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A History of Atomic Theory Atomic Models

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A History of Atomic Theory Atomic Models * * Thomson s Plum ... of matter we move from Dalton s Billard Ball Model to Thomson s Plum pudding model ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: A History of Atomic Theory Atomic Models


1
A History of Atomic TheoryAtomic Models
2
What is a model ?
MODEL detailed, 3-D representation of an
object, (typically on smaller
scale than original)
model airplane
model car
clothing model
3
Lets Take a Trip Through Time!

4
It Started with the Greeks
DEMOCRITUS
Lived in Greece 2500 years ago (460-370 BC)
Father of modern science
5

Demacritus said All matter is made of atoms
that are tiny, indestructible and indivisible.
6
Democritus
Greek banknote with Democritus and drawing of atom
Where did Democritus get his ideas for small,
indestructible, indivisible atoms?
7
Atoms are small
new rings
old ring
EVIDENCE Old gold rings wear away slowly,
getting thinner and thinner, but you never see
gold atoms on your finger, so gold atoms must be
very small!
8
Atoms are indestructible
EVIDENCE Earth has been around long time. Even
though mountains get washed away, rocks continue
to exist. New plants grow where old plants die.
Atoms are indivisible
EVIDENCE None This was HYPOTHESIS made by
Democritus to explain nature as he saw it.
9
What did Democritus think atoms looked like?
  • Appearance of atoms assumed based on behavior
  • Liquids pour
  • Solids are hard and rigid

10
Liquids pour. Why?
Liquids require a container
If liquid atoms were like little balls they would
roll out when you tip the container
Greek idea of liquid atom
11
Solids are rigid. Why?
cocklebur plant
cockleburs stick on clothing and each other
little hooks on cockleburs
Velcro fastener
Velcro hooks and loops
Greek idea of solid atom
12
Aristotle had other ideas
Greek banknote and coin picturing Aristotle
  • ARISTOTLE Famous Greek philosopher, born 384 BC.
  • student of Plato (another famous philosopher)
  • teacher of Alexander the Great (who later
    conquered the world)

13
Aristotles idea of matter
Aristotle did not believe Democrituss idea of
atoms was correct Aristotle believed all matter
made from four elements Earth Air Fire Water
14
Aristotles idea of matter
Aristotle was more famous than Democritus, so
people believed him, even though he was
wrong! Democrituss idea of atomos (atoms) was
lost for nearly 2000 years until John Dalton
brought it back in 1803
15
Atom idea lost for 2000 years
16
John Dalton, New Atom,1803
Born in England, 1766 Studied chemistry,
physics, and color blindness Brought back
Democrituss idea of an indivisible atom
17
Color blindness
Can you see a number in this gray box? If not,
you may be color blind. (More males are color
blind than females)
18
Daltons Theory of Atoms
  • Five parts to Daltons modern atomic theory
  • 1
  • Elements are made of extremely
  • small particles called atoms

19
  • 2
  • Atoms of given element are identical in size,
    mass, and other properties
  • atoms of different elements are different in
    size, mass, and other properties
  • (found out not exactly correct)

20
  • 3
  • Atoms cannot be subdivided, created, or destroyed
  • (later proved wrong)

21
So Daltons atoms are kind of like billiard
balls
Atoms combine in whole-number ratios
22
  • 4
  • Atoms of different elements combine in simple
    whole-number ratios to form chemical compounds
  • (H2O 21 ratio HO)

23
  • 5
  • In chemical reactions, atoms are combined,
    separated or rearranged
  • 2H2O 2Na ? 2NaOH H2

24
In a reaction, atoms are rearranged
25
Daltons Chemical Symbols
We use different symbols today
26
Matter is electrical!
Michael Faraday (English chemist, born 1791) In
1834 learned that matter would interact with
electricity Realized that electricity had to be
made up of particles that could be counted, but
did not know what they were (were electrons)
27
J.J. Thomson
  • English physicist (1856-1940) won Nobel Prize in
    1906
  • Discovered the ELECTRON in 1897
  • studied cathode rays using Crookes tube
  • showed atoms were divisible

28
Crookes tube
cross-shaped anode
cathode
cross-shaped shadow
Cathode rays (stream of electrons) move from
metal cathode (on left) to the cross-shaped anode
on right and casts a cross-shaped shadow on glass
on right. So Electrons are particles with
negative charge
29
Cathode Ray Tube Experiment

Thought cathode rays were streams of particles
smaller than atoms
30
electric or magnetic fields deflect beam
of charged particles
31
What do we mean by charge?
ELECTRICAL CHARGE property of matter that means
it has either more or fewer electrons than
protons ELECTRONS are negatively charged
(-1) PROTONS are positively charged (1) MATTER
IS NEUTRAL (no charge) because () charges are
equal to (-) charges (cancel each other out)
batteries have () and (-) ends
32
More About Charge
Opposite charges attract, alike charges repel
(push away.
33
  • JJ Thomsons discovery of (-) charged
    electrons proved that atoms were divisible!

34
Thomsons Plum pudding atom
electron
ENGLISH PLUM PUDDING
raisin
35

RULE Matter is NEUTRAL so for every one
electron (-) charge there must also be one
positive charge to equal the zero charge
(neutral) of matter
36
  • we move from
  • Daltons Billard Ball Model
  • to
  • Thomsons Plum pudding model

37
Thomsons Plum Pudding Model
() charge

evenly spread out
while (-) charge

is in bits
like chocolate
chips
in cookies
38
Ernest Rutherford1871-1937
  • Discovered the proton in 1920
  • Won Nobel Prize in
  • chemistry in 1908
  • Discovered that most of
  • mass of atom is in nucleus

39
Rutherfords Experiment 1911
Rutherfords expt animation
40
To test plum pudding model of atom, Rutherford
sent tiny radioactive particles called a (alpha)
particles, like bullets, towards thin sheet of
gold foil.
41
Rutherford gold foil experiment
Rutherford expected a particles to pass straight
through, like this most a particles went
straight through didnt bump into anything so
most of atom is empty space
42
  • But even though most a particles went straight
    through, a few were deflected, like this so the
    particles must have hit something
  • really heavy
  • () charged

43
  • The gold foil experiment scattering results meant
    the Plum pudding model of the atom was INCORRECT,
    so Rutherford had to think of new model that fit
    what he saw so
  • proposed Nuclear Model

44
  • Rutherford concluded
  • all atoms have positive () nucleus that contains
    most of mass of atom
  • atom is mostly empty space (except very tiny ()
    electrons)

electrons () /
The NUCLEAR atom model
nucleus / protons ()
45
Rutherford proposed Nuclear atom
Rutherford did not speculate how electrons
arranged around nucleus
46
Problem with Rutherfords Model
To prevent (-) electrons from being attracted to
() nucleus, electrons have to orbit nucleus like
Earth orbits sun But
electrons need energy to orbit nucleus, and
theres no source of energy for this so every
Rutherford atom would die yet Real atoms do not
die
47
So how big is the nucleus compared to the entire
atom?
  • If atom as big as football stadium, nucleus
    smaller than flea on 50-yard line!
  • If atom big as period at end of sentence in
    textbook, it would have mass of 70 cars!

48
So how big is an atom?
  • Most atoms are 1-2 angstroms across
  • An angstrom 1 X 10-10 m
  • 6 Billion Cu atoms in a line less than 1 meter!
  • Can we see an atom?

49
James Chadwick1891-1974
  • Worked with Rutherford
  • Discovered Neutron 1932
  • Nobel Prize in Physics 1935

50
Niels Bohr 1885 - 1962
Created quantized atom model, 1915 Worked on
Manhattan Project Won Nobel Prize in 1922
In Bohrs model, electrons can only move between
energy levels in the atom, emitting energy when
they jump from higher to lower levels, absorbing
energy when they jump from lower to higher
levels.
51
  • Bohr addressed the issue of electrons in the atom
  • Nucleus surrounded by electrons orbiting at
    different energy levels
  • Electrons have definite orbits

52
Quantum Mechanical TheoryElectron in a Hydrogen
atom

53
  • Bohrs new atomic model had quantized energy
    levels, meaning the electrons could only move by
    jumping between levels (numbered n 1, n 2, n
    3, etc.)

54
electrons absorb energy when they jump out, and
emit (send out) energy when they jump in
55
Bohrs Planetary Model
  • Electrons travel only in specific orbits
  • Each orbit has definite energy
  • Inner orbit (n1) least energy
  • Outer orbit (n7) most energy
  • Atoms emit radiation when e- jumps from outer
    orbit to inner orbit
  • Outermost orbits determine atoms chemical
    properties

56
Erwin Schrödinger Wave Model
  • Austrian scientist (1887-1961)
  • won the Nobel Prize in physics in 1933
  • calculated wave model of hydrogen atom in 1926
  • also called cloud model, quantum mechanical
    model, modern model of the atom
  • atom model we still use today

57
In Schrödingers wave model of atom, electron
behaves as energy wave as well as a matter
particle (Light also behaves as particle and
wave) Einstein had predicted that energy and
matter were related in his equation E mc2
If we could see an electron it might look like
this cloud
58
Modern/Wave/Cloud Model
  • Electrons energy is quantized (has only certain
    values)
  • Electrons in probability zones called orbitals,
    not orbits
  • - location cannot be pinpointed
  • Electrons are particles waves at same time
  • Electrons move around nucleus at speed of light

59
Orbitals

60
A Missing Particle The Neutron
  • James Chadwick discovered the last major piece of
    the atom in 1932
  • discovered the neutron, which has no charge
    (neutral)
  • won the Nobel Prize in physics in 1935
  • neutron weighs about as much as a proton while
    electron is much smaller

(1891-1974)
61
The Complete Modern Atom
  • An atom is
  • mostly empty space
  • nucleus has most of mass of an atom
  • nucleus contains protons neutrons
  • electrons are in energy levels around nucleus
  • electrons jump between levels, emitting and
    absorbing energy as jump

62
(No Transcript)
63
The development of atomic theory represents the
work of many scientists over many years
64
Next Atomic Theory ?
  • Which one of you will develop a better theory and
    win the Nobel Prize?
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