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19th Century Novels

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19th Century Novels ... GDP growth. (The Economist, Dec. 9, 2004) behindhand 1. late; ... English in Nineteenth Century England, ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 19th Century Novels


1
19th Century Novels
  • DJ Stavros
  • Stephanie Hurley

2
  • Linguistic change
  • continued, even with the
  • work of the prescriptivists
  • at the end of the 18th century.

3
19th Century Linguistic Change
  • Vocabulary
  • Grammar
  • Punctuation/
  • Capitalization/
  • Spelling

4
Vocabulary
  • English lexicon was expanding due to the numerous
    technological and scientific advances of the
    Industrial Revolution
  • Word-formation processes
  • Borrowing
  • Affixation
  • Compounding
  • Abbreviation

5
Borrowing
  • Words of obvious French origin were being
    borrowed with less frequency
  • Colonial expansion in Africa, Asia, and Australia
    led to an increase of exotic borrowings without
    mediation
  • Greek and Latin continued to increase, with a
    preference for the Greek

6
Affixation
  • Both prefixes and suffixes were added to
    existing words to form new words
  • Specific prefixes and suffixes of scientific
    importance were used more often
  • Prefixes micro-, giga-, auto-, bi-
  • Suffixes -ene, -ology, -ography, -ics, -ism

7
Compounding
  • Can arise from combining together a variety of
    different roots or words
  • Chlorofluorocarbon (chlorofluorocarbon)
  • Geniophobia (geniophobia)
  • Wavelength
  • (wavelength)

8
Abbreviation
  • Initialisms / alphabetisms
  • DJ, USA
  • Acronyms
  • Laser, DARE
  • Clippings
  • Exam, fridge, varsity
  • Blends
  • Smog, brunch

9
Grammar
  • Minor differences between 19th century and
    modern grammar
  • Can be a matter of frequency (rare phrases
    becoming common) or stylistic change (formal
    versus polite)
  • Noticeable variations include
  • Verb phrases
  • Noun phrases
  • Adverbs
  • Adjectives

10
Verb Phrases
  • Old
  • New
  • I dont look forward
  • Will you let him go to Italy?
  • You will visit me in prison.
  • Jenny and James walked/ have walked..
  • I look not forward with any pleasure
  • Shall you let him go to Italy?
  • You will be to visit me in prison.
  • Jenny and James are walked to Charmouth

11
Noun Phrases
  • Old
  • New
  • When no such troubles oppress me
  • Any of the most intricate accounts
  • When none such troubles oppresses me..
  • Any the most intricate accounts

12
Adverbs and Adjectives
  • Adverbs often times form awkward constructions
    that we would not use today
  • a monstrous fine young man (1840), where today
    it would be monstrously
  • Certain adjectives have also changed in their
    formation
  • handsomest (1816), where today we would likely
    say most handsome

13
Capitalization Spelling
  • There are only slight variations between 19th
    century spelling capitalization and that of
    today
  • Some differences are a product of differences
    between American and British English

14
PART TWO
15
  • Now lets see these characteristics
  • of 19th century English in action

16
CHARLES DICKENSS Hard Times
  • First published in 1854
  • Published in twenty parts in the journal
    Household Words
  • Set during the Industrial Revolution
  • In 1856 Dickens compatriot, Hyppolyte Taine,
    said, One of his latest novels, Hard Times, is
    an abstract of the rest. He there exalts
    instinct above reason, intuition of the heart
    above positive knowledge he attacks education
    built on statistics, figures, and facts He
    satirizes oppressive society mourns over
    oppressive nature.

17
  • So, Mr. M'Choakumchild began in his best
    manner. He and some one hundred and forty other
    schoolmasters, had been lately turned at the same
    time, in the same factory, on the same
    principles, like so many pianoforte legs. He had
    been put through an immense variety of paces, and
    had answered volumes of head-breaking questions.
    Orthography, etymology, syntax, and prosody,
    biography, astronomy, geography, and general
    cosmography, the sciences of compound proportion,
    algebra, land-surveying and levelling, vocal
    music, and drawing from models, were all at the
    ends of his ten chilled fingers. He had worked
    his stony way into Her Majesty's most Honourable
    Privy Council's Schedule B, and had taken the
    bloom off the higher branches of mathematics and
    physical science, French, German, Latin, and
    Greek. He knew all about all the Water Sheds of
    all the world (whatever they are), and all the
    histories of all the peoples, and all the names
    of all the rivers and mountains, and all the
    productions, manners, and customs of all the
    countries, and all their boundaries and bearings
    on the two and thirty points of the compass. Ah,
    rather overdone, M'Choakumchild. If he had only
    learnt a little less, how infinitely better he
    might have taught much more! (From Ch.2)

18
Vocabulary
  • Science-related and technical terms are numerous
    (geography, cosmography, land-surveying,
    biography)
  • However, the specific words in this chosen
    passage were not coined during the 19th century.
  • Well then, why are they important?
  • Hard Times as a social commentary / critique
    about Industrialization, its effects on people
    and on education
  • Enormous amount of scientific, technical, learned
    terminology
  • Dickens is making a statement about the people
    around him. New words, technical lingo, whole new
    way of life

19
Vocabulary (page 2)
  • 1. He knew all about the Water Sheds of all the
    world (whatever they are), and all the histories
    of all the peoples
  • OED definition- The line separating the waters
    flowing into different rivers or river basins,
    first used in the 19th century
  • Not an everyday, conversational word- introduced
    through science
  • --------------------------------------------------
    -------
  • 2. You learnt a great deal, Louisa, and so did
    your brother. Ologies of all kinds from morning
    to night. If there is any Ology left, of any
    description, that has not been worn to rags in
    this house, all I can say is, I hope I shall
    never hear its name. (Ch. 9)
  • OED definition- An academic discipline or field
    of knowledge esp. one of the physical,
    biological, or social sciences
  • Introduced by Edward Nares in 1811
  • Existed before 19th century as a suffix, but
    never as a noun by itself

20
  • So, Mr. M'Choakumchild began in his best
    manner. He and some one hundred and forty other
    schoolmasters, had been lately turned at the same
    time, in the same factory, on the same
    principles, like so many pianoforte legs. He had
    been put through an immense variety of paces, and
    had answered volumes of head-breaking questions.
    Orthography, etymology, syntax, and prosody,
    biography, astronomy, geography, and general
    cosmography, the sciences of compound proportion,
    algebra, land-surveying and levelling, vocal
    music, and drawing from models, were all at the
    ends of his ten chilled fingers. He had worked
    his stony way into Her Majesty's most Honourable
    Privy Council's Schedule B, and had taken the
    bloom off the higher branches of mathematics and
    physical science, French, German, Latin, and
    Greek. He knew all about all the Water Sheds of
    all the world (whatever they are), and all the
    histories of all the peoples, and all the names
    of all the rivers and mountains, and all the
    productions, manners, and customs of all the
    countries, and all their boundaries and bearings
    on the two and thirty points of the compass. Ah,
    rather overdone, M'Choakumchild. If he had only
    learnt a little less, how infinitely better he
    might have taught much more! (From Ch 2)

21
Grammar
  • Ah, rather overdone
  • Rather is rather out-dated
  • Generally, modern British English uses all
    adverbs of degree
  • pretty/rather/quite, whereas modern American
    English most
  • often uses pretty, and uses quite mainly in the
    negative.
  • Learnt a little less
  • Some verbs can have either ed or t ending in
    the past tense
  • Modern British English uses either ending,
    whereas in modern
  • American English, the irregular form (-t) is
    less usual.
  • If he had only learnt a little less, how
    infinitely better he might have taught much
    more!
  • Confusing word order and use of verbs
  • Verbs- Conditional passive modal

22
Grammar (Page 2)
  • Orthography, etymology, syntax, and prosody,
    biography, astronomy, geography, and general
    cosmography, the sciences of compound proportion,
    algebra, land-surveying and levelling, vocal
    music, and drawing from models, were all at the
    ends of his ten chilled fingers.
  • He knew all about all the Water Sheds of all the
    world (whatever they are), and all the histories
    of all the peoples, and all the names of all the
    rivers and mountains, and all the productions,
    manners, and customs of all the countries, and
    all their boundaries and bearings on the two and
    thirty points of the compass.
  • RUN-ON SENTENCES!
  • One of the striking features of 19th-century
    syntax is the use of long involved sentences The
    well-constructed period, illustrating the
    writers logical arguments and ordered scholarly
    discourse, was one of the achievements of 18th
    century prose. (Manfred Gorlach, English in
    Nineteenth Century England, Pg 88)

23
  • So, Mr. M'Choakumchild began in his best
    manner. He and some one hundred and forty other
    schoolmasters, had been lately turned at the same
    time, in the same factory, on the same
    principles, like so many pianoforte legs. He had
    been put through an immense variety of paces, and
    had answered volumes of head-breaking questions.
    Orthography, etymology, syntax, and prosody,
    biography, astronomy, geography, and general
    cosmography, the sciences of compound proportion,
    algebra, land-surveying and levelling, vocal
    music, and drawing from models, were all at the
    ends of his ten chilled fingers. He had worked
    his stony way into Her Majesty's most Honourable
    Privy Council's Schedule B, and had taken the
    bloom off the higher branches of mathematics and
    physical science, French, German, Latin, and
    Greek. He knew all about all the Water Sheds of
    all the world (whatever they are), and all the
    histories of all the peoples, and all the names
    of all the rivers and mountains, and all the
    productions, manners, and customs of all the
    countries, and all their boundaries and bearings
    on the two and thirty points of the compass. Ah,
    rather overdone, M'Choakumchild. If he had only
    learnt a little less, how infinitely better he
    might have taught much more! (From Ch. 2)

24
Capitalization Spelling
  • land-surveying
  • levelling
  • Honourable
  • Water Sheds
  • He had worked his stony
  • way into Her Majesty's
  • most Honourable Privy
  • Council's Schedule B

25
Jane Austens Emma
  • Emma was first published in 1816
  • In the novel, Austen examines societal rules that
    govern social relationships, while at the same
    time presenting a heavy emphasis on reason

26
Vocabulary
  • Austen uses numerous odd words that can
    sometimes be seen in some of todays writing, for
    example
  • Behindhand, dissentient, imaginist, obtrude
  • Words from Austens works both that are and are
    not seen today include
  • Sportive, nuncheon, dissentient, valetudinarian,
    behindhand, missish, postilion, superannuated,
    sedulous, puppyism, self-consequence,
    importunate, tremulous, verdure, collation,
    repine, raillery, moiety, outre, obtrude
  • http//wordcraft.infopop.cc/archiveindex.htm

27
Behindhand
  • Mr. Knightley was hard at work upon the lower
    buttons of his thick leather gaiters, and either
    the exertion of getting them together, or some
    other cause, brought the colour into his face, as
    he answered, "Oh! are you there?--But you are
    miserably behindhand. Mr. Cole gave me a hint of
    it six weeks ago.
  • Before Iran's revolution, Turkey was behindhand
    on practically every count-foreign direct
    investment, income per head, GDP growth. (The
    Economist, Dec. 9, 2004)
  • behindhand ? 1. late behind schedule
    particularly, in arrears on a debt. 2. backward,
    in respect to what is seasonable or appropriate.
    (in other words, out of style). 3. being in an
    inferior position

28
Dissentient
  • There was not a dissentient voice on the subject,
    either when Mrs. Perry drank tea with Mrs. and
    Miss Bates, or when Mrs. and Miss Bates returned
    the visit. (Ch. 2)
  • There were dissentient voices. Two commentators
    who had played the game at the highest level ...
    thought that Paul was not the man for England and
    that Robinson would do better to stick to the
    known virtues of Will Greenwood. (Alan Watkins
    (apparently speaking of rugby football), The
    Independent, Nov. 30, 2004)
  • dissentient ? dissenting, especially the
    majority's view

29
Imaginist
  • How much more must an imaginist, like herself, be
    on fire with speculation and foresight!--especiall
    y with such a groundwork of anticipation as her
    mind had already made. (Ch. 21)
  • Decades ago, the millionaire imaginist mixed his
    love of Florida with a bit of magic and came up
    with the kingdom of Xanth (Adrienne P. Samuels,
    Hillsborough County Times, Feb. 9, 2005)
  • imaginist ? one who lives in a world created by
    his or her active imagination

30
Obtrude
  • "How you can bear such recollections, is
    astonishing to me!- They will sometimes obtrude-
    but how you can court them!" (Ch. 54)
  • They are never allowed to obtrude. (Allan Ramsay,
    British diplomacy in the Queen's reign
    1952-2002, Contemporary Review, August, 2002)
  • obtrude ? (of a thought or a person) to thrust
    itself (or himself), unwelcome, upon a person's
    company or attention.

31
  • "That Mr. Elton should really be in love with
    me, -me, of all people, who did not know him, to
    speak to him, at Michaelmas! And he, the very
    handsomest man that ever was, and a man that
    every body looks up to, quite like Mr. Knightley!
    His company so sought after, that every body says
    he need not eat a single meal by himself if he
    does not chuse it that he has more invitations
    than there are days in the week. And so excellent
    in the Church! Miss Nash has put down all the
    texts he has ever preached from since he came to
    Highbury. Dear me! When I look back to the first
    time I saw him! How little did I think!-The two
    Abbots and I ran into the front room and peeped
    through the blind when we heard he was going by,
    and Miss Nash came and scolded us away, and staid
    to look through herself however, she called me
    back presently, and let me look too, which was
    very good-natured. And how beautiful we thought
    he looked! He was arm-in-arm with Mr. Cole."

32
Grammar
  • handsomest ---gt
  • most handsome
  • he need not eat ---gt
  • he doesnt need to eat
  • dear me ---gt
  • oh my goodness
  • how little did I think ---gt
  • how little I thought

33
Note Grammar
  • The progressive passive
  • Peyton Manning is being sacked
  • Although this verb phrase formation was in
    use in the 19th century, it is not a verb tense
    used by Austen in her works
  • In fact, it was condemned as a monstrous
    absurdity

34
  • "That Mr. Elton should really be in love with
    me, -me, of all people, who did not know him, to
    speak to him, at Michaelmas! And he, the very
    handsomest man that ever was, and a man that
    every body looks up to, quite like Mr. Knightley!
    His company so sought after, that every body says
    he need not eat a single meal by himself if he
    does not chuse it that he has more invitations
    than there are days in the week. And so excellent
    in the Church! Miss Nash has put down all the
    texts he has ever preached from since he came to
    Highbury. Dear me! When I look back to the first
    time I saw him! How little did I think!-The two
    Abbots and I ran into the front room and peeped
    through the blind when we heard he was going by,
    and Miss Nash came and scolded us away, and staid
    to look through herself however, she called me
    back presently, and let me look too, which was
    very good-natured. And how beautiful we thought
    he looked! He was arm-in-arm with Mr. Cole."

35
Capitalization Spelling
  • Every body---gt Everybody
  • Chuse---gt Choose
  • Staid---gt Stayed
  • Connexions---gt Connections

36
Finis
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