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Abnormal Psychology

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Abnormal Psychology A Power Point With Stiles – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Abnormal Psychology


1
Abnormal Psychology
  • A Power Point With Stiles

2
Welcome to 1-800-PSYCH
  • Hello, welcome to the Psychiatric Hotline.
  • If you are obsessive-compulsive, please press 1
    repeatedly.
  • If you are co-dependent, please ask someone to
    press 2.
  • If you have multiple personalities, press 3,4,5,
    and 6.
  • If you are paranoid-delusional, we know who you
    are and what you want. Just stay on the line so
    we can trace the call.
  • If you are schizophrenic, listen carefully and a
    little voice will tell you which number to press.

3
Mental Health Statistics
  • 450 million world wide are in need of
    psychological assistance
  • 2 million in-patient in psychiatric units
  • 2.4 million group home residents
  • 15 utilize treatments for psychological disorders

4
Understanding Psychological Disorders Ancient
Treatments of psychological disorders include
trephination, exorcism, being caged like animals,
being beaten, burned, castrated, mutilated, or
transfused with animals blood.
Trephination (boring holes in the skull to remove
evil forces)
5
  • Circulating Swing
  • Tranquilizing Chair Benjamin Rush
  • The Crib

6
Medical Perspective Philippe Pinel (1745-1826)
from France, insisted that madness was not due to
an ailment of the mind. When physicians
discovered that syphilis led to mental disorders,
they started using medical models to review the
physical causes of these disorders.
1. Etiology/Prognosis Cause and development of
the disorder. Forecast 2. Diagnosis
Identifying (symptoms) and distinguishing one
disease from another. 3. Treatment Treating a
disorder in a psychiatric hospital.
Dance in the madhouse.
7
Is Mr. Thompson Abnormal?
  • The city of San Diego evicted 54 year old Richard
    Thompson and all his belongings from his home.
    His belongings included shirts, pants, dozens of
    shoes, several bibles, a cooler, a tool chest,
    lawn chairs, a barbecue grill, tin plates,
    bird-cages, two pet rats, and his self fashioned
    bed. For the previous 9 months Thompson had
    lived happily and without any problems in a
    downtown storm drain (sewer). Because the city
    does not allow people to live in storm drains,
    Thompson was evicted from his underground
    storm-drain home and forbidden to return.
    Although Thompson later lived in several care
    centers and mental hospitals, he much preferred
    the privacy and comfort of the sewer. (Grimaldi,
    1986)
  • Is Thompsons living in the sewer abnormal?

8
efining Abnormality
D-D-D
  • Deviant (nudity) changes w/ culture and time
  • Distressful
  • Dysfunctional (key) interfering with work and
    leisure

Wodaabe Tribe
9
Modern Perspectives of Psychological Disorders
Biological (evolution, individual genes, brain
structures and chemistry)
  • Bio-psycho-social Model
  • Eclectic
  • Drugs cognitive Therapies

Psychological (stress, trauma, learned
helplessness, mood-related, perceptions and
memories)
Sociocultural (roles, expectations, definition of
normality and disorder
10
(No Transcript)
11
Labeling Psychological Disorders
  • Labels may stigmatize individuals.
  • Labels can alter perceptions (videotaped
    interviews)
  • Labels may be helpful for healthcare
  • professionals when communicating with
  • one another and establishing therapy.
  • 4. Insanity labels raise moral and ethical
    questions about how society should treat people
    who have disorders and have committed crimes.

12
David Rosenhan Pseudo-Patient Experiment
  • Investigated reliability of psychiatric diagnoses
  • Eight healthy people entered psychiatric
    hospitals complaining of hearing strange voices
  • Once admitted to the hospital, they behaved
    normally and claimed that the voices had
    disappeared

13
Rosenhan Implications
  • Psychiatrists disputed the results
  • Prompted changes in psychiatric diagnosis
  • The DSM-IV

14
Goals of DSM
  • Describe disorders
  • Describe how prevalent the disorder is
  • Disorders outlined by DSM-IV are reliable.
    Therefore, diagnoses by different professionals
    are similar

15
Classifying Psychological Disorders The American
Psychiatric Association rendered a Diagnostic and
Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) to
describe psychological disorders.
The most recent edition, DSM-IV-TR (Text
Revision, 2000), describes 400 psychological
disorders compared to 60 in the 1950s.
16
Multiaxial Classification
Axis I
Is a Clinical Syndrome (childhood, anxiety,
mood Psychotic, somatoform, etc.) present?
Axis II
Is a Personality Disorder present? (enduring,
maladaptive, inflexible, impaired functioning)
Axis III
Is a General Medical Condition (diabetes,
hypothyroidism) present?
Axis IV
Are Psychosocial or Environmental
Problems (social isolation, traumatic event) also
present?
Axis V
What is the Global Assessment of the
persons Functioning? (physical, social,
occupational) 1-100
17
Rosenhan Results
  • Staff treated patients as if they were really ill
  • Staff noted abnormal symptoms
  • Kept patients for an average of 19 days
  • Discharged with diagnosis of schizophrenia in
    remission

18
Rosenhan Nonexistent Impostor Experiment
  • Told hospital staff to expect pseudo-patients
    (impostors)
  • No pseudo-patients were actually sent, but staff
    identified 41 anyway (these were, in fact, real
    patients)

19
Cognitive Model
OH NO! I only got 98.
  • Irrational thought processes are the cause of
    psychological disorders
  • Popular model
  • Rational Emotive Therapy
  • Cognitive Therapy
  • RET

98
20
Psychoanalytic Model
  • Inspired by Freud
  • Talking Cure
  • Dominated early to mid 20th century
  • Insight Therapy
  • Long Term
  • Free Association
  • Dream Analysis

Dream Symbols
21
Biological/Biomedical
  • Emphasizes the brain, brain structures,
    neurotransmitters.
  • Therapy
  • Drugs
  • ECT
  • Lobotomy

22
Humanistic Model
  • Emphasizes self exploration and growth.
  • 3 Components Congruence, Unconditional Positive
    Regard, Empathy
  • Client Centered Therapy
  • Client can express themselves without having to
    worry about what the therapist thinks of them.
  • Carl Rogers

23
Behavioral Model
  • Emphasis on Learning
  • Observational Learning
  • Systematic Desensitization
  • Aversion Therapy
  • Token Economies
  • Flooding


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