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Protein Synthesis

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Protein Synthesis Genetics Protein Synthesis First step is transcription The gene s DNA sequence is copied into a sequence of mRNA. This creates mRNA mRNA can leave ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Protein Synthesis


1
Protein Synthesis
  • Genetics

2
Protein Synthesis
  • First step is transcription
  • The genes DNA sequence is copied into a sequence
    of mRNA.
  • This creates mRNA
  • mRNA can leave the nucleus and travel to the site
    of protein synthesis DNA cannot
  • mRNA carries the DNA code to the ribosome

3
Protein Synthesis
4
What is RNA?
  • Another nucleic acid
  • Made of nucleotides
  • The sugar is ribose the phosphate is the same 3
    of the 4 bases are the same
  • Uracil replaces thymine
  • It is single stranded

5
What is RNA?
6
Transcription
  • A single strand of RNA is made from one strand of
    the DNA
  • The DNA strand being transcribed is called the
    coding or template strand the other side is the
    non-coding or anti-sense strand

7
Transcription
  • Transcriptions starts at a promoter. This is the
    base sequence of DNA that signals the start of a
    gene
  • RNA polymerase begins transcription at the
    promoter region

Transcription has three stages initiation,
elongation, and termination
8
Transcription
9
Transcription
10
Types of RNA
  • Messenger RNA (mRNA) carries DNA code for making
    a protein
  • Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is part of the ribosome
    structure
  • Transfer RNA (tRNA) bind to the mRNA and to amino
    acids

11
Protein Synthesis
  • After mRNA is formed, it is processed, spliced,
    and edited
  • Segments made from introns are cut out segments
    made from exons are left in
  • Introns are intervening sections of DNA that do
    not code for anything Exons are expressed
    sequences

12
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13
Protein Synthesis
  • Three DNA bases specify one amino acid
  • Three RNA bases specify one amino acid
  • A chain of amino acids is a protein

14
Protein Synthesis
  • Once the mRNA carries the code to the ribosome,
    the protein can be assembled.
  • The assembly step is called translation
  • This involves tRNA

15
Protein Synthesis
  • Each tRNA has three anticodons (bases) attached
    to one end.
  • These bases match up with bases on the mRNA
  • If they fit, that amino acid is added to the chain

16
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17
Translation
18
Translation
19
Translation
20
Translation
21
Translation
  • Also has three stages initiation, elongation,
    and termination. In translation, these stages
    refer to the assembling and lengthening of the
    protein chain
  • In transcription, these stages refer to the
    making and lengthening of the mRNA strand

22
Translation
23
Proteins
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