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Title: PowerPoint Presentation Author: Gary Weaver Last modified by: Tara Porter Created Date: 8/15/2014 1:02:34 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: MODULE 5

Material Handling
Material Handling
  • Material handling equipment all equipment that
    relates to the movement, storage, control and
    protection of materials, goods and products.
  • Aerial lifts - Forklifts
  • Bulk material handlers - Cranes
  • Gin poles - Cherry pickers

Material Handling
  • Before using any type of equipment it is required
    that you be
  • Trained on that specific type of equipment.
  • Certified
  • Authorized
  • A pre-operation inspection shall also be
    conducted before starting the equipment.
  • Inspections must take place at least daily at the
    beginning of each shift.
  • Unsafe equipment must be removed from service and

Material Handling
  • Any powered industrial truck not in safe
    operating condition shall be removed from
    service. All repairs shall be made by authorized
  • (29 CFR 1910.178 (q)(1))
  • Defects when found must be immediately reported
    and corrected.
  • (29 CFR 1910.178 (q)(1))

Material Handling
  • Forklift safety
  • Driving characteristics are different then a car.
  • The center of gravity can be moved by 
  • Traveling with an elevated load
  • Load too heavy
  • Fast turns  
  • A hill or incline
  • Starting or stopping too fast
  • Jerky operation of the hydraulics

Material Handling
  • Forklift safety
  • No unauthorized drivers
  • No daydreaming
  • Poor forward visibility
  • Forks or loads kept low
  • Operate at reasonable speed, no speeding
  • No Horseplay
  • Allow three truck lengths when following
  • Assume overhead lines are energized

Material Handling
  • Cranes
  • A lifting machine, generally equipped with a
    winder or wire rope drum, wire ropes or chains
    and sheaves that can be used to lift and lower
    materials and to move horizontally.

Material Handling
  • Types of cranes
  • Truck mounted
  • Side-lift
  • Rough terrain
  • All terrain
  • Crawler crane

Material Handling
  • Rigging
  • The equipment and method used in lifting,
    pulling, or tying down an object.
  • Always make sure to use rigging designed
    specifically for lifting.
  • Tag Lines
  • Lines to keep you out of the line of fire.
  • Used to position load
  • Attach before load is lifted
  • Never wrap around body parts
  • Non-conductive poly material
  • Clean and free of knots

Material Handling
  • Hand tools
  • Use proper tool for the job
  • Wear correct PPE
  • Inspect prior to use
  • Never use broken or damaged hand tools
  • Power tools
  • Properly insulated and grounded
  • No alteration or modification
  • Never remove/modify guards

Material Handling
  • Cheater Bar / Pipe
  • An engineer designed and tested handle extension
    used to free items that are hard to remove with a
    ratchet or wrench alone or to operate valves.
  • Not recommended, used only as a last resort
  • Cant be more then twice the length of wrench or

Material Handling
  • Problems in using a handle extension
  • If the component frees suddenly the worker can
    become a projectile that is propelled.
  • The cheater bar itself can become part of a
    catapult with the worker in the line of fire.
  • Use of such items can damage the component.
  • Falls, impacts, punctures and other injuries can
    occur from improper use.

Material Handling
  • Back Injury Prevention
  • The back is critical in daily operations. It is
    used in every aspect of life.
  • After suffering one back injury, you are much
    more likely to experience another one later on.
  • More than 1 million workers suffer back injuries
    each year, accounting for 1/5 of all workplace
    injuries or illnesses.

Material Handling
  • Why back injuries occur
  • Poor physical condition
  • Poor posture
  • Extra weight
  • Stress
  • Heavy lifting
  • Twisting at the waist while lifting
  • Lifting, carrying or working in odd positions
  • Sitting or standing too long in one position

Material Handling
  • It takes 10 lbs. of pressure to lift a 10 lb.
  • When you add in the 105 lbs. of an average
    humans upper torso, lifting a 10 lb. objects
    put 1,150 lbs. of pressure on the human back.

Material Handling
  • Alternatives to Lifting
  • Use cranes, hoists and lift tables
  • Place objects up off the floor or ground
  • Raise/lower work surfaces when possible
  • Use carts and dollies to move objects
  • Get a partner to help you lift
  • Reduce the amount of weight lifted

Material Handling
  • Proper Lifting Techniques
  • Bend your knees
  • Take a balanced stance
  • Squat down to lift, keeping your heels off the

Material Handling
  • Proper Lifting Techniques
  • Get a firm grip on the load.
  • Lift gradually keeping the load close to your
  • Change directions by pointing your feet in the
    direction you want to go.

Material Handling
  • Proper Lifting Techniques
  • Avoid twisting at your waist while carrying a
  • When you put a load down, use these same
    guidelines in reverse.

Walking-Working Surfaces
Walking-Working Surfaces
  • Slips, trips and falls can happen in any part of
    the workplace, inside or outdoors.
  • Slips and trips often result in falls and more
    serious outcomes, including disabling injuries
    and even death.
  • The cost to both worker and employer can be

Walking-Working Surfaces - Housekeeping
  • DO
  • Keep aisles, walkways, stairways and escape
    routes free of clutter.
  • Clean up spills immediately.
  • Prevent oil accumulation on floors.
  • Pick up trash.
  • Return tools and parts to their proper areas.
  • Keep tools and materials away from edges of
  • Stack tools on a flat surfaces cross-tie them or
    cover them to keep in place.

Walking-Working Surfaces - Housekeeping
  • DONT
  • Leave spills for someone else to clean up.
  • Allow oil to build up on surfaces.
  • Allow trash to collect in corners, under
    machinery or other out of the way places.
  • Assume someone else sees the hazard.
  • Lay tools and other materials close to edges, on
    railings or sills.

Walking-Working Surfaces
  • General Requirements
  • Employees must be extremely cautious when working
    near and around
  • Floor and wall openings
  • Stairways
  • Platforms
  • Ladders and scaffolds
  • All elevated work areas

Walking-Working Surfaces
  • General Requirements
  • Always use handrails.
  • Avoid ascending and descending any climbing
    surface with awkward loads or without handrails.
  • Always have adequate lighting.
  • Always wear fall protection when required.

Walking-Working Surfaces
  • Dropped Objects
  • Provide Adequate Warning
  • If you are going to do work overhead warn those
    in the area
  • Verbally
  • With signs
  • Ropes
  • Barricades

Walking-Working Surfaces
  • Guarding
  • Cover all floor openings, wall openings and holes
    to prevent tripping, falling or loss of tools.
  • Every open-sided floor or platform 4 feet or more
    above the adjacent floor or ground must be

Walking-Working Surfaces
  • Guarding
  • Do not use barricade tape or flagging as a
    temporary railing or fall restraint.
  • Never leave a floor opening unprotected.
  • Covers and/or guardrails must be provided to
    protect employees from hazards.
  • While the cover is not in place, the opening must
    be constantly attended.

Walking-Working Surfaces
  • When we are talking about holes and openings, the
    following criteria is used
  • Floor Hole opening less than 12 inches but more
    than 1 inch.
  • Floor Opening Opening larger than 12 inches.

Walking-Working Surfaces
  • Scaffold Safety
  • Scaffolds are engineered systems used for
    elevated work and must be properly designed and
    assembled by qualified workers.
  • Guardrails and toeboards must be installed on all
    open ends and sides greater than 10 feet high.
  • Handrails on open ends and sides. Must be able to
    withstand at least 200 pounds.
  • Ladders or stairways must be provided for
    climbing onto scaffolds.

Walking-Working Surfaces
  • Scaffold Safety
  • Employees shall not work on scaffolds during
    storms and high winds.
  • Slippery conditions, including ice and snow must
    be eliminated as soon as possible after they

Walking-Working Surfaces
  • Ladder Safety
  • Ladders must be inspected before each use.
  • Any ladder found to have defects must be
    repaired or tagged for destruction.
  • Inspect footing, rungs, steps, side rails,
    hinges and spreaders

Walking-Working Surfaces
  • Ladder Safety
  • Maintain ladders in good condition at all times.
  • Maintain a 41 slope
  • Ladders used to gain access to roofs must extend
    no less than 3 feet from the point of support.
  • Do not use make-shift ladders.

Walking-Working Surfaces
  • Ladder Safety
  • Never use a ladder in the horizontal position as
    a work platform.
  • Do not leave ladder unattended.
  • Always face a ladder when climbing up or down.
  • Always maintain 3 points of contact.

Walking-Working Surfaces
  • Ladder Safety
  • Carry tools in a tool belt.
  • Keep your body centered on the ladder use the
    belt buckle rule.
  • Do not use metal ladders near electrical
  • One person at a time on a ladder unless
    specifically designed for more.

Walking-Working Surfaces
  • Stairways and Handrails composed of
  • Steps
  • Landings
  • Risers
  • Handrails
  • Requirements for handrail on stairways
  • 4 or more risers
  • Greater than 36 inches
  • Depend on stairway width
  • Provide adequate handhold
  • Withstand at least 200 pounds of force

Walking-Working Surfaces
  • Stairways and Handrails
  • Safety rules
  • Use handrails
  • Keep clear of objects
  • Do not block vision with loads
  • Be alert to wet/slippery surfaces
  • Report damaged stairways

Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Health
Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Health
  • Occupational health hazards are a part of working
    in our industry.
  • Through training, knowledge and an understanding
    of the hazards, we can work safely in these

Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Health
  • Industrial Hygiene
  • Industrial Hygiene is the evaluation of
    environmental factors through measurement of
    exposure intensity, exposure frequency, and
  • A Hygienist is a person who by study, training,
    and experience can anticipate, recognize,
    evaluate and control workplace environmental

Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Health
  • Hazards
  • Air contaminates
  • dusts, fumes, mists, aerosols and fibers.
  • Chemical agents
  • solids, liquids, gases, mists, dust, fumes and
  • Biological hazards
  • viruses, fungi, and other living organisms.

Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Health
  • Hazards (continued)
  • Physical hazards
  • excessive levels of ionizing and non-ionizing
    electromagnetic radiation, noise, vibration,
    illumination, and temperature.
  • Ergonomic hazards
  • including but not limited to lifting, holding,
    pushing, walking, and reaching.

Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Health
  • Lead is a heavy metal
  • It can be found in pipes, cable sheaths,
    batteries, bullets, paint, gasoline and solder.
  • In certain doses, lead can be a toxic substance
    when absorbed into your body.

Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Health
  • Typical work activities which may generate lead
  • Welding
  • Buffing
  • Grinding
  • Torch cutting
  • Sand blasting on coated surfaces

Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Health
  • Lead is a heavy metal that can enter the body
    through inhalation or ingestion.
  • Symptoms of over-exposure
  • Headaches
  • Fatigue
  • Anemia
  • Irritability
  • Muscle and joint pain
  • Stomach cramps

Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Health
  • Benzene is an aromatic hydrocarbon that occurs
    naturally in petroleum crude oils and natural gas
  • Benzene concentrations are usually greater in
    lighter crude oils and condensates.
  • Under normal operating conditions, benzene
    should not be present in hazardous airborne

Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Health
  • Benzene
  • Acute health effects
  • Headache
  • Dizziness
  • Drowsiness
  • Respiratory irritation
  • Chronic health effects
  • Cancer of the blood forming organs (leukemia).

Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Health
  • Benzene can be detected by
  • Odor aromatic, slightly sweet odor.
  • Physical symptoms acute and chronic health
  • Gas monitor fixed monitor or personal.
  • If you suspect a benzene spill or leak,
    vacate the area immediately and notify
    the appropriate personnel.

Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Health
  • Carbon Dioxide gas is formed from the combination
    of two elements carbon and oxygen.
  • It is produced from the fermentation of liquids
    and breathing by humans and animals.
  • It cannot sustain life.

Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Health
  • Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM)
  • NORM is a broad group of radioactive substances
    found naturally in our environment.
  • Crude oil, natural gas, and other substances
    extracted from the ground may be found to possess
    measurable levels of radioactivity.
  • Exposure occurs when the radioactive materials
    become airborne.

Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Health
  • The primary hazard is not the exposure to NORM
    but when these materials are taken into the body
  • Breathing
  • Eating
  • Open cuts and wounds

Occupational Health - Fibers (Man-made
  • 29 CFR 1910.1001 indicates that all affected
    personnel shall be trained in a way to ensure the
    employees understanding.
  • Asbestos is mainly used in fiber form.
  • Employees will be taught how to use respiratory
    protection if working in exposure areas.

Occupational Health-Fibers (Man-made Asbestos)
  • A medical surveillance program will be activated
    if exposure to airborne concentrations of fibers
    or asbestos are at or above the action level
    and/or excursion limit.
  • Examinations will be performed by a licensed
    physician and shall include a medical work
    history and complete physical exam of all

Occupational Health-Fibers (Man-made Asbestos)
  • Air samples will be taken in the breathing zone
    where action level and/or excursion limits are

Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Health
  • Organic Solvents are substances that are capable
    of dissolving or dispersing one or more other
  • Many organic solvents are recognized by NIOSH as
    carcinogens (benzene, carbon tetrachloride,

Occupational Health-Organic Solvents
  • Organic Solvents
  • Some examples and their uses
  • Methane
  • Industrial settings.
  • Toluene
  • Paint, fuel oil, cleaning agents, lacquers, and
    paint thinners.
  • 1,1,1 Trichloroethane (methyl chloroform)
  • Degreaser and propellant.

Occupational Health-Organic Solvents
  • Avoid breathing in vapors
  • Ventilate the area well.
  • Wear rubber gloves when using solvents.
  • Wash solvents from skin immediately after use.

Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Health
  • Mercury
  • Found in wastewater from oil and gas production.
  • Mercury can enter the body through the lungs,
    skin and through the digestive system.
  • Effects include kidney failure, respiratory
    failure and/or death.
  • Diethanolamine
  • Purifies gases, particularly natural gas.
  • Clear, colorless or pale yellow liquid.

Occupational Health-Hexavalent Chromium
  • Yellowish-green liquid.
  • Recognized as a human carcinogen.
  • Problematic among workers who handle chromate
    products and those who arc weld stainless steel.

Occupational Health-Methanol
  • Most commonly produced from the methane component
    in natural gas. Also known as wood alcohol.
  • Volatile
  • Colorless
  • Highly flammable
  • Distinct odor slightly sweeter than ethanol
  • Burns with a clear flame

Occupational Health-Nitrogen Gas (N2)
  • Effective alternative used to frac shallow wells.
  • Normally colorless
  • Odorless
  • Tasteless
  • Non-metal gas

Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Health
  • Crystalline Silica
  • Crystalline Silica is a basic component of soil,
    sand, granite, and many other minerals. Quartz is
    the most common form of silica.
  • Silica is used in hydraulic fracturing
  • When engineering and work practice controls are
    not feasible, respirators must be provided to

Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Health
  • Crystalline Silica
  • Exposure through inhalation
  • Silica causes silicosis which is irreversible,
    but preventable
  • Silica can also cause lung cancer and has been to
    linked to other diseases, such as tuberculosis,
    chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and kidney
    and autoimmune disease

Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Health
  • Diesel Particulate Matter (DPM)
  • DPM are small particles found in diesel exhaust
  • Short term exposure to high concentrations of DPM
    can cause headache, dizziness, and irritation to
    the eyes, nose, and throat.
  • Prolonged exposure to DPM can increase the risk
    of cardiovascular, cardiopulmonary and
    respiratory disease, and lung cancer

Occupational Health-Insect Bites
  • Stings and bites from insects are common, usually
    resulting in redness and swelling of the area.
  • Occasionally a sting can cause a life threatening
    reaction if you are allergic to the insect or are
    bitten multiple times.

Occupational Health-Insect Bites
  • Bee/Wasp
  • Ensure the stinger has been removed if you are
  • Wash area with soap and water.
  • Apply ice pack or cold compress.
  • Do not place directly on skin.
  • Elevate extremity.

Occupational Health-Insect Bites
  • Symptoms may include
  • Pain
  • Swelling
  • Redness
  • Itching
  • Anaphylaxis
  • Watch for signs and symptoms other than at
    location of sting for at least 30 minutes.
  • Watch for signs of infection to show up later.

Occupational Health-Insect Bites
  • Anaphylaxis
  • A severe reaction beyond the immediate area of a
    sting if you are allergic.
  • Symptoms may include
  • Hives
  • Wheezing
  • Shortness of breath
  • Unconsciousness
  • Possible death

Occupational Health-Insect Bites
  • You can minimize your exposure to insect bites by
    changing your patterns of activity or behavior.
  • Avoid outdoor activity during dawn and dusk
    periods if possible.
  • Wear long-sleeved shirts, long pants and hats.
  • Use insect repellants apply to clothing, shoes
    and other gear.

Occupational Health-Insect Bites
  • Mosquitoes
  • Wash bite area thoroughly with warm water and
  • Mosquitoes can transmit serious diseases such as
  • West Nile
  • Malaria
  • Yellow Fever

Occupational Health-Insect Bites
  • Mosquitoes - Signs and symptoms of more serious
    infection may include
  • Fever
  • Severe headache
  • Body aches
  • Nausea/vomiting
  • Swollen glands
  • Rash
  • Lethargy
  • Confusion
  • Sensitivity to light
  • Jaundice

Occupational Health-Insect Bites
  • Mosquitoes
  • Mosquitoes select their victims by evaluating
    scent, exhaled carbon dioxide and the chemicals
    in your sweat.
  • Mosquitoes are more likely to bite
  • Men
  • Those with type O blood
  • Overweight individuals
  • Those wearing dark colors

Occupational Health-Snake Bites
  • Snakes
  • It is important to identify the type of snake you
    are dealing with. This will aid doctors in
    treatment if you are bitten.
  • Wash the wound and keep the injured area still
    and lower than the heart.

Rattle Snake
Copper Head
Bull Snake
Occupational Health-Spider Bites
  • Insects
  • Spiders there are two main types to be aware
  • Black Widow
  • Brown Recluse or Fiddleback

Occupational Health-Spider Bites
  • Black Widow
  • Call Poison Control if bitten (800-222-1222)

Occupational Health-Spider Bites
  • Black Widow
  • Symptoms to watch for
  • Dull, aching, or numbing sensation appears in
    20-40 minutes.
  • Muscle pain and cramps near bite within 30-120
  • Board-like rigidity of the abdomen, shoulders,
    and back may develop.
  • Pain generally peaks at 2-3 hours.

Occupational Health-Spider Bites
  • Brown Recluse (Fiddleback)
  • Call Poison Control if bitten (800-222-1222)

Occupational Health-Spider Bites
  • Brown Recluse (Fiddleback)
  • Symptoms to watch for
  • Reaction depends on the amount of venom injected
    and the persons sensitivity to the venom.
  • Bite may feel like a pinprick or go unnoticed.
  • Symptoms can take 2-8 hours to occur.
  • Typically small white blister surrounded by
    raised, reddened skin.

Occupational Health-Rabid Animals
  • Rabid Animals
  • Rabies virus travels to the brain by following
    the peripheral nerves.
  • Incubation period of the disease is usually a few
  • Once rabies reaches the central nervous system
    and symptoms begin to show, the infection is
    effectively untreatable and usually fatal within

Occupational Health-Rabid Animals
  • Rabid Animals
  • Symptoms
  • Flu-like symptoms within 2-12 weeks of infection.
  • Malaise, headache and fever, progressing to acute
    pain, violent movements, uncontrolled excitement,
    depression and hydrophobia.
  • Patient may experience mania and lethargy that
    leads to coma.
  • Death is usually by respiratory insufficiency.

Occupational Health-Staph
  • Staph symptoms may vary depending on the location
    and severity of the infection.
  • Skin infections may be passed from one family
    member to another. It is important to not share
    clothing, towels or other similar items.
  • Staph can survive
  • Drying
  • Temperature extremes
  • High levels of salt

Occupational Health-Staph
  • Prevention
  • Wash your hands
  • Keep wounds covered
  • Keep personal items personal
  • Do your part to keep YOU healthy.