Sacraments of
Initiation.
80
Focus Question
What is the current form of the catechumenate?
It is the Rite of Christian Initiation for Adults
(RCIA).
81
Focus Question
What particular symbol does Baptism by immersion
make explicit about the theology of Baptism?
It strongly symbolizes the recipients sharing in
the Passion, Death, and Resurrection of Christ as
he or she is immersed and then rises to a new
life.
82
Focus Question
How is the administration of the Sacraments of
Initiation different from the Eastern and the
Latin Rites of the Catholic Church?
In the Eastern Rites of the Catholic Church, the
three Sacraments of Initiation are given in the
same celebration, even to an infant. continued
83
Focus Question
How is the administration of the Sacraments of
Initiation different from the Eastern and the
Latin Rites of the Catholic Church?
In the Latin Rite, they often are conferred
simultaneously on an adult or older minor at the
Easter Vigil but are usually separated, receiving
Baptism as an infant and the Eucharist and
Confirmation after he or she has reached the age
of reason (about seven years old).
84
Focus Question
Why does the Church teach that the Sacrament of
Baptism is necessary for salvation?
The Church does not know of any means other than
Baptism that assures entry into eternal
beatitude.
85
Focus Question
What is Baptism of Blood?
Those who die for the sake of the Faith but have
not yet received sacramental Baptism are
baptized by their death for and with Christ.
86
Focus Question
What is Baptism of Desire?
An uncatechized person of good will, under
certain conditions, can receive what is called a
Baptism of Desire because such a person would
have desired Baptism explicitly if he or she had
known its necessity.
87
Focus Question
What is the fate of unbaptized infants and unborn
babies who die?
Though God has not revealed this, we have good
hope that God has a way for unbaptized infants,
who can neither willfully die for the faith nor
implicitly desire Baptism, to be saved without
having received the waters of Baptism.
88
The Sacraments of Confirmation and the Eucharist
  • Lesson Objectives
  • Confirmation
  • The Eucharist

89
The Sacraments of Confirmation and the Eucharist
Basic Questions
What is Confirmation?
Confirmation is the Sacrament that completes the
grace of Baptism by a special outpouring of the
Holy Spirit that confirms the baptized in union
with Christ and equips them for active
participation in the worship and apostolic life
of the Church one of the three Sacraments of
Initiation.
90
The Sacraments of Confirmation and the Eucharist
Basic Questions
What is the Eucharist?
The Eucharist is the Sacrament by which bread and
wine are consecrated by a priest and become the
true Body and Blood of Christ, which the faithful
consume in Holy Communion.
91
Focus Question
When was the Sacrament of Confirmation
instituted?
The Holy Spirit descended upon the Apostles on
the day of Pentecost.
92
Focus Question
How is the Sacrament of Confirmation usually
described in the New Testament?
It is referred to as the laying on of hands.
93
Focus Question
With what other Sacrament was Confirmation
usually associated?
It is associated closely with Baptism. When the
Apostles baptized a convert, they also laid their
hands on (i.e., administered Confirmation to) the
new believer.
94
Focus Question
How does Confirmation complete Baptism?
The outpouring of the Holy Spirit received in
Confirmation completes the initiation that was
begun in Baptism.
95
Focus Question
How do we know that Baptism and Confirmation are
distinct Sacraments?
When the Apostles were not present, and other
believers had baptized the new followers of
Christ, then the Apostles would lay hands on,
or confirm, the newly baptized when they visited
that area.
96
Focus Question
Who is the ordinary administrator of
Confirmation?
A bishop, who is a successor of the Apostles, is
the ordinary minister of Confirmation in the
Latin Rite of the Catholic Church.
97
Focus Question
How is Confirmation celebrated differently in the
East and West today?
In the West, the desire to reserve the completion
of Baptism to the bishop caused the temporal
separation of the two Sacraments. The East has
kept them united in time by having Confirmation
conferred by the priest who baptizes he does so
with the Myron, or Sacred Chrism, consecrated by
a bishop.
98
Focus Question
What are the signs of the Sacrament of
Confirmation?
They are the laying on of hands and the anointing
with Sacred Chrism (called Myron in the Eastern
Rites of the Catholic Church). An anointing was
an act added in the early Church to better
signify the gift of the Holy Spirit.
99
Guided Exercise
Conduct a focused reading on the paragraph
beginning, From these two accounts (p. 198),
including CCC 1290, using the following
question How has the relationship between the
celebration of Baptism and Confirmation changed
over the centuries?
100
Focus Question
What Old Testament miracle foreshadowed Christs
feeding of the five thousand?
In the Old Testament, God fed the whole nation of
Israel manna from heaven. In the New Testament,
Jesus fed five thousand persons with only a few
loaves and fishes.
101
Focus Question
How did the feeding of the five thousand
foreshadow the institution of the Eucharist?
Christ related the multiplication of the loaves
and fishes with the manna in the wilderness,
which was bread from Heaven. Christ said he,
himself, was the living bread which came down
from Heaven, which would give eternal life. He
also said he would give his flesh for the life of
the world.
102
Focus Question
How do we know that Christ was not speaking
symbolically or that he was not being
misunderstood?
When some in the crowd objected to this teaching,
Christ became more direct, declaring unless you
eat the flesh of the Son of man and drink his
blood, you have no life in you. At this point,
many of his disciples who had followed him up to
this point left him and Christ did nothing to
dissuade them of their understanding that he was
speaking literally of eating his flesh and
drinking his blood, an act they associated with
cannibalism.
103
Focus Question
When did the actual Institution of the Sacrament
of the Eucharist occur?
Christ instituted the Eucharist at the Last
Supper, a Passover meal.
104
Focus Question
How did Christ give the Passover meal a new
significance?
Using some of the unleavened bread and wine that
was a part of the Passover celebration, Christ
broke bread, said it was his Body, and told his
disciples to eat it. He also took a cup of wine
and told them to drink it because it was his
Blood, the Blood of the New Covenant.
105
Focus Question
What is the relationship between the sacrifice of
Christ on the Cross and in the Mass?
They are the same sacrifice, although the
sacrifice of Christ in the Mass is an unbloody
sacrifice.
106
Focus Question
What does the word Eucharist mean?
It means thanksgiving.
107
Focus Question
What is transubstantiation?
It is the term that the Church uses to explain
that while the bread and wine used do not change
in appearance or in any other observable
property, they are transformed into the substance
of the Body and Blood of Christ.
108
Focus Question
What does the term Real Presence mean?
It is the term used to describe Christs true and
substantial presence under the appearance of
bread and wine.
109
Guided Exercise
Based on the writings of the early Church Father
St. Justin Martyr, develop an apologetic for the
Mass showing how the same Mass that the Church
celebrates today was celebrated in the first
century. Use three concrete examples.
110
Focus Question
When was the Eucharist instituted?
Christ instituted it at the Last Supper.
111
Focus Question
Why does the Church celebrate the Eucharist?
Christ commanded his Apostles, Do this in
memory of me.
112
Focus Question
How is the Eucharist referred to in the New
Testament?
It is called the breaking of the bread.
113
Focus Question
On what day did the Apostles celebrate the
Eucharist?
On Sunday, the day of Christs Resurrection.
114
Focus Question
What are the effects of receiving the Eucharist?
Holy Communion increases our union with Christ
it forgives our venial sins and strengthens us
against future temptations to commit mortal sins.
Because the Eucharist unites us more closely to
Christ, it also unites us to the entire Mystical
Body of Christ, the People of God, our fellow
members of the Church. continued
115
Focus Question
What are the effects of receiving the Eucharist?
It identifies us with Christs heart, sustains
our strength along the pilgrimage of this life,
makes us long for eternal life, and unites us
even now to the Church in heaven, the Blessed
Virgin Mary, and all the saints.
116
Focus Question
What are the requirements to receive the
Eucharist worthily?
One must be in full communion with the Church and
free from mortal sin.
117
Focus Question
Why does the Church require her members to attend
Holy Mass every Sunday and on Holy Days of
Obligation and to receive the Eucharist at least
once a year?
Because communal or liturgical worship and prayer
and receiving the Eucharist are vital to the
spiritual life.
118
Focus Question
How is the Eucharist the source of the Churchs
life?
The Eucharist is the real, though sacramental,
presence of Christ, and Christ is the source of
all grace for the Church.
119
Focus Question
How is the Eucharist the summit of the Churchs
life?
The faithful bring to the Eucharistic celebration
all their prayers and good works, their joys and
sufferings. These modest offerings are united to
the perfect Sacrifice of Christ in the Mass and
are thus sanctified and lifted up to God in an
act of perfect worship.
120
The Sacraments of Penance and the Anointing of
the Sick
  • Lesson Objectives
  • Penance
  • Anointing of the Sick

121
The Sacraments of Penance and the Anointing of
the Sick
Basic Questions
What is the Sacrament of Penance?
Penance is the Sacrament of Gods forgiveness,
which includes contrition, confession of sins,
and satisfaction or reparation, together with the
prayer of absolution by the priest.
122
The Sacraments of Penance and the Anointing of
the Sick
Basic Questions
What is the Sacrament of the Anointing of the
Sick?
The Anointing of the Sick is the sacramental
anointing with oil, administered by a priest to a
baptized person who is in danger of death because
of illness or old age. It provides the recipient
with grace for healing, strength, and forgiveness
of sins and prepares the recipient for death and
eternal life in Heaven.
123
Graphic Organizer
Complete the following table to identify the
elements behind the various names of the
Sacrament of Penance.
Name Significance
Penance
Reconciliation
Confession
124
Focus Question
What is the difference between Original and
actual Sin?
Original Sin is the weakened human nature that we
inherit because of the sin of Adam and Eve.
Actual sins are the personal sins we freely
commit.
125
Focus Question
What is concupiscence?
It is the inclination to sin that we suffer from
because of Original Sin.
126
Focus Question
When did Christ institute the Sacrament of
Penance?
Christ instituted this Sacrament when he appeared
to his Apostles on the evening of the day of his
Resurrection and told them, If you forgive the
sins of any, they are forgiven if you retain the
sins of any, they are retained.
127
Guided Exercise
Discuss the following prompt Some non-Catholics
object to telling their sins to a priest in
Confession. How does Christs gift of the power
of forgiveness of sins to the Apostles imply
oral confession of sin?
128
Focus Question
What is the distinction between venial and mortal
sin?
Venial sins are lesser offenses that harm our
relationship with God, while mortal sins break
our communion with God and his Church. Extension
Venial literally means slight and
pardonable, while mortal means subject to
death.
129
Focus Question
What are the conditions for committing a mortal
sin?
A mortal sin is a sin regarding a grave matter
that we commit with forethought and full consent
of the will. Extension In other words, it is an
act that is seriously wrong, which we know is
wrong, and which we freely choose to commit
anyway.
130
Focus Question
Should a person who is conscious of having
committed a mortal sin receive Holy Communion?
No. That is, not before it has been confessed and
given absolution in the Sacrament of Penance.
131
Focus Question
Can the Sacrament of Reconciliation be seen in
Scripture and Tradition?
Yes. Sts. John and Paul mention it in the New
Testament. It is also taught in the Didache,
which was written during the first century.
132
Focus Question
What does binding and loosing mean in relation to
the Sacrament of Penance, according to the
Catechism, no. 1445?
The power Christ gave to St. Peter and the
Apostles to bind and loose means those they
exclude from their communion will be excluded
from communion with God and those they welcome
back into communion with them will be welcomed
back into communion with God.
133
Focus Question
How can a person restore communion with God and
the Church?
Through the Sacrament of Penance.
134
Focus Question
What is the unchanging fundamental form of the
Sacrament of Penance?
Interior conversion, contrition, confession,
absolution, and satisfaction.
135
Focus Question
What are the two main forms of celebrating the
Sacrament of Reconciliation that we have seen in
the history of the Church?
In the early Church, public confession and severe
penance for grave sins was practiced. Later,
private and frequent confession was introduced
that made it possible for the Sacrament of
Penance to be a regular part of the devotional
lives of the faithful.
136
Focus Question
Who is the minster of the Sacrament of Penance?
Only a priest who has received authority from the
Church can pronounce the forgiveness of sins in
Christs name.
137
Focus Question
What was the role of physical healings in
Christs ministry?
It was an integral part of what Christ did, a
foreshadowing of the coming of the Kingdom of
God, and a proof of Christs messiahship.
138
Focus Question
What was the role of physical signs in Christs
healings?
Christ often used concrete physical signs to
heal, such as the laying on of hands, mud,
washing, even his own spittle.
139
Focus Question
Did Christ share the power to heal with his
Apostles?
Yes. He gave them the power to heal the sick and
cast out demons.
140
Focus Question
When did Christ institute this Sacrament of
Healing?
We do not know when he did, but we know that he
did. During his public ministry he sent his
disciples out to heal. In the Acts of the
Apostles his Apostles continue this healing
ministry in his Epistle St. James tells the
elders, or priests, to pray over the sick person
and anoint him with oil in the name of the Lord
to heal him and forgive his sins.
141
Focus Question
How does the Church celebrate the Sacrament of
Christs healing today?
It is celebrated through the ministry of a bishop
or priest, who confers the Sacrament by the
laying on of hands and an anointing with the Oil
of the Sick.
142
Guided Exercise
Write a bullet-point summary of the many benefits
of the Sacrament of Anointing of the Sick, based
on the paragraph beginning, There are several
spiritual benefits.. (p. 207).
143
Focus Question
Why was this Sacrament until recently called
Extreme Unction?
Following the Apostolic era, the anointing became
more and more associated with imminent
death. Extension The term extreme unction
refers to an anointing in extremis, that is, at
the point of death.
144
Focus Question
What are the conditions for receiving the
Sacrament of Anointing?
The Sacrament can be celebrated with any illness
or condition, even prior to surgery, where there
is danger of death.
145
Focus Question
Why does the Sacrament not always physically heal
its recipient?
Physical healing is not always part of Gods
plan. For example, Christ would not heal St.
Paul of his thorn, even though St. Paul could
heal other people.
146
The Sacraments of Holy Orders and Matrimony
  • Lesson Objectives
  • Holy Orders
  • Matrimony

147
The Sacraments of Holy Orders and Matrimony
Basic Questions
What is the Sacrament of Holy Orders?
Holy Orders is the Sacrament by which the mission
entrusted by Christ to his Apostles continues to
be exercised in the Church through the laying on
of hands in ordination the Sacrament has three
distinct levelsbishop (episcopate), priest
(presbyterate), and deacon (diaconate)and
confers an indelible character on the ordinands
soul.
148
The Sacraments of Holy Orders and Matrimony
Basic Questions
What is the Sacrament of Matrimony?
The Sacrament of Matrimony raises natural
marriage to the dignity of a Sacrament. It is a
lifelong and exclusive bond between a man and a
woman, recognized by the Church.
149
Graphic Organizer
Complete the following table to understand the
three characters which ordination confers.
Character Explanation
Service
Collegiality
Personal
150
Focus Question
When did Christ institute the Sacrament of Holy
Orders?
When he called together the Twelve Apostles and
made St. Peter their head.
151
Focus Question
How did the hierarchy develop during the era of
the New Testament?
It developed into the three orders of episcopate,
presbyterate, and diaconateor bishop, priest,
and deacon.
152
Focus Question
What sacramental powers and obligations did
Christ confer upon his Apostles during his
public ministry?
He gave them his power and obligation to baptize,
forgive sins, anoint the sick, and celebrate the
Eucharist, i.e., to celebrate the Seven
Sacraments.
153
Focus Question
What is the origin of marriage?
It was part of Gods plan from the beginning.
154
Focus Question
What was the effect of Original Sin on marriage?
Original Sin broke the communion between man and
woman, opening the way for actual sins of lust,
domination, disrespect, and discord between men
and women.
155
Focus Question
What are the common sins against marriage?
Adultery, fornication, prostitution, homosexual
behavior, and acts of bestiality are some of the
sins against marriage.
156
Focus Question
How can married couples restore Gods original
intent?
They can cooperate with Gods grace.
157
Focus Question
Was marriage restored to its original dignity
under the Law of Moses in the Old Testament?
No. Polygamy and divorce were tolerated in some
cases, which were not part of Gods plan for
marriage from the beginning.
158
Focus Question
How does the Old Testament prepare the way for
the restoration of Gods original vision for
marriage, according to CCC 1611?
The prophets portrayed the covenant between God
and Israel as an image of exclusive and faithful
married love the books of Ruth and Tobit contain
an elevated sense of marriage, fidelity, and
tenderness between spouses, and the Song of
Solomon is a unique expression of human love as a
reflection of Gods love.
159
Focus Question
What does the vocation to the Sacrament of
Matrimony entail?
Like the Sacrament of Holy Orders, the Sacrament
of Matrimony is a vocation of service husbands
and wives are to assist each other in living the
faith, helping each other to grow in sanctity
with the goal of someday entering eternal life.
If blessed with children, they are called to
raise them lovingly in the Faith.
160
Focus Question
Why does the Church only ordain men to Holy
Orders?
Christ chose only men to be his Apostles, the
Church is bound to continue this example.
161
Focus Question
How can a man know with certainty if he has a
vocation to receive Holy Orders?
A man who believes that he may have a vocation to
receive Holy Orders will go through a process of
discernment. His bishop will make the final
decision whether to ordain him or not.
162
Focus Question
How is Holy Orders conferred?
The bishop lays his hands on the ordinand and
prays that the Holy Spirit will bestow the gifts
that will be needed for ministry.
163
Focus Question
In whose person does a priest act?
A priest acts in the Person of Jesus Christ, who
is the Head, Shepherd, and Bridegroom of his
Church.
164
Focus Question
What is the grace conferred by the Sacrament of
Matrimony?
This grace assists the couple in perfecting their
love and unity and in helping each other to
become holy and to welcome and educate children.
165
Focus Question
Who are the ministers of the Sacrament of
Matrimony?
In the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church, the man
and woman themselves are the ministers of the
Sacrament. The whole Family of Godrepresented by
a bishop, priest, or deaconserves as a witness
to the Sacrament.
166
Guided Exercise
Conduct a think/pair/share using the following
question Why do some marriages end in
divorce?
167
Focus Question
What did Christ teach about the permanence of
marriage?
He taught that from the beginning marriage was
to be a lifelong covenant and that divorce was
not Gods plan for man and woman.
168
Focus Question
How did St. Paul portray married love?
He compared the love between husbands and wives
to the relationship of Christ and his Church.
According to St. Paul, marriage is made in the
image of Christ and his Church.
169
Focus Question
What does the Church teach about marriage between
Christians?
The Church considers Christian natural marriage
to be elevated by Christ to the dignity of a
Sacrament.
170
Prayer and Sacrifice
  • Lesson Objectives
  • Prayer
  • Types of prayer
  • Mortification

171
Prayer and Sacrifice
Basic Questions
What is prayer?
Prayer is an essential part of the Christian life
in which God helps us raise our hearts and minds
to him in conversation.
172
Prayer and Sacrifice
Basic Questions
What types of prayer are there in the Christian
life?
Just as Christ prayed in many ways, the ways a
Christian can pray are myriad.
173
Prayer and Sacrifice
Basic Questions
What is mortification, and what is its value?
Just as an athlete must train himself to compete
successfully, mortification or self-denial is
also an essential part of pursuing the goal of
Christian life.
174
Focus Question
What is a basic definition of prayer, according
to St. John Damascene?
Prayer is the raising of ones mind and heart to
God or the requesting of good things from God.
175
Focus Question
According to Pope Bl. John Paul II, when we pray,
who should get the most credit?
God is the true protagonist when we pray he is
taking the initiative to get us to pray.
176
Graphic Organizer
Create a table that lists and defines or explains
what you consider the ten most important forms of
prayer.
Type Definition or Explanation










177
Guided Exercise
Come up with reasons to support the ideas of St.
Thomas Aquinas and Tertullian that the Lords
Prayer is perfect and a summary of the whole
Gospel.
178
Focus Question
What should be the main subject of Christian
prayer?
The mysteries of Christ, so we can get to know
him, to love him, and to be united to him.
179
Focus Question
What was the role of prayer in Christs life?
Christ was devoted to prayer, especially before
the great events in his life.
180
Focus Question
What is the most important prayer in the life of
the Church?
The Lords Prayer is most important.
181
Focus Question
What forms of prayer did Christ practice?
The formal or traditional prayers of Judaism
spontaneous prayer personal prayer alone in
silence communal prayer with friends prayerful
reading of the Scriptures prayer using the
Psalms celebration of holy days pilgrimages
attendance at the synagogue and Temple liturgies
and fasting as prayer of the senses.
182
Graphic Organizer
Complete the following table to identify everyday
forms of self-denial that teens can practice.
Type of Sacrifice Example
Avoiding a sin
Avoiding a near occasion of sin
Sacrificing an innocent pleasure
Offering up an unwanted suffering
Joining a sacrifice with charity
183
Focus Question
What does mortification literally mean?
It means dying to the flesh.
184
Focus Question
What is mortification?
It is a means of seeking holiness through
self-discipline and self-denial.
185
Focus Question
What is the purpose of mortification?
Its purpose is to avoid sin and to subdue the
body so as to strengthen the soul.
186
Focus Question
How can mortification help us avoid near
occasions of sin?
If we see an immodestly dressed person, it takes
an effort not to look, but that effort helps us
avoid what could easily turn into a
sin. Extension To give up looking at what could
lead us to sin is a kind of small death.
187
Focus Question
What is the point of denying oneself an innocent
pleasure?
It helps us grow in self-control and it can be
offered to God for a myriad of reasons, for
example to say thank you, to say one is sorry for
something, and to benefit someone you care about
who needs Gods grace.
188
Focus Question
To what should self-denial be united?
Self-denial will be more precious if it is united
to charity, for example if we fast and offer it
for someone who is suffering.
189
Guided Exercise
Conduct a focused reading of the sidebar The
Role of Youth in the Church (p. 215) using the
following question What do you think are the
two top reasons the Church values young people
today?
190
Seeking Holiness in Daily Life
  • Lesson Objectives
  • Evangelization
  • Vocations in the Church
  • The Christian family
  • Sanctification of work

191
Seeking Holiness in Daily Life
Basic Questions
How do we evangelize?
We carry out Christs mandate to evangelize by
the witness of our Christian lives and our
ability to explain our Faith at the right time.
192
Seeking Holiness in Daily Life
Basic Questions
What are the various Christian vocations?
The three primary vocations to the Christian life
are Holy Orders, religious life, and the lay
state.
193
Seeking Holiness in Daily Life
Basic Questions
How does family life contribute to holiness of
life?
Marriage and family life provide special
opportunities to grow in holiness.
194
Seeking Holiness in Daily Life
Basic Questions
How can we sanctify our work?
By offering up our work and all of our daily
activities, we can sanctify others and ourselves.
195
Focus Question
What is the basis of the Churchs missionary
work?
Christ instructed his Apostles, Go make
disciples of all nations (Mt 2019).
196
Focus Question
What is the evangelical call today, according to
the Council Fathers of Vatican II?
The Church today is urgently called upon to save
and renew every creature, that all things may be
restored in Christ and all men may constitute one
family in him and one People of God (Ad Gentes,
1).
197
Focus Question
Whose responsibility is missionary work?
While it is organized by the institutional
Church, it is part of the baptismal vocation
shared by all Christians.
198
Focus Question
What is the first and foremost method of carrying
out missionary activity?
It is Christian witness in the midst of society,
in which the followers of Christ show
understanding and acceptance of others and a
willingness to share their lives in solidarity
with all that is good and noble. This witness
shows non-Christians that Gods values surpass
the values of the world and it raises questions
in their hearts that only Christ can answer.
199
Focus Question
What is the second thing the Christian must
possess to evangelize effectively?
A person must also know the Faith and be prepared
to explain it if they are to effectively transmit
the message of Christ.
200
Guided Exercise
Conduct a think/pair/share using the following
question According to the sidebar
Evangelizing Truths (p. 217), why should the
Church evangelize others?
201
Focus Question
What is a vocation?
It is a specific, permanent state of life to
which God calls one.
202
Focus Question
What is the most common vocation in the Church?
The vast majority of the members of the Church
are the laity, both married and unmarried, who
are called to live as Christs witnesses in every
activity according to their state of lifein
family life, in ordinary daily work, in the lay
apostolate, and in the public square.
203
Graphic Organizer
Complete the following table to identify the
three major Christian vocations.
Type Description
Holy Orders
Religious life
The laity
204
Focus Question
What is the vocation of married couples?
Husbands and wives find their proper vocation in
being witnesses to the Faith and the love of
Christ to one another and to their children.
205
Focus Question
Who are the primary educators of children?
Parents are the primary educators of their own
children.
206
Focus Question
What is the most important job of parents?
They are called to raise their children in the
Faith through example and word.
207
Focus Question
What are some virtues children can learn in
family life?
Children can learn endurance, the joy of work,
fraternal love, generouseven repeatedforgiveness
, solidarity, tenderness, respect, fidelity,
disinterested service, self-denial, sound
judgment, and self-mastery.
208
Focus Question
What are some duties of children toward their
parents?
Children living at home are to regard their
parents with love, gratitude, and respect. Grown
children must look after their sick or aging
parents and provide both material and moral
support to them.
209
Focus Question
Should parents force their children to adopt a
particular profession or state in life?
No. They may give advice and encourage vocations,
but a particular vocation is the decision of
their children.
210
Focus Question
Why is work able to be made holy?
Work can be sanctified because it is the vocation
God has given man from the beginning.
211
Focus Question
How can we sanctify our work, ourselves, and
others when we work?
By performing our duties well, maintaining a
cheerful and positive attitude, and exercising
Christian virtues, we can sanctify our work,
ourselves, and those who may find in us
inspiration and exemplary behavior.
212
Focus Question
What are some virtues we can develop through our
work?
Work helps people develop the virtues of
fairness, ethics, courtesy, kindness, and
friendship. Extension Nearly the natural human
virtues can be developed through work, including
the Cardinal Virtues of justice, prudence,
temperance, and fortitude.
213
Focus Question
How can our work draw others to Christ?
If we are Christ-like in our work, others will be
drawn to us and wonder why we are this way. This
provides an opportunity to be a witness for
Christ.
214
Focus Question
How can work be redemptive?
We can offer the difficulties of our work in
union with the life of Christ, both his own work
and his Passion.
215
Responsibilities of the Laity Consecrated Life
  • Lesson Objectives
  • The apostolate of the laity
  • The responsibility of the laity in public life
  • The consecrated life
  • The main forms of consecrated life today

216
Responsibilities of the Laity Consecrated Life
Basic Questions
What is the apostolate of the laity?
The lay apostolate is the laitys work of
building up the Church, according to their gifts
and talents, in the family, the workplace, the
Churchs formal work, and culture and politics.
217
Responsibilities of the Laity Consecrated Life
Basic Questions
What is the responsibility of the laity in
public life?
In public life, the laity have the responsibility
of promoting the common good.
218
Responsibilities of the Laity Consecrated Life
Basic Questions
What is the consecrated life?
Some persons are called to live the evangelical
counsels of chastity, poverty, and obedience in
the consecrated life.
219
Responsibilities of the Laity Consecrated Life
Basic Questions
What are the main forms of consecrated life
today?
The three main types of consecrated life today
are religious orders and congregations, societies
for apostolic life, and secular institutes.
220
Focus Question
What was St. Thomas Mores state in life?
He was a layperson who was married and had a
family.
221
Focus Question
What were some of St. Thomas Mores religious
practices?
He was a Secular Franciscan and a Benedictine
oblate. He attended daily Mass, prayed, fasted,
and wore a hair shirt under his splendid robes as
a mortification.
222
Focus Question
What were some of St. Thomas Mores crimes?
He refused to sign the Act of Succession, which
said that the children of Henry VIII and his
second wife, Anne Boleyn, were rightful heirs to
the throne, and he refused to acknowledge Henry
VIII as the supreme head of the Church in
England.
223
Guided Exercise
Free write on the following prompt The Church
teaches that every follower of Christ is called
to live chastity, poverty, and obedience
appropriate to his or her state in life. How can
Catholic teenagers carry out this
responsibility?
224
Guided Exercise
Identify ways in which the lay faithful are to
promote the common good.
225
Focus Question
What is apostolate?
It is the task of building up the Church, shared
by all her members according to the gifts and
talents God has given them.
226
Focus Question
What is the basis of a fruitful apostolate?
The fruitfulness of a persons apostolate depends
on his or her union with Christ.
227
Focus Question
What is the source of the various gifts
Christians possess to help build up the Body of
Christ?
Their origin is in the Holy Spirit.
228
Focus Question
How will non-Christians recognize disciples of
Christ according to Christ himself?
They will recognize Christs disciples by the
love they have for one another.
229
Focus Question
Based on Pope Bl. John Paul IIs words, what has
the Church done better than any other religious
society?
No religious society has ever inspired as many
works of charity as the Catholic Church.
230
Guided Exercise
Conduct a think/pair/share using the following
question If it is true that Gods will is that
each persons apostolate consists primarily in
carrying out the duties of his or her state in
life (the fulfillment of those duties proper to
our own God-given vocation), then how can you
best do apostolate now?
231
Focus Question
What Sacraments give each members of the Body of
Christ the right and duty to work so that the
divine message of salvation may be known and
accepted by all men throughout the earth?
The Sacraments of Baptism and Confirmation confer
this right and duty.
232
Focus Question
What is a work of service or charity?
It is any good done to or for a person in need.
233
Focus Question
How do Christians make their works of charity
unexceptionable?
A Christians work of charity will be beyond
criticism in appearance as well as in fact if he
or she considers his or her neighbor as a person
made in the image of God and as another Christ.
234
Focus Question
What are the four areas of life, which the laity
have the responsibility to share according to the
will of God?
  • They are the family,
  • the workplace,
  • the apostolate, and
  • culture and politics.

235
Focus Question
What is the difference between the duties of the
clergy and the laity when it comes to public
policy?
The bishops and clergy address issues of public
policy insofar as they involve questions of
morality and the common good. The laity are
involved in the political and policy-making
process at every level of government and
society. continued
236
Focus Question
What is the difference between the duties of the
clergy and the laity when it comes to public
policy?
Extension The Magisterium teaches principles
the laity help to put them into effect in secular
society.
237
Focus Question
According to Catholic social teachings, what is
the legitimate political authority?
Legitimate political authority is that which is
committed to the common good of society and seeks
to attain this common good by morally acceptable
means.
238
Focus Question
What are the common good and its three essential
elements?
The common good is the sum total of social
conditions that allow people, either as groups or
individuals, to reach their fulfillment more
fully and more easily. Its three essential
elements are respect for and promotion of the
fundamental rights of the person prosperity, or
the development of the spiritual
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